Dough

Today we’re looking at the words for dough and related things in Celtic languages.

Rested Pasta Dough 2

Proto-Celtic *taistos, *taysto- = dough
Old Irish (Goídelc) taís, taés [ˈtai̯s] = dough
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tóes, táes = dough
Irish (Gaeilge) taos [t̪ˠeːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ] = dough, paste
taosach = doughy, pasty
taosaigh = to paste
taosrán = pastry
taoschnó = doughnut
taos fiacla = toothpaste
taos géar = sourdough
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) taois [tɯːʃ] = dough, paste
taoiseach = doughy, pasty
taoiseag = doughnut
taois-uighe = (egg) batter
taois-chailce = putty
taois gheur = sourdough
Manx (Gaelg) teayst = dough, pastry, paste
teaystag = dumpling
teaystagh = doughy, ill-baked, pasty, under-cooked
teaystyn, teaystnee = to knead
Proto-Brythonic *toɨs = dough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) toes = (lump of) dough or pastry
Welsh (Cymraeg) toes [toːɨ̯s/tɔi̯s] = (lump of) dough or pastry, paste, sticky mass
toesaidd = doughy, doughlike
toesen = lump of dough, doughnut
toesi = to make into dough, become a dough, knead, soften
toeslud = putty
toeslyd = doughy, doughlike, badly baked, soft, pasty, sticky, clammy, stodgy, heavy
surdoes = leaven, sourdough, ferment
Cornish (Kernewek) toos = dough
know toos = doughnuts
toos alamandys = marzipan
toos gwari = playdough
Middle Breton toas = dough, batter
Breton (Brezhoneg) toaz = dough, batter
toazadur = thickening, pastiness
toazenn = noodle
toazenner = pasta machine
toazennoù = pasta
toazennek = pasted, thickened

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂ys-t- (dough), from *teh₂- (to knead, melt, flow) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include desem (sourdough, leaven, yeast) in Dutch, těsto (dough) in Czech, ciasto (dough, batter, cake, pie) in Polish, тесто [ˈtʲestə] (dough, paste, batter) in Russian, and тісто [ˈtʲistɔ] (dough) in Ukrainian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Salt

Today we’re looking at the words for salt and related things in Celtic languages.

salt

Proto-Celtic *salanos = salt
Old Irish (Goídelc) salann [ˈsalan͈] = salt
Irish (Gaeilge) salann [ˈsˠɑl̪ˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠalˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠɔlˠən̪ˠ] = salt
saill = to salt, cure, season
sailleadh = salting, curing
saillteacht = saltiness
saillteoir = salter, curer
sáiltéar = salt-cellar
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) salann [sal̪ˠən̪ˠ] = salt
salainneach [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəx] = salty
salainneachadh [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəxəɣ] = (act of) salting, (act of) curing with salt, salinisation
Manx (Gaelg) sollan [ˈsolan] = salt
sailjey = brackish, briny, corned, pickled, saline, salt, salty
Proto-Brythonic *haluɨn = salt
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) halaen, halen = salt
Welsh (Cymraeg) halen [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = salt, sodium chloride; brine; moral élite, the excellent of the earth, wit, eloquence
halenu = to salt, become salt
halenaidd = saline, salty, brackish
halenydd = salt, saline, brackish
halenog = salt, saliferous, saline, salty
halenwr = salt dealer, salt maker
hâl = salt, alkali, salty, saline, alkaline
hallt = salt, salty, briny, brackish, sharp, preserved in salt, pickled; bitter, sharp, harsh, severe; sea, the brine, the briny
halltog = salt, salty
Old Cornish haloin = salt
Middle Cornish halan, halen = salt
Cornish (Kernewek) holan = salt
holanen = grain of salt
Middle Breton halon = salt
Breton (Brezhoneg) holen = salt
holener = salt cellar
holenañ = salt dealer/seller

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *séh₂ls (salt) [source].

The English words salt, salary, salad, sauce and salsa come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Apples

Words for apples and related words, in Celtic languages.

Apples / afalau

Proto-Celtic *abalom = apple
*abalnā = apple tree
Gaulish abalon, aballon = apple, apple tree
Old Irish (Goídelc) ubull, uball [ˈu.vul͈/ˈu.val͈] = apple
aball = apple tree
Irish (Gaeilge) úll [uːl̪ˠ] = apple; ball-and-socket joint; globular object, ball
úllach = bearing apples, abounding in apples
úllachán = little apple, little ball (of thread, etc)
úlllgharraí, úllghort, úllord = orchard
úllghlas = apple-green
úll óir = golden apple, precious thing
abhaill = apple tree
fia-úll = crab-apple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ubhal [u.əl̪ˠ] = apple
ubhal-chrann, abhaill = apple tree
ubhal-cridhe = tomato
ubhal-fiadhain, fiadh-ubhal, searbh-ubhal = crab/wild apple (malus sylvestris)
ubhal-ghort = apple orchard
dearc-ubhal = oak apple
lionn-ubhal = (apple) cider
òr-ubhal = orange
Manx (Gaelg) ooyl = apple, pommel
ooylagh = orchard
billey ooyl = apple tree
ooyl feie = crab-apple
ooyl ghraih = tomato
ooyl ghraney, ooyl ghrineagh = pomegranate
Proto-Brythonic *aβal = apple
*aβaln = apple tree
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aual, aval, afal = apple
auallen, avallen, yfallen = apple tree
Welsh (Cymraeg) afal [ˈaval/ˈaːval] = apple
afallen = apple tree
afal cariad = tomato, love-apple
afal cwins = quince
afal drain = haw, hawthorn berry
afal gwlanog = peach
afal sur (bach) = crab apple
Cornish (Kernewek) aval [ˈaval/ˈævɐl] = apple
avalen = apple tree
aval briansen = larynx
aval dor = potato
aval gwlanek = peach
aval kerenja/kerensa = tomato
aval lagas = eyeball
aval paradhis = grapefruit
aval saben = pine cone
Old Breton abal = apple
Middle Breton aval [ˈɑː.val] = apple
Breton (Brezhoneg) aval = apple
avalwez = apple tree
aouraval = orange
greunaval = pomegranate
aval-douar = potato

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ébōl (apple), which is also the root of words for apple in Baltic, Slavic, Celtic, Germanic and Italic languages [source].

Avalon, the legendary island in the west to which King Arthur was taken after the Battle of Camlann, probably comes from the same root, via the Latin Insula Avallonis – the name used by Geoffrey of Monmonth in his Historia Regum Britanniae (c. 1136). Avalon may have been the Isle of Man, or the Isle of Arran, which were known as Emain Ablach in Old Irish poems [source.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Blackberries

Words for blackberries and related words, in Celtic languages.

Blackberries

Proto-Celtic *smiyoros = berry, berries
Old Irish (Goídelc) smér = blackberry
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) smér = blackberry
Irish (Gaeilge) sméar [sˠmʲiaɾˠ/sˠmʲeːɾˠ] = berry, blackberry
sméarach = abounding in blackberries
sméardhris = blackberry bush, bramble
sméara dubha = blackberries
púca na sméar = fruit-destroying pooka, herald of winter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) smeur [smiar] = bramble, blackberry, mulberry
smeur-dhubh = blackberry
smeur-craoibhe = mulberry
smeur-loganach = loganberry
smeur-Artaigeach = nagoonberry, Arctic bramble/raspberry (Rubus arcticus)
craobh nan smeur = mulberry tree (Morus)
Manx (Gaelg) smeyr = blackberry, berry
smeyr ghoo = blackberry
smeyr churree = cranberry
smeyr fannag = crowberry
smeyr loaganagh = cloudberry
crouw smeyr = mulberry
Proto-Brythonic *muɨar = blackberries, berries
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyar(en) [ˈmʊɨ̯.ar/ˈmʊi̯.ar] = blackberries, dewberries, brambles, briers, berries
mwyara = to gather blackberries; to be idle
mwyarbren = mulberry bush, blackberry bush, bramble
mwyar Berwyn/ mwyar Doewan = wild raspberries, (Rubus idæus), cloudberries, (Rubus chamæmorus)
mwyar y brain = bilberries, whimberries, whortleberries (Vaccinium myrtillus)
mwyar y ddaear = dewberries (Rubus cæsius), cloudberries
mwyar du(on) = blackberries (Rubus fruticosus)
mwyar Ffrengig = mulberries, blackberries
mwyar glas = dewberries
mwyar Mair = mulberries, dewberries
Old Cornish moyr(bren) = berries
Cornish (Kernewek) mor(en) = berries
mora = to gather blackberries
mor du = blackberries
Old Breton moiaroc = berries
Breton (Brezhoneg) mouar(enn) = blackberries, berries; bramble, mulberry tree
mouar du / mouar gouez = blackberries, dewberries
mouar gwenn = mulberries
mouar ruz = red mulberries

Etmology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Plums

Words for plums, damsons and sloes, and related words, in Celtic languages.

sloes

Proto-Celtic *agrinyom/*agrinyā = sloe, small plum, berry
Irish (Gaeilge) airne [ˈɑːɾˠn̠ʲə / ˈæːɾˠn̠ʲə] = sloe, gland
airneog = sloe tree, blackthorn
biotáille airní = sloe gin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àirne [aːr̪n̪ʲə] = blackthorn, sloe (berry), wild plum (prunus domestica), damson (prunus domestica insititia)
àirneag = sloe bush
Manx (Gaelg) airn = sloe, bullace
airnagh = sloe-covered
soo airney = sloe jam
drine airn = blackthorn, sloe tree (Prunus spinosa)
Welsh (Cymraeg) eirin(en) [ˈei̯rɪn] = plum(s), damson(s), sloe(s), bullace, berries, testicle(s)
eirina = to collect sloes or bullace
eirin bwlas = bullace, wild plums (Prunus insititia), damsons
eirin damasg/Damasgus = damson
eirin Ffrainc/Ffrengig = prunes
eirin gwlanog = peaches, apricots
eirin gwynion = greengages
eirin Mair = gooseberries
eirin y moch = haws, hawthorn berries
eirin morwydd = mulberries
eirin peatus = nectarines
eirin ysgaw = elderberries
eirin y gors = crowberries
Old Cornish yryn = sloes
Cornish (Kernewek) eyrin(en) = sloe(s)
Breton (Brezhoneg) irin(enn) = sloe(s), sloe gin; pupil, eye

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ógeh₂ (berry) [source]. The English word acorn comes from the same root, via the Proto-Germanic *h₂ógeh₂ [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Plums

Irish (Gaeilge) pluma [ˈpˠlˠʊmˠə] = plum
daimsín [ˈpˠlˠʊmˠə] = damson
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) plumais / plùmbais [pl̪ˠumɪʃ / pl̪ˠuːmbɪʃ] = plum
daimsin [dãĩmʃɪn] = damson
Manx (Gaelg) plumbis = plum
damsyl = damson
Welsh (Cymraeg) plemys(en) = plum(s)
Cornish (Kernewek) ploum(en) = plum(s)
ploum(en) sygh = prune(s)
Breton (Brezhoneg) prun(enn) = plum(s)

Etmology (plum): from the Middle English ploume/plomme (plum) from the Old English plūme/plume (plum), from the Proto-West Germanic *plūmā (plum), from the Latin prūnum (plum), from the Ancient Greek προῦμνον (proûmnon – plum). Prune comes from the same root [source]

Etmology (damson): from the Middle English damascene/damasyn/damacene (damson), from the Latin prūnum damascēnum (Damascene plum, plum of Damascus), from the Ancient Greek προῦμνον (proûmnon – plum) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Milk

Words for milk, and related words, in Celtic languages.

North versus South

Proto-Celtic *laxto- = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) lacht [l͈axt] = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) lacht [l̪ˠɑxt̪ˠ / l̪ˠaxt̪ˠ] = milk, yield of milk; tears
lachtadh = lacation; flooding (of eyes)
lachaí = nursling
lachtach = lactic, milky; tearful
lachtbhán = milkwhite
lachtmhar = lactiferous, milky, abounding in milk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lac, lachd = sweet milk
Manx (Gaelg) laghtveih = milk gauge, milk tester
Proto-Brythonic *llaɨθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaeth = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaeth [ɬaːɨ̯θ / ɬai̯θ] = milk; milk-like substance, latex; milt, soft roe
llaetha(f), llaethu = to yield milk, lactate, feed with milk, turn to milk
llaetheiddrwydd = milkiness, lactescence
llaethiad = lactation
llaethlyd = milk-like, milky
llaethog = milky, abounding in milk
llaethogrwydd, llaethedd = milkiness
llaethwraig = milkmaid, dairymaid, good milker
llaethyddol = dairy, dairying
y Llwybr Llaethog the Milky Way
Old Cornish lait = milk
Middle Cornish leth, leyth = milk
Cornish (Kernewek) leth = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) laezh [ˈlɛːs] = milk

Etmology: from the Vulgar Latin *lacte (milk), from the Latin *lac (milk), from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵlákt [source].

Proto-Celtic *mlixtus = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) mlicht [mʲlʲixt] = milch, in milk (of cattle)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blicht = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bleacht [bʲlʲaxt̪ˠ] = milk, milk yield
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bliochd [blixg] = milkiness, milk
bliochdmhor [blixg(v)ər] = milky, full of milk
bliochdach = milky, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bluight = lactiferous, lacteal, galactic
bluightagh, ollagh vluight = milking cows
Proto-Brythonic *bliθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blyth = milk
lleurith = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) blith [bliːθ] = milch, lactating (of cow, etc), full of milk, in calf, in lamb, pregant, fruitful, productive, nourising; milk, dairy produce, lactation, dairying; profit, gain, advantage
blithog, blithiog = milch, giving milk, full of milk, fruitful, productive, bearing offspring
llefrith [ˈɬɛvrɪθ] = milk, new milk, sweet milk, fresh milk
Old Cornish leuerid = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) livrizh = milk

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ml̥ǵtus, from *h₂melǵ- (milk, to milk) [source].

The Welsh word llefrith, which is used in North Wales, comes from llef (weak) and blith (milk) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bandyo- = drop
Old Irish (Goídelc) bannae = drop
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bainne = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bainne [ˈbˠɑɲə / ˈbˠɑnʲə / ˈbˠan̠ʲə] = milk
bainniúil = milky, milk-yielding
bainniúlacht = milkiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bainne [ban̪ʲə] = milk, milky fluid, sap
bainneach [ban̪ʲəx] = milk, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bainney = milk
bainnagh = lactic, milk producing, milky, galactic
bainnaght = milkiness
yn Raad Mooar Bainnagh the Milky Way
Middle Cornish banne = drop
Cornish (Kernewek) banna = drop
Breton (Brezhoneg) banne = drop, droplet, glass

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Slavic *baňa (bath), from the Ancient Greek *βαλανεῖον (balaneîon, bath) [source], which is the root of words for bath(room) in many European languages, including bain in French, baño in Spanish and bagno in Italian [source].

Other words for milk in Proto-Celtic include: *glaxtā-, *melgos-, *mlig-e/o-, *seigi- and *sutu-.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Juice

Words for juice and related words in Celtic languages.

juice

Proto-Celtic *sūgos = juice
Old Irish (Goídelc) súg = juice, sap; vigour, energy, strength; essence, inner nature
Irish (Gaeilge) [sˠuː] = juice; sap, vigor, energy; soup, broth
sú caoireola = mutton broth
sú circe = chicken broth
sú crainn = (tree) sap
sú na fíniúna = wine
sú na heorna = whiskey (“juice of barley”)
sú oráistí = orange juice
sú tobac = nicotine
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sùgh [suː] = juice, sap, jus, stock, soup, broth
sùgh an eòrna = barley water, whisky (poetic)
sùgh an daimh = venison broth
sùgh circe = chicken stock
sùgh fheanntagan = nettle soup
sùgh feòla = gravy
sùgh glasraich = vegetable stock
sùgh-measa = fruit juice
sùgh meirbheach = gastic juices
sùigh-pheuran = perry (pear wine)
sùgh-ubhail = apple juice
Manx (Gaelg) soo = sap, juice
soolagh = juicy, pithy; sauce, juice
soo foalley = meat essence, beef extract, gravy
soo-mess = fruit juice
soo ny braghey = malt whisky
soo ny hoarn = ale
soo-ny-hooyl = cider
soo y ghailley = bile
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) svg / suc / sug = juice. sap
Welsh (Cymraeg) sug = juice, sap, bodily fluid, liquid, moisture, gray
sudd [sɨːð/siːð] = juice, sap, bodily fluid, liquid, moisture, sauce, gray, ketchup, syrup
sudd afal = apple juice
sudd ffrwyth(au) = fruit juice
sudd oren = orange juice
sudd y cylla / sudd cyllaol = gastric juices
sudd yr heli = stock expression for something worthless
sudd treulio / suddau traul = digestive juices
Cornish (Kernewek) sugen = juice, sap, essence
sugen aval = apple juice
sugen frooth = fruit juice
sugen kig = gravy
sugen owraval = orange juice
Breton (Brezhoneg) chug = juice
chug-frouezh = fruit juice
soubenn = soup
soubenneg, soubennouer = (soup) tureen
soubenn al laezh = quick-tempered (person)
soubenn al lard = bacon soup
soubenn an ognon = onion soup
soubenn ar c’haol = cabbage soup

Etymology: from the from Proto-Indo-European *sug-/*suk-. The Latin word sūcus (juice, sap, moisture, strength, vitality) comes from the same root, as do related words in Romance languages, such as suc (juice) in French, sugo (tomato juice, sauce) and succo (juice, gist, pith, essence) in Italian, and jugo (juice, substance) in Spanish [source].

The English word succulent (juicy, lush, luscious), comes from the same Latin root, via the French succulent (succulent, juicy), and the Latin sūculentus (sappy, succulent) from sūcus (juice) and‎ -ulentus (full of, abounding in) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Nuts

Words for nut and related words in Celtic languages.

Nuts!

Proto-Celtic *knūs / *knuwjā- = nut
Old Irish (Goídelc) cnú [knuː] = nut
cnú frangcach = walnut
Irish (Gaeilge) cnó = nut
cnó capaill = horse-chestnut
cnó cócó = coconut
cnó coill/gealach = hazelnut
cnó francach/gallda = walnut
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnò [krɔ̃ː] = nut; vesicle, gas bladder (on seaweed)
cnò-almoin = almond
cnò challtainn = hazelnut
cnò-chòco = coconut
cnò Fhrangach = walnut
cnò-gheanmnaidh = chestnut
cnò-thalmhainn = groundnut, peanut
Manx (Gaelg) cro = nut, gall
cro almon/Greagagh = almond
cro coull = hazelnut
cro bainney = coconut
cro teayst = doughnut
cro thallooin = peanut, groundnut, monkey nut
Proto-Brythonic *know = nut
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnau [knaɨ̯/knai̯] = nuts
cneuen = nut
cnau almond = almongs
cnau barfog = hazelnuts, chestnuts
cnau ceffylau = horse-chestnuts
cnau coco = coconuts
cnau Ffrengig = walnutes
Cornish (Kernewek) know [knoʊ] = nuts
knowen, knofen = nut
know dor = peanuts
know Frenk/Frynk = walnuts
know koko = coconuts
know koll = hazelnuts
know toos = doughnuts
Old Breton cnou = nut
Breton (Brezhoneg) kraoñ [kʁɔ̃] = nuts, walnuts
kraonenn = nut
kraoñ-kelvez = hazelnuts
kraoñ-kokoz = coconuts

Etymology: possibly from the Pre-Celtic *knuHs. Cognate with the Proto-Germanic *hnuts (nut) and the Latin nux (nut, nut tree, almond tree), which come from the from Proto-Indo-European *knew- [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Bread

Words for bread and related words in Celtic languages.

Soda Bread

Proto-Celtic *ar(-akno)- = bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread, loaf of bread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread
Irish (Gaeilge) arán [əˈɾˠɑːn̪ˠ / ˈaɾˠanˠ] = bread
arán baile = home-baked bread
arán bán = white bread, baker’s bread
arán coirce = oatbread, oatcake
arán donn, arán rua = brown bread
arán prátaí = potato cake
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aran [aɾan] = bread, loaf; livelihood, sustenance
aran-coircearan-donn, aran ruadharan-eòrnaaran milisaran-seagail
Manx (Gaelg) arran = bread
arran Albinagh = shortbread
arran bainney = bread roll
arran bane = white bread
arran dhone, arran ruy = brown bread
arran greddan(it) = toast
arran shoggyl = rye bread

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *arankā- (grain) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bargo / *baragenā / *barginā = cake, bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) barigen [ˈˈbarʲ.ɣʲən] = bread, loaf of bread
Irish (Gaeilge) bairín = loaf
bairín breac = barmbreac
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bairghin = bread, cake
Manx (Gaelg) berreen = cake
Welsh (Cymraeg) bara [ˈbara / ˈbaːra] = bread, loaf, slice; food, meal, sustenance, livelihood
bara barlys = barley bread
bara beunyddiol = daily bread
bara brith = currant bread
bara byr = buscuit
bara ceirch = oat bread, oatcake
bara coch = brown bread, barley bread
bara drwg = bad bread, bad state, difficulties
bara gwyn = white bread
bara lawr = laverbread (made with edible seaweed)
bara poeth = gingerbread, hot bread
Old Cornish bara = bread
Cornish (Kernewek) bara = bread
bara byghan/bian = roll
bara gwaneth = wheaten bread
bara leun = wholemeal bread
bara sugal = rye bread
Breton (Brezhoneg) bara [ˈbɑː.ra] = bread
bara bis = brown bread
bara brazed = wholemeal bread
bara brizh = currant bread
bara gwenn = white bread
bara kras = toast

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰars- (spike, prickle). Words from the same root include the English barley, the Scots bere/beir (barley), the Swedish barr (pine/fir needle), the Icelandic barr (pine needle), the Old Norse barr (corn, grain, barley), and the Latin far (spelt, coarse meal, grits), and words for flour in Romance languages, such as farine in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

You can find the origins of the English words bread and loaf on Radio Omniglot.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis