A Bit of Bitterness

Words for bitter, sour and related things in Celtic languages.

A pint at Cafe Cargo

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *swerwos = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) serb [sʲerv] = bitter, bitterness
serbae = bitterness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serb = bitter, hurtful, grievous, disagreeable, harsh, discordant
serbae, seirbe = bitterness, asperity
Irish (Gaeilge) searbh [ˈʃaɾˠəvˠ / ˈʃarˠu(ː)] = bitter, sour, acid
searbhaigh = to sour, embitter, become bitter
searbhán = bitter person, bitter herb, bitters
searbhánta = bitter, acrid
searbhas = bitterness, sourness, acidity
searbhasach = bitter, acrimonious
searbhóg = bitter person, bitter woman, bitter drink
searbhú = embitterment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searbh [ʃɛrɛv] = bitter, sour, tart, disagreeable, acidic
searbh-chainnt = sarcasm
searbh-ghlòr = cacophony
searbh-nhilis = bitter-sweet
duine searbh = disagreeable person
fion searbh geal = dry white wine
leann searbh = bitter (ale)
’s searbh an fhirinn = the truth hurts
Manx (Gaelg) sharroo = acid, acrid, acrimonious, bitter, cutting, embittered, sardonic, sour, tart, unpalatable, vitriolic
sharrooaghey = to embitter
sharrooane = bitters
sharrooid = bitterness
lhune sharroo = bitter (ale/beer)
Proto-Brythonic *hwerw = bitter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chuerv, chuerw, chwerw, chuero, chỽerw = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh
chwerwy, cwherwa = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwder, chweruder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwed, chỽerỽed = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwerw [ˈχwɛru/ˈχweːru] = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh, rough, severe, sharp, surly, hurtful, angry, irate, spiteful, cross, cruel, sorrowful
chwerwaf, chwerwi = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwaidd = bitter, sharp
chwerwder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwedd = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) chuero, wherow = bitter, cruel, hardhearted
Cornish (Kernewek) hwerow = bitter, harsh, sharp
hwerowder = acrimony
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hueru = bitter
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hueru, fero, huerhue = bitter
hueruentez = bitterness
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwerv [χwɛʁw] = bitter
c’hwervaat = to make or become bitter
c’hwervded, c’hwervder, c’hwerventez, c’hwervoni = bitterness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *swer- (to ache, to fester, wound, injury). Words from the same root include sword in English, chwarren (gland, knot in wood, boil, ulcer) in Welsh, zweren (to swear, pledge, declare under oath) in Dutch, and schwären (to fester, hurt, suppurate) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷereti, gʷorti- = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) goirt [ɡor͈ʲtʲ] = bitter, salty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) goirt = hungry, starved, bitter, sour, salt, sharp, keen
Irish (Gaeilge) goirt [ɡʌɾˠtʲ / ɡɔɾˠtʲ] = salt, saline, salted, bitter
goirte = saltiness, salinity, brackishness, bitterness
goirteamas = saltiness, bitterness, salt food
goirtigh = to salt, pickle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goirt [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲ] = sore, painful, sour, salted
goirteas [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəs] = pain, ache, painfulness
goirtear [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲər] = miser, mean/stingy person
goirte [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲə] = soreness, painfulness, sourness, acerbity, saltiness
goirteachadh [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəxəɣ] = hurting, afflicting, acidifying, making sour, leavening
Manx (Gaelg) gort = acid, bitter, brackish, rank, vinegarish, vinegary, sour, hurt, poignant, acrid, acrimony
gortaghey = hurt, hurting, maim, pain
gortagh = beggarly, frugal, grudging, hurt, meagre, miser

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷorti-, from *gʷʰer- (warm, hot). Words from the same root include barmy, furnace, gore, thermal and warm in English, and garstig (rude, nasty, beastly, foul) in German [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Stormy Weather

Words for storm and related things in Celtic languages.

Gleann Cholm Cille

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīnā = weather
Old Irish (Goídelc) sín [ˈsʲiːn/ˈsʲiːnʲ] = storm, tempest, (bad) weather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sín = bad weather, storm, weather, season, circumstances, atmosphere, attitude
Irish (Gaeilge) síon = weather (usually bad, stormy)
síonra = atmospheric agencies, elements
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sian [ʃiən] = violent weather, the elements, whizzing sound, squall, shriek
sianach [ʃiənəx] = stormy, squally, shrieking
sianail = (act of) shrieking, yelling
siantach [ʃiən̪ˠdəx] = pertaining to generally bad weather
marcach-siana = spindrift (spray coming off stormy sea), undulating (sheets of) rain
uisge nan seachd sian = almighty downpour, cloudburst, deluge, rainstorm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hin = (bad) weather, air
hinda, hindda = dry/fine/fair weather
hinon = (fair) weather, dry weather, sunshine
hinoni = to become fine, clear up, bask in the sun
Welsh (Cymraeg) hin = (bad) weather, air
hindreuliad = a weathering
hindreuliaf, hindreulio = to weather
hindda = dry/fine/fair weather
hinddanaf, hinddanu = to become fine, clear up (of weather)
hinfynag, = barometer
hinon = (fair) weather, dry weather, sunshine
hinonaf, hinoni = to become fine, clear up, bask in the sun
hinsawdd = climate
Cornish (Kernewek) hin = climate
hinek = climatic
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hynon = serene, clear weather
Breton (Brezhoneg) hin = climate
hinon = serene, serenity
hinoniñ = to have a peaceful time

Etymology: possibly related to Proto-Celtic *sīniti (to stretch, extend), from *sīros (long), from PIE *seh₁- (long, lasting), or *temp- (to stretch) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) anfud = tempest, storm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) anbod, anfud = tempest, storm, turbulence, fury, rage
anfadach = stormy, perturbed, agitated
Irish (Gaeilge) anfa [ˈanˠəfˠə] =storm, tempest
anfach = stormy, rough, tempestuous
anfacht = storminess

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) doinenn = stormy weather, tempest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) doinenn = foul or stormy weather, tempest
doinennta = stormy, tempestuous, inclement
Irish (Gaeilge) doineann [ˈd̪ˠɪn̠ʲən̪ˠ] = stormy weather, storm. wintriness, cheerlessness
doineanta = stormy, wild, inclement (weather), wintry, cheerless (person)
doineantach = cheerless, cold-mannered, person; gloomy old man
doineantacht = storminess, inclemency (weather), wintriness, cheerlessness (demeanour)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doineann [dɤn̪ʲan̪ˠ] = storm, tempest
doineannach [dɔn̪ʲən̪ˠəx] = stormy
doireannach [dɔrʲən̪ˠəx] = stormy
Manx (Gaelg) dorrin = storm, tempest
dorrinagh = stormy, tempestuous
dorrinys = storminess, tempestuousness, raging

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) stoirm = storm
Irish (Gaeilge) stoirm [ˈsˠt̪ˠɪɾʲəmʲ] = storm, bluster, rage
stoirmeach = stormy, tempestuous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stoirm [sdɤrʲɤm] = storm
stoirmeil [sdɤrʲɤmal] = stormy
Manx (Gaelg) sterrym = storm
sterrymagh = stormy
sterrymid = storminess
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystorm, ystorym = storm, tempest
Welsh (Cymraeg) (y)storm = storm, tempest
(y)stormio = to become stormy, bluster, rain heavily, rant, scold
(y)stormus = stormy, tempestuous, turbulent, boisterous

Etymology: from Middle English storm (storm, dispute, brawl, fight), from Old English storm (storm), from Proto-West-Germanic *sturm (storm), from Proto-Germanic *sturmaz (storm), from PIE *(s)twerH- (to stir up, agitate, urge on, propel) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tywyd = weather
Welsh (Cymraeg) tywydd [ˈtəu̯.ɨ̞ð / ˈtəu̯.ɪð] = weather, bad or stormy weather
tywyddiant = meterology
tywyddol = pertaining to the weather
Cornish (Kernewek) tewedh = storm
tewedha = to weather

Etymology: unknown

More about words for weather (and time) in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Bees

Words for bee, sting and related things in Celtic languages.

Bee

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *bekos/*bikos = bee
Old Irish (Goídelc) bech [bʲex] = bee
Middle Irish bech [bʲex] = bee
bechlann [bʲex] = beehive
bechatoir, beachadoir = (hereditary) beekeeper
bechda = full of bees
Irish (Gaeilge) beach [bʲax] = bee
beachaire = beekeeper, beehive
beachaireacht = beekeeping
beachlann = apiary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beach [bɛx] = bee, wasp
beachach [bɛxəx] = pertaining to or abounding in bees or wasps
beachair [bɛxɪrʲ] = beehive
beachan [bjaxər̪ˠn̪ˠ] = small bees or wasps
Proto-Brythonic *bɨg = bee
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) byg = bee
bedaf, bydaf = bees’ nest, beehive
bygegyr = drone
Welsh (Cymraeg) bygegyr, begegyr = drone
bydaf = swarm or nest of (wild) bees, bees’ nest and honey therein, beehive

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰik-/bʰoyk- (bee), from*bʰey- (bee) [source]. Words from the same roots include bee in English, and fuco (drone – male bee) in Italian [source].

Middle Irish teillenn = swarm of bees
Irish (Gaeilge) seileán = (wild) honey bee
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seillean [ʃel̪ʲan] = bee
Manx (Gaelg) shellan [ˈʃɛlʲan] = bee
shelleig, shellaig = beehive, hive

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *wan-inyo- = bee (?)
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanan, gwenyn = bees
gwenynen, guenenen = bee
gwenynllestyr = beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwenyn = bees
gwenynen = bee
gwenynaf, gwenynu = to keep bees
gwenynllais = a humming (of bees)
gwenynlle = beehive
gwenynog = apiary, bee-garden, pertaining to bees, abounding in bees
gwenynydd = beekeeper, apiarist
gwenynyddiaeth = beekeeping
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwanan, gwenyn = bees
gwenynen, guenenen = bee
Cornish (Kernewek) gwenen = bees
gwenenen = bee
gwenen sia = bumble bee
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guenan, guënan = bees
guenanenn, guennanen = bee
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwenan, gwenen, gweren = bees
gwenanenn = bee
gwenaneg = apiary
gwenaner = beekeeper
gwenanerezh = beekeeping, apiculture

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *wano- (tip, sting) [source], from PIE *gʷʰen- (to strike, slay, kill). Words from the same root include bane, defend, fence and gun , and words for to stab, sting, wound, etc. in Celtic languages (see below) [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷaneti = to strike, wound, kill, slay
Old Irish (Goídelc) gonaid [ˈɡonɨðʲ] = to pierce, wound
con·goin = to pierce, wound
Middle Irish gonaid = to pierce, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) goin = to wound, stab, sting, hurt
goinbhlasta = piquant
goineach = wounding, piercing, hurtful
goineadóir = wounder, sharp-tongued person
goineog = stab, sting, prick, cutting remark, thrust, gibe
goineogacht = cutting remarks, gibing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goin [gɔn̪ʲ] = wound, stab, sting, stabbing, stinging
goineag [gɔnag] = nip, pinch, twitch, canine (tooth)
goineanta [gɔn̪ʲən̪ˠdə] = keen, piercing
gointe [gɔn̪ʲdʲə] = sorely wounded, bewitched
gointeach [gɔn̪ʲdʲəx] = wounding, stabbing, stinging, agonizing
Manx (Gaelg) guin = pain, stitch, pang
guinn = insect bite, pain, smart
guinney = needle, pain, sting, wound, wounding
gonnid = pain, peevishness, smarting, soreness
Proto-Brythonic *gwėnɨd [ɡwe̝ˈnɨːð] = to strike, kill
*ėdwėnɨd = to strike again
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) gvant, guant, gwanu = to stab, prick, deeply, pierce
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanu [ˈɡwanɨ̞ / ˈɡwa(ː)ni] = to stab, prick, deeply, pierce, perforate, penetrate, kill, strike, thrust (also written gwanaf or gwân)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwane = to thrust, penetrate, pierce, stab, stick
gwenys, gwynys = pierced, stabbed, stung
Cornish (Kernewek) gwana = to pierce, stab, sting
gwan = jab, prick, sting
omwana = to stab oneself
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goano, goanaff, goan = to prick, grip, squeeze, annoy
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwanañ = to sting, punish, macerate
gwanerezh = maceration
gwanikennan = to prick

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰénti (to be striking down, killing, slaying), from*gʷʰen- (to strike, slay, kill) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Modestly Humble

Words for modest and related things in Celtic languages.

Modestly Humble

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *wēlos = modest
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíal [fʲiːa̯l] = becoming, generous, genteel, seemly, well-bred
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fíal = decorous becoming, seemly (of conduct or behavious), modest, chaste, well-bred, honourable, noble
fíalmar = noble-natured, generous
Irish (Gaeilge) fial [fʲiəlˠ] = seemly, proper, noble, generous, hospitable
fialmhaireacht = open-handedness, generosity
fialmhaitheas = goodness of heart, generosity
fialmhar = open-handed, generous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fial [fiəl̪ˠ] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fial-chridheachd = altruism
fial-inntinneach = open-minded, liberal-minded
fialach [fiəl̪ˠəx] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fialachd [fiəl̪ˠəxg] = generosity, liberality
fialaiche = provider of hospitality
Manx (Gaelg) feoilt = benevolent, bountiful, generous, munificent
feoiltagh = benevolent, bounteous, free, lavish, liberal, unselfish
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guiled = shame
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guyl, gwyl, gŵyl = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive
guilat, gwylat = merry, glad, lively
gwylder = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gvilet, gwylet, gwyled = modesty, humility, gentleness, shame
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl = [ɡuːɨ̯l/ɡʊi̯l] = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive, mild, tender, gentle, gracious, joyous, glad, generous, kind
gwylad = merry, glad, lively
gwyldeb = modesty, bashfulness
gwylader, gwyldra = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gwyledd = modesty, humility, gentleness, meekness, courtesy, graciousness, joy, shame

Etymology: possibly from the PIE *wey- (turn) or *wāg- (to be bent), which is related to vagus (wandering, roaming) in Latin, from which we get the English words vague and vagabond [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) umal [ˈuṽal] = humble, obedient
umaldóit = humility
umlaigid = to humble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) umal = humble, obedient, submissive
umaldóit, omaldóit, umallóit = humility
uimligid, huimligte, umlaigid = to humble
Irish (Gaeilge) umhal [uəl̪ˠ/uːlˠ] = humble, submissive, lithe, supple, plant
umhlaigh = to humble, bow, submit, obey, stoop
umhlaíocht = humility, submission, obedience, dutifulness, respect
umhlóid = humility, submission, lowly service, attendence, ministration, suppleness, pliancy
umhlú = genuflection, curtsey, obesiance, submission
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umhal [ũ.əl̪ˠ] = submissive, obedient, humble, lowly, meek
Manx (Gaelg) imlee = humble, lowly, menial, simple
imlagh = humble, humbling
imlaghey = humble, stoop
Old Welsh (Kembraec) humil = humble
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) huvyll, uvell = merry, glad, lively
uỽyl, vffil = humble, meek, submissive
ufullder, uvyllder = humility
uỽyltaỽd, uvylldaỽt, vuildaud, vffyldaud = humility
Welsh (Cymraeg) ufyl = humble, meek, submissive
ufyllter, ufullter = humility
ufylltod, ufulltod, ufelltod, hufylltod = humility
hyful = humble
Old Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Cornish (Kernewek) uvel = humble, lowly, modest
uvelder = humility
Middle Breton vuel, uuel = humble, meek, lowly
uffuelhat = to humiliate (oneself)
vuelaff, uvelañ = to humble oneself
vueldet, vuheltet = humility, humbleness, meekness
vulder, vuelder, uffuelter = humility, humbleness
Breton (Brezhoneg) uvel [ˈyː.vɛl] = humble, meek, lowly
uvelded, uvelder = humility, humbleness, meekness
uvelaat = to humiliate

Etymology: from the Latin humilis (low, lowly, small, slight, shallow), which is also the root of the English word humility, the French humilité (humility), and the humildad (humility, humbleness) [source].

The Cornish word klor means meek, mild, moderate, modest and klorder means modesty. Their origins are not known

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Barnacles & Limpets

Words for barnacle, limpet and related things in Celtic languages.

Limpet Family at Sunny Cove

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *barinākos = barnacle, limpet
Gaulish *barinākā = barnacle, limpet
Old Irish (Goídelc) *bairnech = limpet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) bairnech, báirnech = limpet(s)
Irish (Gaeilge) bairneach [ˈbˠɑːɾˠn̠ʲəx] = limpet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàirneach [baːr̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = barnacle, limpet
Manx (Gaelg) baarnagh, barnagh, bayrnagh = barnacle
guiy bayrnag = barnacle goose
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brennik = limpets
Welsh (Cymraeg) brennig = limpets
brenigen = limpet
Middle Cornish brennic = limpets
brennigen = limpet
Cornish (Kernewek) brennik = limpets
brenigen, bernigen = limpet
Middle Breton brennik = limpet
Breton (Brezhoneg) brennig [ˈbrɛ.nːik] = barnacles, limpets
brennigenn = barnacle, limpet
brennika = to fish for limpets
brennikaer = limpet fisherman

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *barinā (rocky ground), and *-ākos (involved with, belonging to) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the Gaulish *barinākā and the Latin barnēca (barnacle goose, barnacle, limpet), include bernache (barnacle) in French, barnacle in English, barnacla (brent/brant goose – Branta bernicla) in Spanish [source].

Barnacle Geese

Old Irish (Goídelc) gigrann = barnacle goose
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) gigrann, giugrann = wild goose, barnacle goose
Irish (Gaeilge) giúrann = barnacle, shipworm, barnacle (goose)
giúrannach = encrusted with barnacles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) giùran [gʲuːran] = barnacle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Old Breton (Brethonoc) goirann = barnacle goose, barnacles

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *gezdā (goose) – probably of imitative origin [source]. For more details of words for goose in Celtic languages, this post.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Worms & Maggots

Today we’re looking at the words for worm, maggot and related things in Celtic languages.

Earth Worm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷrimis = worm
Old Irish (Goídelc) cruim [kruṽʲ] = maggot, worm
crumdoma = maggot heap
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) cruim, crúim = worm, maggot
crumach = full of reptiles
crumdoma = dunghill
cromóc = maggot
Irish (Gaeilge) cruimh = maggot, larva, grub, tiny insect, worm
crumhóg = maggot
cruimheach = maggoty
cruimheachán = venemous person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnuimh [krɯ̃ĩv] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimheach [krɯ̃ĩvəx] = maggoty
cnuimheag [krɯ̃ĩvag] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimhneag [krɯ̃ĩvn̪ˠʲag] = maggot, worm
Manx (Gaelg) crooag = (flesh) worm, grub, maggot, worm
crooagagh = maggoty, wormy
Proto-Brythonic *prɨβ̃ [ˈprɨβ̃] = worm
Old Welsh prem = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pryuet, pryf = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryuyedic = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Welsh (Cymraeg) pryf [prɨːv/priːv] = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryfedaf, pryfedu, pryfedo = to breed worms of maggots, to become infested with worms or maggots
pryfediad = worm or maggot infestation
pryfedig = wormeaten, maggoty
pryfeteg = entomology
pryfiedig = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pref, prêv, pryf = any small animal, a vermin, an insect, a worm, a reptile
Cornish (Kernewek) pryv, prev = crawling animal, grub, insect, worm, weevil
pryv del = caterpillar
pryv prenn woodworm
pryvladher = insecticide
Middle Breton (Brezonec) preff, preuet, prenvv = worm
Breton (Brezhoneg) preñv = worm
preñvedik = vermiculated
preñvek = vermicular, wormlike, wormy
eneppreñveg, eneppreñvek = wormable

Etymology: from PIE *kʷŕ̥mis (worm) [source]. Words from the same root include cirmenis (maggot, grub) in Latvian, kirmis (worm) in Lithuanian, käärme (snake) in Finnish, کرم (kerm – worm) in Persian, and červ (worm, maggot) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dorb = worm, larva
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorb = small insect or worm
Irish (Gaeilge) doirb [kɑbʲ/kabʲ] = water beelte
doirbeach = infested with water beetles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doirb [dɤrʲɤb] = unspecific term for a small/tiny/insignificant creature (e.g. minnow, worm, leech, small person)
Manx (Gaelg) durrag = cabbage worm, larva of cabbage moth

Etymology: unknown

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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