Halves and Sides

Words for half, side and related things in Celtic languages.

half moon....

Proto-Celtic *letos = side
*ɸletos = breadth, side
Primitive Irish *ᚂᚓᚈᚐᚄ / *letas = half, direction, side
Old Irish (Goídelc) leth [l͈ʲeθ] = half, direction, side
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) leth = half, side
Irish (Gaeilge) leath [lʲah/lʲæx/l̠ʲæ] = side, part, direction; half, part, portion
leathach = divided in two, two-part
leithead = breadth, width
leathadh = spreading, spread, diffusion, scattering, broadcasting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leth [l̪ʲeh] = half, side, share
leth-ghlic = half-witted
leth-leanabh = twin
leth-oireachas = separation, partiality, isolationism, favouritism
leisgeul = excuse, apology, pretext (from leth and sgeul [story])
Manx (Gaelg) lieh = part, half, behalf, makeshift
lieh fuinnit = half-baked
lieh henn = middle aged
Proto-Brythonic *lled = breadth, side
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) let, llet, led = year (of age)
Welsh (Cymraeg) lled [ɬeːd] = breadth, width, beam (of boat), latitude, amplitude, extent, diameter, thickness; half, part(ly), fairly, moderately
lleda(e)naf, lleda(e)nu = to spread out, scatter abroad, disseminate
lladaf, lledu = to became broad(er) / wide(r), broaden, open out, expand, become widespread
lleden = flat-fish, flat or sprawling (person/thing), flattish mass, blade, fluke
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) les = breadth, width, latitude
Cornish (Kernewek) les = breadth, width
lesa = to expand, spread
lesans = expansion, spread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) led = width, wideness, breadth; horizontally
ledan = wide, large, broad, vast, big
ledañ, lediñ, ledek = to stretch out, extend, spread (out)
ledanaat = to widen, broaden, stretch
Breton (Brezhoneg) led = wide, large, broad, spreading
a-led = horizontal
ledan = vast, wide
ledañ = to spread, generalize
ledanded = width, breadth

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *pléth₂-os (breadth), from *pleth₂- (broad, flat) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include field, flan, flat and fold (a pen for animals) in English, flat in English, and πλατεία (plateía – town square) in Greek [source].

Proto-Celtic *santeros = middle, half
Proto-Brythonic *hanter = half
Old Welsh hanther = half
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) hanner, hanher = half, middle
Welsh (Cymraeg) hanner [ˈhanɛr/ˈhanar] = half, middle, midday, midnight, side, part
hanner-cylchynol = semicircular
hanner dydd = midday, noon
hanner nos = midnight
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hanter = half, a moiety
hanter dŷdh = midday
hanter nôs = midnight
Cornish (Kernewek) hanter = half
hantera = to halve
hanterdydh = midday, noon
hantergylgh = hemisphere
hanterkans = fifty
hanter-mis = fortnight, two weeks
hanter-nos = midnight
hanter-our = half-hour
hanter-pennwari = semi-final
hanter termyn = half time
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hanter = half
hanterañ, hanteriñ = to halve, cut in half
hanter-kant = fifty
hanter-war-hanter = neck and neck, tied
Breton (Brezhoneg) hanter [ˈhɑ̃n.tɛʁ] = half
hanter dro = u-turn
hanterad = mediator
hanterenn = half time
hanternoz = midnight

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sm̥teros (one of the two), from *sem- (one) and *-teros (contrastive suffix) [source]. Other words from the PIE root *sem- (one) include: same, seem, semi, similar and single in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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