Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fatty Lard

Words for fat, lard and related things in Celtic languages.

Lard

Old Irish (Goídelc) blonac = fat, lard
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blonac, blonoc = fat, lard, grease
Irish (Gaeilge) blonag = soft fat, lard, blubber, paunch, spare tyre
blonag an mhíl mhóir = (whale) blubber
blonagach = fat, greasy, flabby
blonagán = goose-foot
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) blonag [bl̪ˠɔnag] = visceral fat, suet, lard, tallow
blonag-mhuice = lard
Manx (Gaelg) blonnag = lard
blennick = fat, fatty tissue, lard, blubber
blennick vuickey = lard
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blonec, blonnec = fat, lard, grease
Welsh (Cymraeg) bloneg = fat, lard, grease; belly, abdomen, lap, body fat; sap
magu bloneg = to become fat
meinwe floneg = adipose tissue
blonegaf, blonegu, blonega = to grow fat, to make fat, to grease with far or lard
blonegaidd = fatty, lardaceous, greasy
Old Cornish blonec = fat
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blonec = fat, lard, grease
Cornish (Kernewek) blonek = fat, lard, grease
blonegek = greasy
Old Breton blonecou = lard, fat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bloneg, blouhec, blounhec, blonec, bloanec = pork belly, fat
blonegenn = fat bread, lard bread
blonegenn-mor = jellyfish
Breton (Brezhoneg) bloneg = addomen, lard, fat
bloneg-mor = jellyfish
blonegenn = fat bread, lard bread

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: unknown

Proto-Celtic *gʷeress/*gʷered- = animal fat, tallow
Old Irish (Goídelc) geir = fat, lard, suet, tallow
fogeir = to heat, warm, inflame, chafe, irritate, temper
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) geir = animal fat, tallow, suet, lard
fo-geir = to heat, inflame, chafe, irritate, excite, temper
Irish (Gaeilge) geir [ɟɛɾʲ] = fat, suet, tallow
geir rósta = dripping
geireach = fatty, sebaceous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geir [gʲerʲ] = fat, lard, tallow
geir-mhuc = lard
geireach = fatty, greasy, full of suet
geireadh = anointing, smearing with grease
Manx (Gaelg) geirr = dripping, fat, suet, tallow
geirr vill = beeswax
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guer, gwer = animal fat, tallow, suet, grease
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwêr = animal fat, tallow, suet, grease
gwêr (yr) aren = suet
gweraidd = tallowy, tallowish
gwerennaf, gwerennu = to congeal or coagulate into suet fat
gwerennog = fat, suety, lardy, greasy

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰer- (heat) or *ǵʰwer- (wild animal) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include furnace, gore, thermal and warm in English [source], gor (to hatch, incubate, warm, heat, burn) in Irish [source]., and words for warmth and heat in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) sall, saill = bacon, salt-meat
sallid = to salt, cure
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) saill = salted meat (esp. bacon)
Irish (Gaeilge) saill = salted meat, fat meat, fat; to salt, cure, season
sailleach = fatty, adipose
sailleadh = salting, curing
sailleacht = saltiness (of meat, etc.)
saillteoir = salter, curer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) saill [sail̪ʲ/sal̪ʲə] = to pickle, season; blubber, fat, suet
saill-shùighte = saturated fat
saill neo-shùighte = unsaturated fat
saill nan dubhagan = suet
saill bèicearachd = shortening
saill muice-mara = blubber
sailleadair = salter, fish-curer
sailleadh = (act of) salting
saillte = salted, salty
saillear = (salt-)cellar
Manx (Gaelg) sahll = adioise tissue, blubber, fat, grease
sahllagh = adipose, blubbery, fatty

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *salanos (salt) , from Proto-Indo-European *séh₂ls (salt) [source]. Words for salt in Celtic and many other Indo-European languages come from the same roots [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flour

In this post we’re looking into words for flour and related things in Celtic languages.

Skiing slope of flour

Proto-Celtic *mlātos = flour
Gaulish *blatos = flour
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blawd, blaỼt = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) blawd = flour, meal, powder
blawdaidd = mealy, floury, friable
blodiaf, blawdiaf, blawdio = to grind into meal, produce flour, become powdery, turn to dust, sprinkle (with) flour
blodiwr, blawdiwr = flour or meal merchant
Old Cornish blot = flour, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blot, blês = flour, meal
Cornish (Kernewek) bleus = flour
bleus hesken = sawdust
bleus leun = wholemeal
bleusa = to flour
Old Breton (Brethonoc) blot = flour
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bleut = flour, powder
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleud = flour, powder
bleudañ = to flour
bleudek = floury
bleud brazed = wholemeal flour
bleud goellet = self-raising flour
bleud gwinizh = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ml̥h₂-tó-s, from *melh₂- (to crush, grind) [source]. Words from the same root include melancholy and melanin in English, and μελανός (melanós – black, dark, blue, bruised) in Greek [source].

Old Irish (Góidelc) men = flour
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) men, min = flour, meal, fine powder, dust
Irish (Gaeilge) min [ˈmʲɪnʲ/ˈmʲɨ̞nʲ] = meal; powedered matter
min choirce = oatmeal
min chruithneachta = wheatmeal
min sáibh = sawdust
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) min [min] = flour, meal, grounds, filings
min-fhlùir = flour
min-eòrna = barley flour/meal
min-sheagail = rye flour
min-chruithneachd = wheat flour
muileann-mine = flour mill
Manx (Gaelg) meinn = meal
meinn chorkey = oatmeal
meinn churnaght = wheatmeal flour
meinn hoggyl = rye meal
meinn oarn = barley meal
meinn saaue = sawdust

Etymology: unknown

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyllyeyt, peillit = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) paill = pollen, flour
peill(i)aid = flour, fine flour, wheat flour, white flour, powder
peilliaid gwenith = (fine) wheat flour
peilliaid haidd = barley flour
peilliaid rhyg = rye flour

Etymology: from the Latin pollen (fine flower, powder, dust), from the Proto-Indo-European *pel- (flour, dust) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Latin pulvis (dust, powder, ashes), include polve (dust, ashes) in Italian, polvo (dust, powder) in Spanish, poussière (dust) in French, and pulverise (to render into dust or powder) in English [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) plúr [pˠlˠuːɾˠ] = flour, flower
plúr geal = white flour
plúr cruithneachta = wheaten flour
plúrach = floury, farinaceous; flower-like, pretty
plúraigh = to effloresce
plúróg = pretty girl
plúrscoth = choicest flower, pick, choice
plúrú = efflorescence
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flùr [fl̪ˠuːr] = flour
flùr lom = plain flour
flùr-éirigh = self-raising flour
Manx (Gaelg) flooyr = flour
flooyr churnaght = wheaten flour
grine-flooyr = cornflour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) fflwr = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) fflŵr [fluːr], fflowr = flour (in South Wales)
fflŵr can = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman flur (flower), from the Old French flor (flower), from the Latin flōrem (flower), from flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Italic *flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (flower, blossom) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include flour, flower, flora, blossom and bloom in English, blé (flour) and fleur (flower) in French, and blat (wheat) in Catalan [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dough

Today we’re looking at the words for dough and related things in Celtic languages.

Rested Pasta Dough 2

Proto-Celtic *taistos, *taysto- = dough
Old Irish (Goídelc) taís, taés [ˈtai̯s] = dough
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tóes, táes = dough
Irish (Gaeilge) taos [t̪ˠeːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ] = dough, paste
taosach = doughy, pasty
taosaigh = to paste
taosrán = pastry
taoschnó = doughnut
taos fiacla = toothpaste
taos géar = sourdough
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) taois [tɯːʃ] = dough, paste
taoiseach = doughy, pasty
taoiseag = doughnut
taois-uighe = (egg) batter
taois-chailce = putty
taois gheur = sourdough
Manx (Gaelg) teayst = dough, pastry, paste
teaystag = dumpling
teaystagh = doughy, ill-baked, pasty, under-cooked
teaystyn, teaystnee = to knead
Proto-Brythonic *toɨs = dough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) toes = (lump of) dough or pastry
Welsh (Cymraeg) toes [toːɨ̯s/tɔi̯s] = (lump of) dough or pastry, paste, sticky mass
toesaidd = doughy, doughlike
toesen = lump of dough, doughnut
toesi = to make into dough, become a dough, knead, soften
toeslud = putty
toeslyd = doughy, doughlike, badly baked, soft, pasty, sticky, clammy, stodgy, heavy
surdoes = leaven, sourdough, ferment
Cornish (Kernewek) toos = dough
know toos = doughnuts
toos alamandys = marzipan
toos gwari = playdough
Middle Breton toas = dough, batter
Breton (Brezhoneg) toaz = dough, batter
toazadur = thickening, pastiness
toazenn = noodle
toazenner = pasta machine
toazennoù = pasta
toazennek = pasted, thickened

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂ys-t- (dough), from *teh₂- (to knead, melt, flow) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include desem (sourdough, leaven, yeast) in Dutch, těsto (dough) in Czech, ciasto (dough, batter, cake, pie) in Polish, тесто [ˈtʲestə] (dough, paste, batter) in Russian, and тісто [ˈtʲistɔ] (dough) in Ukrainian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Salt

Today we’re looking at the words for salt and related things in Celtic languages.

salt

Proto-Celtic *salanos = salt
Old Irish (Goídelc) salann [ˈsalan͈] = salt
Irish (Gaeilge) salann [ˈsˠɑl̪ˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠalˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠɔlˠən̪ˠ] = salt
saill = to salt, cure, season
sailleadh = salting, curing
saillteacht = saltiness
saillteoir = salter, curer
sáiltéar = salt-cellar
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) salann [sal̪ˠən̪ˠ] = salt
salainneach [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəx] = salty
salainneachadh [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəxəɣ] = (act of) salting, (act of) curing with salt, salinisation
Manx (Gaelg) sollan [ˈsolan] = salt
sailjey = brackish, briny, corned, pickled, saline, salt, salty
Proto-Brythonic *haluɨn = salt
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) halaen, halen = salt
Welsh (Cymraeg) halen [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = salt, sodium chloride; brine; moral élite, the excellent of the earth, wit, eloquence
halenu = to salt, become salt
halenaidd = saline, salty, brackish
halenydd = salt, saline, brackish
halenog = salt, saliferous, saline, salty
halenwr = salt dealer, salt maker
hâl = salt, alkali, salty, saline, alkaline
hallt = salt, salty, briny, brackish, sharp, preserved in salt, pickled; bitter, sharp, harsh, severe; sea, the brine, the briny
halltog = salt, salty
Old Cornish haloin = salt
Middle Cornish halan, halen = salt
Cornish (Kernewek) holan = salt
holanen = grain of salt
Middle Breton halon = salt
Breton (Brezhoneg) holen = salt
holener = salt cellar
holenañ = salt dealer/seller

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *séh₂ls (salt) [source].

The English words salt, salary, salad, sauce and salsa come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cor = ale, beer
coref = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Apples

Words for apples and related words, in Celtic languages.

Apples / afalau

Proto-Celtic *abalom = apple
*abalnā = apple tree
Gaulish abalon, aballon = apple, apple tree
Old Irish (Goídelc) ubull, uball [ˈu.vul͈/ˈu.val͈] = apple
aball = apple tree
Irish (Gaeilge) úll [uːl̪ˠ] = apple; ball-and-socket joint; globular object, ball
úllach = bearing apples, abounding in apples
úllachán = little apple, little ball (of thread, etc)
úlllgharraí, úllghort, úllord = orchard
úllghlas = apple-green
úll óir = golden apple, precious thing
abhaill = apple tree
fia-úll = crab-apple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ubhal [u.əl̪ˠ] = apple
ubhal-chrann, abhaill = apple tree
ubhal-cridhe = tomato
ubhal-fiadhain, fiadh-ubhal, searbh-ubhal = crab/wild apple (malus sylvestris)
ubhal-ghort = apple orchard
dearc-ubhal = oak apple
lionn-ubhal = (apple) cider
òr-ubhal = orange
Manx (Gaelg) ooyl = apple, pommel
ooylagh = orchard
billey ooyl = apple tree
ooyl feie = crab-apple
ooyl ghraih = tomato
ooyl ghraney, ooyl ghrineagh = pomegranate
Proto-Brythonic *aβal = apple
*aβaln = apple tree
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aual, aval, afal = apple
auallen, avallen, yfallen = apple tree
Welsh (Cymraeg) afal [ˈaval/ˈaːval] = apple
afallen = apple tree
afal cariad = tomato, love-apple
afal cwins = quince
afal drain = haw, hawthorn berry
afal gwlanog = peach
afal sur (bach) = crab apple
Cornish (Kernewek) aval [ˈaval/ˈævɐl] = apple
avalen = apple tree
aval briansen = larynx
aval dor = potato
aval gwlanek = peach
aval kerenja/kerensa = tomato
aval lagas = eyeball
aval paradhis = grapefruit
aval saben = pine cone
Old Breton abal = apple
Middle Breton aval [ˈɑː.val] = apple
Breton (Brezhoneg) aval = apple
avalwez = apple tree
aouraval = orange
greunaval = pomegranate
aval-douar = potato

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ébōl (apple), which is also the root of words for apple in Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Germanic and Italic languages [source].

Avalon, the legendary island in the west to which King Arthur was taken after the Battle of Camlann, probably comes from the same root, via the Latin Insula Avallonis – the name used by Geoffrey of Monmonth in his Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136). Avalon may have been the Isle of Man, or the Isle of Arran, which were known as Emain Ablach in Old Irish poems [source.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Blackberries

Words for blackberries and related words, in Celtic languages.

Blackberries

Proto-Celtic *smiyoros = berry, berries
Old Irish (Goídelc) smér = blackberry
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) smér = blackberry
Irish (Gaeilge) sméar [sˠmʲiaɾˠ/sˠmʲeːɾˠ] = berry, blackberry
sméarach = abounding in blackberries
sméardhris = blackberry bush, bramble
sméara dubha = blackberries
púca na sméar = fruit-destroying pooka, herald of winter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) smeur [smiar] = bramble, blackberry, mulberry
smeur-dhubh = blackberry
smeur-craoibhe = mulberry
smeur-loganach = loganberry
smeur-Artaigeach = nagoonberry, Arctic bramble/raspberry (Rubus arcticus)
craobh nan smeur = mulberry tree (Morus)
Manx (Gaelg) smeyr = blackberry, berry
smeyr ghoo = blackberry
smeyr churree = cranberry
smeyr fannag = crowberry
smeyr loaganagh = cloudberry
crouw smeyr = mulberry
Proto-Brythonic *muɨar = blackberries, berries
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyar(en) [ˈmʊɨ̯.ar/ˈmʊi̯.ar] = blackberries, dewberries, brambles, briers, berries
mwyara = to gather blackberries; to be idle
mwyarbren = mulberry bush, blackberry bush, bramble
mwyar Berwyn/ mwyar Doewan = wild raspberries, (Rubus idæus), cloudberries, (Rubus chamæmorus)
mwyar y brain = bilberries, whimberries, whortleberries (Vaccinium myrtillus)
mwyar y ddaear = dewberries (Rubus cæsius), cloudberries
mwyar du(on) = blackberries (Rubus fruticosus)
mwyar Ffrengig = mulberries, blackberries
mwyar glas = dewberries
mwyar Mair = mulberries, dewberries
Old Cornish moyr(bren) = berries
Cornish (Kernewek) mor(en) = berries
mora = to gather blackberries
mor du = blackberries
Old Breton moiaroc = berries
Breton (Brezhoneg) mouar(enn) = blackberries, berries; bramble, mulberry tree
mouar du / mouar gouez = blackberries, dewberries
mouar gwenn = mulberries
mouar ruz = red mulberries

Etmology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Plums

Words for plums, damsons and sloes, and related words, in Celtic languages.

sloes

Proto-Celtic *agrinyom/*agrinyā = sloe, small plum, berry
Irish (Gaeilge) airne [ˈɑːɾˠn̠ʲə / ˈæːɾˠn̠ʲə] = sloe, gland
airneog = sloe tree, blackthorn
biotáille airní = sloe gin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àirne [aːr̪n̪ʲə] = blackthorn, sloe (berry), wild plum (prunus domestica), damson (prunus domestica insititia)
àirneag = sloe bush
Manx (Gaelg) airn = sloe, bullace
airnagh = sloe-covered
soo airney = sloe jam
drine airn = blackthorn, sloe tree (Prunus spinosa)
Welsh (Cymraeg) eirin(en) [ˈei̯rɪn] = plum(s), damson(s), sloe(s), bullace, berries, testicle(s)
eirina = to collect sloes or bullace
eirin bwlas = bullace, wild plums (Prunus insititia), damsons
eirin damasg/Damasgus = damson
eirin Ffrainc/Ffrengig = prunes
eirin gwlanog = peaches, apricots
eirin gwynion = greengages
eirin Mair = gooseberries
eirin y moch = haws, hawthorn berries
eirin morwydd = mulberries
eirin peatus = nectarines
eirin ysgaw = elderberries
eirin y gors = crowberries
Old Cornish yryn = sloes
Cornish (Kernewek) eyrin(en) = sloe(s)
Breton (Brezhoneg) irin(enn) = sloe(s), sloe gin; pupil, eye

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ógeh₂ (berry) [source]. The English word acorn comes from the same root, via the Proto-Germanic *h₂ógeh₂ [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Plums

Irish (Gaeilge) pluma [ˈpˠlˠʊmˠə] = plum
daimsín [ˈpˠlˠʊmˠə] = damson
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) plumais / plùmbais [pl̪ˠumɪʃ / pl̪ˠuːmbɪʃ] = plum
daimsin [dãĩmʃɪn] = damson
Manx (Gaelg) plumbis = plum
damsyl = damson
Welsh (Cymraeg) plemys(en) = plum(s)
Cornish (Kernewek) ploum(en) = plum(s)
ploum(en) sygh = prune(s)
Breton (Brezhoneg) prun(enn) = plum(s)

Etmology (plum): from the Middle English ploume/plomme (plum) from the Old English plūme/plume (plum), from the Proto-West Germanic *plūmā (plum), from the Latin prūnum (plum), from the Ancient Greek προῦμνον (proûmnon – plum). Prune comes from the same root [source]

Etmology (damson): from the Middle English damascene/damasyn/damacene (damson), from the Latin prūnum damascēnum (Damascene plum, plum of Damascus), from the Ancient Greek προῦμνον (proûmnon – plum) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Milk

Words for milk, and related words, in Celtic languages.

North versus South

Proto-Celtic *laxto- = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) lacht [l͈axt] = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) lacht [l̪ˠɑxt̪ˠ / l̪ˠaxt̪ˠ] = milk, yield of milk; tears
lachtadh = lacation; flooding (of eyes)
lachaí = nursling
lachtach = lactic, milky; tearful
lachtbhán = milkwhite
lachtmhar = lactiferous, milky, abounding in milk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lac, lachd = sweet milk
Manx (Gaelg) laghtveih = milk gauge, milk tester
Proto-Brythonic *llaɨθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaeth = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaeth [ɬaːɨ̯θ / ɬai̯θ] = milk; milk-like substance, latex; milt, soft roe
llaetha(f), llaethu = to yield milk, lactate, feed with milk, turn to milk
llaetheiddrwydd = milkiness, lactescence
llaethiad = lactation
llaethlyd = milk-like, milky
llaethog = milky, abounding in milk
llaethogrwydd, llaethedd = milkiness
llaethwraig = milkmaid, dairymaid, good milker
llaethyddol = dairy, dairying
y Llwybr Llaethog the Milky Way
Old Cornish lait = milk
Middle Cornish leth, leyth = milk
Cornish (Kernewek) leth = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) laezh [ˈlɛːs] = milk

Etmology: from the Vulgar Latin *lacte (milk), from the Latin *lac (milk), from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵlákt [source].

Proto-Celtic *mlixtus = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) mlicht [mʲlʲixt] = milch, in milk (of cattle)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blicht = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bleacht [bʲlʲaxt̪ˠ] = milk, milk yield
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bliochd [blixg] = milkiness, milk
bliochdmhor [blixg(v)ər] = milky, full of milk
bliochdach = milky, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bluight = lactiferous, lacteal, galactic
bluightagh, ollagh vluight = milking cows
Proto-Brythonic *bliθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blyth = milk
lleurith = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) blith [bliːθ] = milch, lactating (of cow, etc), full of milk, in calf, in lamb, pregant, fruitful, productive, nourising; milk, dairy produce, lactation, dairying; profit, gain, advantage
blithog, blithiog = milch, giving milk, full of milk, fruitful, productive, bearing offspring
llefrith [ˈɬɛvrɪθ] = milk, new milk, sweet milk, fresh milk
Old Cornish leuerid = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) livrizh = milk

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ml̥ǵtus, from *h₂melǵ- (milk, to milk) [source].

The Welsh word llefrith, which is used in North Wales, comes from llef (weak) and blith (milk) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bandyo- = drop
Old Irish (Goídelc) bannae = drop
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bainne = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bainne [ˈbˠɑɲə / ˈbˠɑnʲə / ˈbˠan̠ʲə] = milk
bainniúil = milky, milk-yielding
bainniúlacht = milkiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bainne [ban̪ʲə] = milk, milky fluid, sap
bainneach [ban̪ʲəx] = milk, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bainney = milk
bainnagh = lactic, milk producing, milky, galactic
bainnaght = milkiness
yn Raad Mooar Bainnagh the Milky Way
Middle Cornish banne = drop
Cornish (Kernewek) banna = drop
Breton (Brezhoneg) banne = drop, droplet, glass

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Slavic *baňa (bath), from the Ancient Greek *βαλανεῖον (balaneîon, bath) [source], which is the root of words for bath(room) in many European languages, including bain in French, baño in Spanish and bagno in Italian [source].

Other words for milk in Proto-Celtic include: *glaxtā-, *melgos-, *mlig-e/o-, *seigi- and *sutu-.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)