Celtic cognates

This section contains words that are cognate in all or some of the modern Celtic languages - Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish and Breton.

The six modern Celtic languages are divided into two branches: Goidelic and Brythonic. The former branch consists of Irish, Manx and Scottish Gaelic, while the latter branch includes Welsh, Cornish and Breton.

While there are many similarities between the languages in each branch, there are fewer similiarities between the two branches as they have had thousands of years to grow apart. However, they do still have quite a few words that are related (cognates).


Complete Cognates

These words are cognate (related) in all six modern Celtic languages. Click on the English translations to find out more about them on the Celtiadur blog.

Words marked* are archaic/obsolete.

Gaeilge (Irish) Gàidhlig (Gaelic) Gaelg (Manx) Cymraeg (Welsh) Kernewek (Cornish) Brezhoneg (Breton) English
abar abar, obar aber aber aber aber estuary, river mouth
abhainn abhainn awin afon avon aven river
aer, aidhéar adhar aer awyr ayr aer air, sky
agus agus as a/ac hag ha/hag and
ailt alt alt allt als aod hillock, hill(side), cliff, coast
aimsir aimsir emshir amser amser amzer time, weather
aingeal aingeal aile angel eledh ael fire, angel
ainm ainm ennym enw hanow anv name
airgead airgead argid arian arghans arc'hant silver
airne àirne airn eirinen eyrinen irinenn plum, damson, sloe
amhlabharach amhlabhair* amloayrtagh aflafar amlavar amlavar mute, dumb, inarticulate
anáil anail ennal anadl anal anal breath
anam anam annym enaid enev ene soul, spirit
aois aois eash oes, oed oos, ooj oad age
aon aon nane/un un onan unan one, same, any
ár àr haar aer ar*, hâr* aer slaughter, battle
arathar àrach* erroo aradr arader arar plough, ploughman
ard àrd ard ardd ardh arz high
aréir a-raoir riyr neithiwr nyhewer neizheur last night
asal asal assyl asyn asen azen donkey, ass
ascaill asgall aghlish, oghlish asgell askel askell wing, fin, armpit
bac bac bac bach bagh bac'h hook, mattock, hindrance
bairín bairín berreen bara bara bara bread, loaf, cake
bairneach bàirneach bayrnag brennig brennik brennig barnacle, limpet(s)
banbh banbh bannoo banw banow banv piglet, sow
bard bàrd bard bardd bardh barzh bard, poet
barr bàrr baare bar barr barr top, point, summit
beag beag beg bach, bychan byghan bihan small
béal beul beeal gwefus gweus gweuz lip, mouth
bealach bealach bollagh bwlch bolgh boulc'h way, pass, breach, road
bean bean ben benyw, menyw ben, benyn e-ben woman, wife
beann beann beinn ban ban bann horn, mountain, top, peak
beannacht beannachd bannaght bendith bennath bennozh blessing, benediction
bearr beàrr baarey byr berr berr short, to cut
beatha beatha beaghey bywyd bewnans buhez life
beith beith beih bedw besewen bezv birch
beo beò bio byw bew bev alive, living
beo beò bio byw bewa bevañ to live, alive
bhfuil bheil vel gweld gweles gwelet to see, to be
bee bod bos bezañ to be
bia biadh bee bwyd boos boued food
bior bior birr, byr bêr ber* ber point, thorn, spear
bith* bith beays byd bys bed world, being, existence
blais blais blasstyn blasu blasa blasa to taste, to smell
bláth blàth blaa blodyn bleujen bleuñv flower, blossom
bleacht bliochd bluight blith, llefrith leuerid bleiz, livrizh milk, milkiness
bliain bliadhna blein blwyddyn blydhen bloavezh year
blonag blonag blonnag bloneg blonek bloneg fat, lard, blubber
booa buwch bugh buoc'h cattle, cow
boc, poc (gabhair), pocán boc, boc-gobhair bock, bock goayr bwch, bwch gafr bogh bo(u)c'h billy goat
bodhar bodhar bouyr byddar bodhar bouzar deaf
bolg bolg bolg bol(a) bolgh bolc'h belly, stomach
bord bòrd boayrd bwrdd, bwrd bord, bordh bourzh table, board
bos bas bass bos bas boz palm, fist
both bothan, bùth bwaane, bwaag bwd, bwth bod* bod booth, hut, cottage
brath brath brah brad bras barad betray(al), treachery, conspiracy, deception
bráthair, deartháir bráthair braar brawd broder breur brother
breac breac breck brych brygh* brec'h speckled, striped, spotted
bréan breun breinn braen breyn brein rotten
brí brìgh bree bri bri bri strength, essence, power, honour, dignity
broc broc brock broch brogh broc'h badger
broinne broinn brein bryn bronn, brodn bronn hill(ock), breast, bulge
brugh brugh brogh bro bro bro country, territory, broch
bua buaidh booie budd budh buz victory, profit
buachaill buachaill bochilley bugail bugel bugel boy, child, shepherd
buime muime mimmey mam mamm mamm mother, stepmother, nurse
bun bun bun bôn ben ben base, foundation
caí caoidh coe cwyn kynvan keuziañ lament, mourning, weeping
caileann cailindha caillyn calan kalan kala, kaland calends, 1st of month
caimse caimis chemise camse hevis hiviz shirt, chemise, smock
cáis càise caashey caws keus keuz cheese
caiseal caisteal cashtal castell kastel kastell fort, fortress, town, city, castle
Cáisg Càisg Caisht Pasg Pask Pask Easter
cam cam cam cam kamm kamm crooked, bent, curve
can can caayn canu kana kanañ to sing, to speak
caoineadh caoidh keayney cwyno kyni keuziañ to lament, to complain
capall capall cabbyl ceffyl cevil*, kevil* kefel horse
carbad carbad carbyd cerbyd cerpit* karbed chariot, car
carcair carcair carchyr carchar carhar* karc'har prison, jail
carr càr carr car karr karr car, chariot, wagon
carraig carraig carrick carreg karrek karreg rock, stone
carria cair-fhiadh, carbh-fheadh çharroo carw karow karv deer, stag
cat cat kayt cath kath kazh cat
cath cath cah cad kas kad battle
céad ceud keead cant kans kant hundred
ceann ceann kione pen penn penn head
ceathar ceithir kiare pedwar (m), pedair (f) peswar (m), peder (f) pevar (m), peder (f) four
céile cèile cloan, keilley cilydd kyla kile companion, spouse
céim ceum keim cam kamm kamm step
ciall ciall keeall pwyll poll poell mind, sense
cill cill keeill cell kell kell cell, church
cíoch cìoch keeagh cig kig kig breast, meat, flesh
ciorcal cearcall kiarkyl cylch kelgh, kylgh klec'h circle, ring
clann, planda clann, plannt cloan, plant plant plans plantenn children, clan, plant
clú cliù goo clyw klew klev hearing, fame
cliabh cliabh clean cawell kowell kavell basket, creel, pannier
cliath cliath cleea clwyd kloos kloued hurdle, fence
cloch clach clagh clog clog kleger stone, cliff
clog clag clag cloch klogh kloc'h bell, clock
clé clì cleeah cledd cleth kleiz left, north
cluin cluinn cluin clywed klewes klevet to hear
cnó cnò cro cnau know kraoñ nut
cnoc cnoc cronk cnwc krug krec’h hill, mount, mound, breast
coileach coileach kellagh ceiliog kulyek kilhog cockerel, rooster
coiléan cuilean quallian colwyn kolyn kolen puppy
coinín coinean, coineanach conneeyn, conning cwningen konin koulin, konifl, konikl rabbit
coire coire coirrey pair per* per cauldron, kettle, boiler
coll coll, calltainn coull coll koll kelvez hazel
colm, colmán calman, colman calmane, colmane colomen, clomen kolom koulm, koulom pigeon, dove
copar copar cobbyr, copuir copr kober kouevr copper
cor car cor agor ygor, ygeri digor to open, turn
corim curim cuirrey cwrw korev korev beer, feast, banquet
corp corp corp corff korf korf body
corr corra coar crychydd kerghydh kerc'heiz heron, stork, crane
craiceann craiceann crackan croen kroghen kroc'hen skin, hide, surface
crann crann croan pren pren prenn tree, mast, boom, wood, bar
creathán crithnich craa crynu krena krenañ to tremble, quake, shiver
criathar criathar creear crwydr kroder krouer sieve, riddle, wandering
crios crios cryss crys krys krez shirt, belt, girdle
crith crith crie cryd kren kren fever, trembling, shaking
cró crò croa crau, craw krow krao, kraou stable, enclosure
croí cridhe cree craidd kres kreiz heart, centre
cruach cruach creagh crug krug cruc hillock, heap, mound, pile
cruimh cnuimh crooag pryf pryv, prev preñv worm, maggot, insect
cruinn cruinn cruinn crwn krenn, kern krenn round
coo ci ki ki dog, hound
cúig cóig queig pump pymp pemp five
cúl cùl cooyl cil kil kil back, corner
cuileann cuileann cullyn celyn(en) kelyn(nen) kelen(enn) holly
cumaisc coimeasg covestey cymysg kemmysk kemmesk mix(ture), tumult, blend(ed)
curach curach curragh corwg koroug korac'h coracle, currach
dair, doire dair, darach darragh, darrag dâr, derw(en) dar, derw(en) derv oak
dall dall doal dall dall dall blind
damh damh dow dafad davas dañvad sheep, ox, deer
dearbh dearbh jarroo (cefn)der(w) (ken)derow (ken)derv sure, certain
deas deas jesh deau, de dyghow dehou right, south
deich deich jeih deg deg dek ten
dia dia jee duw duw doue god, deity
dia die je/jy dydd dydh deiz day
diaidh dèidh jei diwedd diwedh diwezh end, after
dha da dau (m), dwy (f) dew (m), diw (f) daou (m), div (f) two, both, pair
dobahrchú, dobhrán dobhar-chù, dòbhran dooarchoo dwrgi, dyfrgi, ci dŵr dowrgi dourgi otter, beaver
dobhar dobhar dooar dŵr dowr dour water
dorn dòrn doarn dwrn dorn dorn fist, hand
draoi draoidh druaight drwy, derwydd druw, drewydh drouiz druid, wizard
dréacht dreachd draght, dreaght darn darn darn part, piece
driocht draoidheachd druaight derwyddiaeth drewydhieth drouizelezh magic, sorcery, druidism
droch droch drogh drwg drog drouk bad, evil
druid druid truitlag drudwy trojen tred, tridig starling
dubh dubh doo du du du black
diúc diùc duic dug duk duk duke
duille duille duilley dail delen deil leaf, foliage
duine duine dooinney dyn den den person, human, man
díoghail dìoghail jeeyl dial dial dial revenge, vengence, damage
dún dùn doon din, dinas din, dinas din fort, fortress, town, city, castle
dúr dùr douyr dur dur dir steel, hard, dour
each each agh ebol ebel ebeul horse, colt, foal
eaglais eaglais agglish eglwys eglos iliz church
eala eala olla(y) alarch alargh alarc'h swan
éan eun eean edn*, aderyn edhen evn bird
earrach earrach arree gwanwyn gwaynten nevez-amzer spring
eidheann eidheann hibbin eiddew idhyow iliav ivy
eile eile elley ail eyl eil other, second
eireog eireag earrag iar yar yar hen, chicken
eite ite fedjag adain aden* attanoc* wing, fin, feather
eo iodh yw ewin iwin, ivin yew
fabhra
abhra
fabhra
abhra
ferroogh amrant abrans abrant eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
faoi fo fo go go* gwa-, gou- under, below, rather
faoileán, faoileog faoileann, faoileag foillan, foilleig, fooilleig gwylan golan gouelan seagull
fead fead fed gwynt gwyns gwent whistle, wind
fead, feadóg fead, feadag fed, feddan gwynt gwnys gwent whistle, wind
feall feall foall gwall gwall gwall deceit, treachery, mistake, defect
fear fear fer gŵr gour gour man, husband
féar feur faiyr gwair gora garzh hay, grass
fearnóg feàrna farney gwern gwern gwern alder
féile fèil feaill, feailley gŵyl gool gouel feast, festival
feis fèis feish gwest gwester guest* festival, entertainment, guest
féith fèith feh gwyth gooth gwazh sinew, muscle, vein, channel, stream
fia fiadh feie gŵydd goodh gouez wild
fiche fichead feed ugain ugens ugent twenty
ficheall fidhcheall feeal gwyddbwyll gwydhbol gwezboell chess
figh fighe fee gweu gwia gweañ to weave
fiodh fiodh fuygh gwŷdd gwydh gwez tree, wood, timber
fíon fìon feeyn gwin gwin gwin wine
fionn fionn fynn gwyn gwynn gwenn white, blond
fionn fionn feddyn gwybod godhvos gouzout to know, find out, discover
fíor fìor feer gwir gwir gwir true
flaith flath flah gwlad gwlas, gulas glad prince, lordship, country, nation
flaith flath flah gwlad gwlas, gulas glad prince, lordship, country, nation
fleá fleadh fleah gwledd gwledh gloê feast, banquet
fliuch fliuch fliugh gwlyb gleb, glyb gleb wet
fogas fagas, faisg faggys agos ogas hogos near, close
foireann foireann fwirran gwerin gwerin gwerin people, staff, plebs, crew
folt falt folt gwallt gols guolt* hair
fómhar foghar fouyr hydref hedra, kynnyay, kydnyadh here, kozhamzer, diskar-amzer autumn
fraoch fraoch freoagh grug grug brug heather
fréamh freumh fraue gwraidd gwreydh gwrizienn root, origin, source
fuil fuil fuil gweli goli gouli blood, wound
fuinseog fuinnseag, uinnseann unjin onn onn onn ash
ga gath goull gwayw guw goaf spear, javelin, beam
gabh gabh gow gafael gavel gabael to hold, to take
gabha gobha gaaue gof gov gov (black)smith
gabhal gobhal goal gafl gowl gaol fork, crotch, gable
gabhar gobhar goayr gafr gaver gavr goat
Gael Gàidheal Gael Gwyddel Godhal Gouezel Gael, Irish person
gair gàir guee gair ger ger to call, to shout, to invoke
gair, gáir goir, gàir gerr gair, gawr ger ger call, shout, word
gairm gairm gerrym garm garm garm call, shout, yell
gal gal gaal, gall gâl gal gal* ardour, vapour, enemy
gèadh guiy gwydd goedh gwaz goose
geal geal gial gell gell gell white
gealbhan gealbhonn gialloon, giallun, giallyn, jallyn golfan golvan golvan sparrow
geil geil gyndyr gwellt gwels geot, gwelt grass, graze
geimhreadh geamhradh geurey gaeaf gwaf goañv winter
glan glan glen glân glan glan clean, clear
glas glas glass glas glas glas blue, green, grey
gleann gleann glion(e) glyn glynn
glydn
glen glen, hollow, valley
glúin glùin glioon glin glyn glinn knee
goin goin guinney gwanu gwana gwanañ to wound, stab
gorm gorm gorrym gwrm* gorm, (brown) uurm*, (dark) blue, black
gríos grìos gree gwres gwres gwrez warmth, heat
gualainn gualainn geaylin, geayliney ysgywdd skoodh skoaz shoulder
iarann iarann yiarn haearn horn houarn iron
ibh ibh iu yfed eva evañ to drink
idir eadar eddyr ythr* ynter, yntra etre between
ím ìm eem (y)menyn amanyn amanenn, amann, amonenn butter
inis innis innis ynys enys enez island
inné an-dé jea ddoe de de'ch yesterday, tonight
inniu an-diugh jiu heddiw hedhyw hiziu today
iolar iolair urley eryr er erer eagle
ionga ìne, ionga yngin ewin ewin ivin (finger/toe), nail
iora feòrag fiorag gwiwer gwiwer gwiñver squirrel
íseal ìosal injil, ishil* isel isel izel low
iúr iubhar, iùbhar euar efwr, ewr evor evor yew, alder
labhair labhair loayrt llefaru leverel lavaret to speak, to say, to talk
lacht lac, lachd laght llaeth leth laezh milk, sweet milk
lán làn lane llawn leun leun full
lann* lann lann llan lann lann church, parish, land, enclosure
lao laogh lheiy llo leugh leue calf
lár làr laare llawr leur leur floor, ground
lathach lathach lathar, laagh llaid leys lec'hid mud, mire, swamp
láthair làthair laaragh llawdr lodrik loer trousers, sock, area
leabhar leabhar lioar llyfr lyver levr book
leac leac leac llech legh lec'h stone, slate
lámh làmh laue llaw leuv lav hand, arm
leamhán leamhan lhiouan llwyf elow evlec'h elm, linden, lime
leann, lionn leann, lionn lhune, lhionney llyn lin liñvenn ale, beer, liquid, drink
leath leth lieh lled les led half, breadth, width
leathan leathann lhean llydan ledan ledan wide, broad
lhee lliw lyw liv colour, hue, pigment
léim leum lheim llamu lamma lammat to jump
liach liogh lheegh llwy lo loa spoon, ladle
liath liath lheeah llwyd loos loued grey
linn linne lhingey llyn lynn, lydn lenn lake, pool
líomh(adh) lìomh shleeu llymu llymma lemmañ to grind, to polish, to sharpen
loch loch logh llwch logh loc'h lake, pond, inlet
loisc, loscadh loisg, losgadh losht, lostey llosgi leski leskiñ, loskañ to burn
luan luan lune llun lun lun Monday, moon
luch, luchóg luch lugh llyg, llygoden logosen loc*, logodenn mouse, shrew
lucht luchd lught llwyth looth liezh people, tribe
lus lus lus llys les louzaouenn plant, herb
magh magh maes mes maez field, plain
mac mac mac mab mab mab son, boy
maith math mie mad* mas* mat/mad good
maoin maoin mayn mwyn muin maon gift, gentle, thin
maol maol meayl moel mool moal bald, bare
marbh marbh merriu, marroo marw, marwolaeth mernans marv dead, death, deceased
marbh marbh marroo marw merwel mervel to die, dead
marc* marc* mark(sleih) march margh marc'h horse, stallion
marcach marcach markiagh marchog marghek marc'heg horseman, rider, jockey
máthair màthair moir modryb modrep moereb mother, aunt
meá meadh medd(agh) medd medh mez mead
meann meann mannan myn min menn kid goat
meas meas mess mes mes mez (tree) fruit, nut, acorn(s)
measc measg mastey
mestey
mysg mysk mesk jumble, mix(ture), among(st), midst
méid meud mooad maint myns ment size, amount, quantity
méin mèinn meain mwyn, mŵn moon men* mineral, ore, metal, mine
mi, mìos mee mis mis miz month
mil mil mill mêl mel mel honey
míle mìle meeiley mil mil mil 1,000
míol mial meeyl mil mil mil animal, louse, insect
miotal miotal, meiteal metal metel, metal metol metal metal, mettle
molt mult mohlt mollt mols maout ram, wether
moned*, monad* monadh muyne mynydd menydh menez mountain, moorland, hillside
mór mòr mooar mawr meur meur big, large, great
muad* muadh meeley meddal medhel med(d)al* soft, tender
muc muc muc moch(yn) mogh moc'h pig
muinchille manag, muinchill muineel maneg manek maneg glove, sleeve
muir muir mooir môr mor mor sea
muirmil*, míol mór mial-mhór, muc-mhara meeyl mooar morfil morvil morvil, balum whale
naoi naoi nuy naw naw nav nine
nathair nathair aarnieu, ardnieu neidr nader naer snake
neamh nèamh niau nef nev neñv sky, heaven
néal neul niaul, neeal niwl niwl nivlenn cloud, mist, fog
neart neart niart nerth nerth nerzh strength, might, power, force
nia nia neear nai noy niz nephew
Nollaig Nollaig Nollick Nadolig Nadelik Nedeleg Christmas
nóta nòta notey nodyn notya notenn note
nua nuadh noa newydd nowydh nevez new
óg òg aeg ifanc yowynk, yonk yaouank young
ocht ochd hoght wyth eth eizh eight
olann olann ollan gwlân gwlan glaon wool
ór òr airh aur owr aour gold
ord òrd oardyr, ordyr urdd urdh urzh order, sequence
peaca peaca peccah pech pegh pec'h sin, guilt
pluma plumais, plùmbais plumbis plemysen ploumen prunenn plum
pobal poball pobble pobl pobel pobl people, family
póg pòg paag pocyn poccuil* pok kiss
raithneach raineach renniagh rhedyn reden raden fern, bracken
rann, roinn rann, roinn rheynn rhan radn rann division, part
rath rath raah, rah rhad ras rat grace, virtue
reo reòth rio rhew rew rev frost, ice
rìgh ree rhi riel ri* king, royal
rinn rinn rinn rhyn rynn rinn point, top, cape, promontory
rith ruith roie rhedeg resek redek to run
rón ròn raun moelrhon, moelrhawn reun reunig seal
roth roth roar rhod ros rod wheel, bicycle
ros ros ros rhos ros ros promontory, wood
rua ruadh ruy rhudd rudh ruz red
rún rùn roon rhin, cyfrin rin, kevrin rin secret, mystery
rúsc rùsg roost rhisgl rusken rusk bark, beehive
saighead saighead side saeth seth saezh arrow
sáil sàil saayl sawdl seudhel seul heel
sáile sàl sailley hâl hyli hal sea water, salt
saileach seileach shellagh helygen (sg), helyg (pl) helygen (sg), helyk (pl) halegenn (sg), haleg (pl) willow
salann salann sollan halen holen holen salt
samhail samhail soyl hafal haval hañvalat likeness, model, similarity
samhradh samhradh sourey haf haf hañv summer
scafa sgiof, sgoth, sgib skiff (y)sgraff skath skof boat, skiff
scamhóg sgamhan scowan ysgafn skav skañv light, lung
scioból sgiobal skibbalt ysgubor skiber skiber barn
scríobh sgrìobh screeu ysgrifennu skrifa skrivañ to write
scuab sguab skeab ysgub, ysgubell skub, skubell skub, skubell brush, broom, sheaf
sia shey chwech hwegh c'hwec'h six
seabhac seabhag shawk, shirragh hebog, gwalch hok gwalc'h falcon, hawk
seach seach shagh heb heb hep without, otherwise, by, past
seacht seachd siaght saith seyth seizh seven
seachtain seachdain shiaghtin wythnos seythen sizhun week
sean sean shenn hen hen hen old
séan seun sheean swyn sona saouzan sign, charm, spell, stupor
searbh searbh sharroo chwerw hwerow c'hwerv bitter, sour
seas seas shass sefyll sevel sevel to stand
seol seòl shiaull hwyl gool gouel sail
sí, síth sìth, sìoth shee hedd hedh hez peace, mound, fairy
sin sin shen hwn, hon, hyn henn henn* that, this
síol sìol sheel hil hil hil seed
síor sìor sheer hir hir hir long, constant, eternal
síos sìos sheese is a-is is down(wards), below, under
siúr*, deirfiúr siùir*, puithar shuyr chwaer hwor c'hoar sister
slat slat slat llath lath lazh stick, rod, staff
slua sluagh sleih llu lu lu people, horde, force
sméar smeur smeyr mwyar mor mouar berry, blackberry
snáthaid snàthad snaid nodwydd naswydh, najedh nadoez needle, pin
soc soc sock hwch hogh ho(u)c'h sow, pig, swine, snout
solas solas sollys golau golow gouloù light, flame
spiorad spiorad spyrryd ysbryd sperys, spyrys spered soul, life, spirit
sráid sràid straid stryd stret straed street, alley, highway
srath srath strah ystrad stras strad (flat) valley, strath, bottom
srón sròn stroin ffroen frig froen nose, nostril
sruth sruth stroo ffrwd fros froud stream, river, current, valley
stábla stàball stabyl ystafell stevel staul* stable, room
stán staoin, stàin stainney ystaen, staen sten staen tin, pewter
suan suain saveen hun hun hun sleep, slumber
suas suas seose uwch a-ugh uhel up(wards), above, over
suigh suidh soie eistedd esedha, sedha sichañ to sit
sùbh soo syfi sevi sivi strawberry, berry
sùgh soo, soolagh sudd, sug sugen soubenn, chug juice, sap, soup
súil sùil sooill haul howl heol eye, sun
tábla tàbla taabyl tabl tabel taol table, board
tacht tachd toghtey tagu, ystagu taga tagañ to choke
táille tàille tailley tâl, talaith tal tailh fare, fee, tally
tanaí tana thanney tenau tanaw tanav thin, slender
taos taois teayst toes toos toas, toaz dough
tar thar har(rish) tra dres tra over, across, beyond
tarbh tarbh tarroo tarw tarow tarv bull
teach taigh thie chi ti house
teaghlach teaghlach thielagh teulu teylu tiegezh family, household
teanga teanga çhengey tafod taves, tavas teod language, tongue, tribe, people
teas teas çhiass tes tes tes heat, warmth
tiarna tighearna çhiarn teyrn tern* tiern lord, ruler, king
tine teine çhenney tân tan tan fire, lightning
tír tìr çheer tir tir tir land, country
tiubh tiugh çhiu tew tew tev thick
toll toll towl twll toll toull hollow, empty, hole
tonn tonn tonn ton ton tonn wave, billow
torann, toirneach torrann, tàirneach taarnagh taran taran taran thunder, noise
trá tràigh traie trai trig tre, trec'h beach, ebb, shore
tréan
treise
trèine
treise
treun
trean trych trygh trec'h strong(er), might, brave, conquest, superior
trí tre trooid trwy dre dre through, over, across
trí trì tree tri (m), tair (f) tri (m), teyr (f) tri (m), teir (f) three
trócaire tròcair trocair trugar, trugaredd tregeredh trugar*, trugarez merciful, pity, thanks
troigh troigh trie troed troos troad foot
trua truagh truan, trieh tru tru tru miserable, wretched, sad
tuath tuath theay tud tus tud tribe, people, territory
tuí tugha thoo to to to roof, thatch
tul tul tool tâl tal tal forehead, brow, head
úll ubhal ooyl afal aval aval apple
uamhan uabhann owan ofn own ovn fear, dread
uamhanach uabhannach owanagh ofnog ownek aonik fearful, dreadful, timid
uan uan eayn oen oen oan lamb
uasal uasal ooasle uchel ughel uhel high, noble
uillinn uileann uillin elin elin ilin elbow
umhal umhal imlee ufyl, hyful uvel uvel humble, meek, submissive

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Celtic cognates

Complete Cognates, Partial Cognates . Cognates arranged thematically: Adjectives | Animals | Birds | Clothes | Colours | Conjunctions | Countries | Directions | Food and Drink | Landscape | Languages | Metals | Musical terms | Numbers | Parts of the body | People | Pronouns | Prepositions | Sea creatures | Time expressions | Trees and Plants | Verbs | Weather | Tools | Other words | Names

Celtiadur

A collection of Celtic cognates, with definitions, pronunciation, etymologies - includes the modern Celtic languages, older versions of these languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, and their extinct and reconstructed relatives and ancestors, including Gaulish, Celtiberian, Proto-Brythonic and Proto-Celtic.

Celtiadur

On the Celtiadur site you can find out more about the meanings of these words, their pronunciation and etymologies, and related words in older, extinct and reconstructed Celtic languages, such as Middle Welsh, Old Irish, Gaulish and Proto-Celtic.

On the Celtic Pathways podcast I discuss connections between the Celtic languages, and words in other languages with Celtic roots.

Links & Sources

Dictionaries of Celtic languages
http://www.faclair.com/
http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/
http://www.mannin.info/Mannin/fockleyr/m2e.php
https://www.teanglann.ie/en/fgb/ceann
http://dil.ie/
http://geiriadur.ac.uk/gpc/gpc.html
http://www.cornishdictionary.org.uk
http://www.arkaevraz.net/dicobzh/
http://www.brezhoneg.bzh/87-termofis.htm

Celtic words borrowed from Latin
http://www.old-north.co.uk/Holding/celt_britlatin.html

Proto-Celtic language
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Celtic_language
https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:Proto-Celtic_language
https://www.wales.ac.uk/Resources/Documents/Research/CelticLanguages/EnglishProtoCelticWordList.pdf (PDF)
https://archive.org/embed/EtymologicalDictionaryOfProtoCeltic

Words of Celtic origin in other languages
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lists_of_English_words_of_Celtic_origin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_French_words_of_Gaulish_origin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Galician_words_of_Celtic_origin
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Spanish_words_of_Celtic_origin
https://www.uni-trier.de/en/forschung/zat/celtic-studies/celtic-cultures/celtic-words

Geirfa Natur (Nature Glossary) - words for animals, birds, fish and other creatures in the modern Celtic language (Excel format, provided by Gwyn Harrison)

Information about Celtic languages

Breton, Celtiberian, Cornish, Cumbric, Gaulish, Irish, Lepontic, Lusitanian, Manx, Scottish Gaelic, Welsh

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