Heather

Today we’re looking at the words for heather and related things in Celtic languages.

Heather

Proto-Celtic *wroikos = heather
Gaulish *wroika = heather
Celtiberian *broikios = heather
Old Irish (Goídelc) froích, fróech = heather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fráech = heather
Irish (Gaeilge) fraoch [fˠɾˠeːx / fˠɾˠiːx / fˠɾˠiːx] = heather, heath, moor
fraochán = bilberry, whortleberry, ring-ouzel
fraochlach = heath
fraochmhá = heath
fraochmhar = heathery
fraoch bán = white heather
fraoch coitianta = Scotch heather, ling
píobaire fraoch = grasshopper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fraoch [frɯːx] = heather, ling
fraoch-geal = white common heather (Calluna vulgaris alba
fraoch-bheinn = heather-covered mountain
fraochan = whortleberry, blaeberry, lingonberry, cranberry
fraochach = heathy, heathery
Manx (Gaelg) freoagh = heather, ling, heath
freoagh bane = brier, white heather
freoagh marrey = sea fern
freoagh mooar = Scotch heather
Proto-Brythonic *gwrʉg [ˈɡwrʉːɡ] = heather
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gruc, gerug, gwrug = heather
Welsh (Cymraeg) grug [ɡrɨːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heather, ling heath
grug cyffredin = heather, ling, common heath, Calluna vulgaris
grugiar = (red) grouse, willow grouse, heath-hen
gruglus = heath-berries
gruglwyn = bush of heather, sweet broom
grugnythu = to nest or nestle in the heather
grugog = heath-covered, heathery, abounding in heather
Cornish (Kernwek) grug [ɡryːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heath, heather, ling
grugyar = partridge
Middle Breton groegan = heather
Breton (Brezhoneg) brug = heather

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology unknown, possibly from a non-Proto-Indo-European root [source]. It’s uncertain where the Breton word brug comes from, but it’s likey that it was borrowed from the Latin *brūcus (heather).

The Spanish word brezo (heath) comes from the Vulgar Latin *broccius, from the Proto-Celtic *wroikos, as does the Galician breixo (heather) [source].

Words from the Gaulish root *wroikos (heather), via the Latin *brūcus (heather), include brugo (heather) and brughiera (heath, moor) in Italian, bruc (heather) and bruguera (heath) in Catalan, and bruyère (heather, heath, brier) in French [source].

Eilean Fraoch (Heather Isle) is a nickname for the Isle of Lewis / Eilean Leòdhais in the Western Isles / Na h-Eileanan Siar. Here’s a song about it:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Herons

Words for heron in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *korxsā / *korxsiyos = heron
Celtiberian *cárcia = heron
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) corr = (grey) heron, stork, crane, leg-necked person
Irish (Gaeilge) corr [kəuɾˠ] = (grey) heron, stork, crane, leg-necked person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corra [kɔr̪ˠə] = heron, stork, crane
Manx (Gaelg) coar = heron, stork, crane
Proto-Brythonic *krɨxɨð = heron
Welsh (Cymraeg) crychydd [ˈkrəχɨ̞ð / ˈkrəχɪð] = heron
Old Cornish cherhit = heron
Cornish (Kernewek) kerghydh = heron
Old Breton corcid = heron
Breton (Brezhoneg) kerc’heiz = heron

Etymology: possibly immitative in origin. Words for heron in Spanish (garza) and Portuguese (garça) come from the Celtiberian root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *krexVr = heron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crehyr = heron
Welsh (Cymraeg) crëyr [ˈkrɛ.ɨ̞r / kreː.ɪr] = heron

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)ḱrey- (to scream, screech) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Heron

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Horses

Words for horse, stallion, mare and foal in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *kapallos = horse
Gaulish *caballos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) capall [ˈkapal͈] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) capall [ˈkapˠəl̪ˠ] = horse, mare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) capall [kahbəl̪ˠ] = mare, colt, horse, small horse
Manx (Gaelg) cabbyl = horse
Proto-Brythonic *kappilos = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keffyl, ceffyl = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceffyl [ˈkɛfɨ̞l / ˈkɛfɪl] = horse, nag, hobby
Middle Cornish cevil, kevil = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) kefel = horse

Etymology: uncertain – related to the Late Latin caballus (horse, nag), which is thought to come from the Gaulish caballos [source].

Proto-Celtic *markos = horse
Galatian *μάρκαν (márkan) = horse
Gaulish *markos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) marc [mark] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) marc [mˠaɾˠk] = horse (literary / archaic)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc [marxk] = charger (warhorse – literary)
Manx (Gaelg) mark-sleih = horseman
Proto-Brythonic *marx = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) march = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) march [marχ] = horse, stallion, war-horse, steed
Old Cornish march = horse
Middle Cornish march = horse
Cornish (Kernewek) margh [ˈmaɾx] = horse
Old Breton marh = horse
Middle Breton march = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’h [ˈmaʁχ] = horse, easel

Etymology: thought to be from the Proto-Indo-European *márkos, which is also the root of the English words mare and marshal, the French word maréchal (marshal), and related words in other languages [source].

Related words

Irish (Gaeilge) marcach = horseman, rider, jockey; cavalryman, Cavalier
marcachas = horsemanship
marchaigh = to ride
marcaíocht = riding, horsemanship, ride drive lift
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc-shluagh = horsemen, riders, cavalry
marchach = equestrian, mounted; riding
Welsh (Cymraeg) marchaidd = pertaining to a horse, horsy, horselike, equine
marchallu = horsepower
marchasyn = jackass, male donkey
marchdy = stable
marchfeddyg = horse doctor, farrier
marchfilwr = dragoon, cavalryman, cavalier, trooper
marchog = horseman, rider, jockey, mounted warrior, knight
Cornish (Kernewek) marghek = knight, rider
margh-leska = rocking horse
marghnerth = horsepower
marghogeth = to ride (a horse)
marghti = stable
horn margh = horseshoe
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’heg = knight
Proto-Celtic *ekʷos [ˈe.kʷos] = horse
Celtiberian ekua- = horse
Gaulish epos = horse
Primitive Irish *ᚓᚊᚐᚄ (*eqas) [exʷah] = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) ech [ex] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) each [ax] = horse (archaic)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) each [ɛx] = horse
Manx (Gaelg) agh [ax] = steed, riding horse
Proto-Brythonic *eb [ɛːb] = horse
Old Welsh eb = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ep, ebawl = colt, foal
Welsh (Cymraeg) ebol [ˈɛbɔl / ˈeːbɔl] = colt, foal, sucker
cyfeb = mare in foal
Middle Cornish ebol, ebel = foal, colt
Cornish (Kernewek) ebel = horse
Old Breton eb = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) ebeul [ˈe.bøl] = foal
keneb = mare in foal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁éḱwos, which is also the root of the Latin word for horse, equus, and the English word equine [source]. The horse goddess, Epona, may be related as well.

Proto-Celtic *uɸorēdos = horse
Gaulish *werēdos = horse
Proto-Brythonic *gworuɨð = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gorwydd = steed, horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) gorwydd = steed, horse

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (under) and *rēdo- (to ride; riding, chariot), from Proto-Indo-European *(H)reydʰ- (to ride) [source].

Proto-Celtic *(φ?)lārek- = mare
Old Irish (Goídelc) láir = mare
Irish (Gaeilge) láír [l̪ˠɑːɾʲ] = mare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làir [l̪ˠaːrʲ] = mare
Manx (Gaelg) laair = mare

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kankstikaā = mare
Welsh (Cymraeg) caseg [ˈkasɛg] = mare
Old Cornish cassec = mare
Cornish (Kernewek) kasek = mare
Breton (Brezhoneg) kazeg = mare

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱanḱest-/*kankest- (horse) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) serrach = colt, faol
Irish (Gaeilge) searrach = colt, faol
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searrach [ʃɛr̪ˠəx] = colt, faol, filly
Manx (Gaelg) sharragh = faol

Etymology: unknown [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

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Yew (trees)

Words for yew (tree) (Taxus baccata) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *eburos [d̪ˠaɾʲ] = yew (tree)
Celtiberian ebur- = yew (tree)
Gaulish eburo- = yew (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) ibar [d̪ˠaɾʲ] = yew (tree)
Irish (Gaeilge) iúr [uːɾˠ] = yew (tree)
iubhar [ˈju.əɾ] = yew (tree)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iubhar / iùbhar [ju.ər] = yew (tree), bow
Manx (Gaelg) euar = yew (tree)
Proto-Brythonic *eβor = yew (tree)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) efwr, ewr, ewur, evwr = hogweed, cow parsnip
Welsh (Cymraeg) efwr [ˈɛvʊr / ˈeːvʊr] = cow parsnip, hogweed
Cornish (Kernewek) evor = hogweed
Old Breton heuor / euor = yew
Breton (Brezhoneg) evor = alder buckthorn

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ebʰros (yew) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Words for yew (tree) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *iwos = yew (tree)
Gaulish *iwos = yew (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) [eːo̯] = stem, shaft, yew, tree
Irish (Gaeilge) eo [oː/ɔː] = yew tree (literary)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iodh [jɤɣ] = yew tree
Proto-Brythonic *ɨwī / *ɨwɨnā = yew (tree)
Welsh (Cymraeg) yw [ɨ̞u̯ / ɪu̯] = yew (tree), yew-wood
Old Cornish hiuin = yew (tree)
Cornish (Kernewek) ewin = yew (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) iwin / ivin = yew (tree)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyHweh₂ (yew) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Ancient Yew

King

Words for king in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *rīxs = king
Celtiberian reikis = king
Gaulish rix = king
Primitive Irish ᚏᚔᚌᚐᚄ (rigas) = king
Old Irish (Goídelc) [r͈ʲiː] = king
Irish (Gaeilge) [ɾˠiː] = king, sovereign, monarch
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rìgh [rʲiː] = king, Lord (God)
Manx (Gaelg) ree = king
Proto-Brythonic *riɣ [ˈriːɣ] = king
Old Welsh ri = king
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ri = king
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhi [r̥iː] = king, prince, lord, ruler, chieftain
Middle Cornish ruy = king, sovereign ruler
Old Breton ri = king

Brian Boru, High King of Ireland (1002-1014)
Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵs (king, ruler) [source], which is also the root of the German word Reich (empire, realm), and the English suffix -ric, as in bishopric (a diocese or region of a church which a bishop governs) [source].

The Gaulish word rix appears in names such as Vercingetorix, Dumnorix and Asterix.

Proto-Celtic *brigantīnos = (someone) pre-eminent, outstanding
Proto-Brythonic *brɨɣėntin [brɨɣe̝nˈtiːn] = lord, king
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) breenhin = king
Welsh (Cymraeg) brenin [ˈbrɛnɪn / ˈbreːnɪn] = king, sovereign, monarch, head of region
Middle Cornish brentyn / bryntyn = king
Old Breton brientin / brientinion = king

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (to rise; high, lofty; hill, mountain) [source],.

Welsh (Cymraeg) mechdeyrn, mychdeyrn, machdeyrn = king, lord, monarch, emperor, God, tributary prince, viceroy
Cornish (Kernewek) metern [mə’tɛrn] / myghtern [mɪx’tɛrn] = king
Old Breton machtiern = king

Etymology
From the Welsh mach (surety, guarantor, sponsor, hostage) and teyrn (sovereign, monarch, king) [source],.

Source: Gerlyver Kernewek, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru

Middle Breton roe = king
Breton (Brezhoneg) roue = king

Etymology
From the French roi (king), which comes, via Latin, from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃rḗǵs (king, ruler) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Man / Husband

Words for man / husband in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *wiros = man, husband
Celtiberian *uiros = man, husband
Gaulish *wiros = man, husband
Primitive Irish *ᚃᚔᚏᚐᚄ (*viras) [u̯irah] = man
Old Irish (Goídelc) fer [fʲer] = man, husband
Irish (Gaeilge) fear [fʲaɾˠ] = man, husband
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fear [fɛr] = man, husband, male
Manx (Gaelg) fer [fɛr] = male, man, gentleman, individual, fellow, bloke, chap
Proto-Brythonic *gwur [ˈˠwur] = man, husband
Old Welsh gur = man, husband
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gur = man, husband
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵr [ɡuːr] = man, person, anyone, valiant warrior, brave man, hero; vassal; married man, husband; chessman, pawn
Old Cornish uir = husband
Cornish (Kernewek) gour [ɡu:r] = husband
Middle Breton gur = man, husband
Breton (Brezhoneg) gour [ˈɡuːʁ] = man, person, husband (rare)

Selfie / Hunlun

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *wiHrós (man, husband, warrior, hero) [source], which is also the root of the English words virile and werewolf.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

To Stand

Words for to stand in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *sista- = to stand
Celtiberian sistat = to stand
Old Irish (Gaídelc) sessam = standing (by/fast), defending, standing resisting, holding out, making a stand
Irish (Gaeilge) seas [ʃasˠ] = to stand, stop, stay, last, keep, remain valid, bear, endure, resist, withstand, stand up for, defend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seas [ʃes] = to stand, maintain, support, defend, continue, endure, stop, stand by
Manx (Gaelg) shass [ʃas] = to stand
Proto-Brythonic *stab- = to stand
Welsh (Cymraeg) sefyll [ˈsɛvɨ̞ɬ / ˈseːvɪɬ] = to stand, be standing or upright, be or remain on one’s feet; stand (up), get up; stand or tread (on); to be located, lie; to come to a halt, stand still, stop, come to end, cease, fail
Cornish (Kernewek) sevel [‘sɛvɛl / ‘zɛvɐl] = to stand, arise, get up, rise, halt, raise up, abstain from
Breton (Brezhoneg) sevel = to rise, lift, remove, draw, build, train, compose, sell, invent, push, repay

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Note: the Brythonic words may not come from the same root as the Goidelic words.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *stísteh₂ti (to be standing up, be getting up), from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The sist part of exist, resist, desist, consist, etc comes from the same root, via the Latin sisto (I stand, set, place, appear) [source]

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Silver & Money

Words for silver and money in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *argantom = silver
Gaulish arangto- / *argantom = silver
Celtiberian arkanta / arkato- = silver
Old Irish (Goídelc) argat [ˈarɡad] = silver, money
Irish (Gaeilge) airgead [ˈaɾʲɪɟəd̪ˠ / ˈæɾʲɪɟəd̪ˠ] = silver, money, sum of money
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) airgead [ɛrʲɛgʲəd] = money, silver, cash, currency
Manx (Gaelg) argid = money, silver, coinage, wages, finance, exchequer
Proto-Brythonic *arɣant [arˈɣant] = silver, money
Old Welsh argant = silver
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ariant = silver
Welsh (Cymraeg) arian [ˈarjan] = silver, silvery; silver vessel; money, coin(s), coinage, currency, wealth
Cornish (Kernewek) arghans [‘arhans / ‘ærhɐnz] = silver, money
Old Breton argant = silver
Middle Breton archant = silver
Breton (Brezhoneg) arc’hant = silver, money

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *h₂erǵn̥tom (silver), from *h₂erǵ- (white) [source]

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Celtic Star pendant

Gods, Deities & Days

Words for gods, deities & days in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *dēwos = god, deity, day
*dēwā = goddess
Gaulish deuognata, teuoxtonio-, dēuos, dēwos, dēvona = god
Celtiberian teiuoreikis, deobriga = god
Galician deva = goddess (in river names)
Old Irish (Goídelc) día [dʲiːa̯] = god
Irish (Gaeilge) dia [dʲiə] = god, deity (plural: déithe)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dia [dʲiə] = god (plural: diathan)
Manx (Gaelg) jee = god, deity, godhead (plural: jeeaghyn)
Proto-Brythonic *duɨw [ˈduɨ̯w] = god
Old Welsh duiu = god
Welsh (Cymraeg) duw [dɨu̯ / dɪu̯] = god, the Supreme Being, the Almighty, the Christian Trinity; O God! (plural: duwiau)
Old Cornish duy = god
Cornish (Kernewek) duw [dyˑʊ / diˑʊ] = god (plural: duwow)
Old Breton doi = god
Middle Breton doe = god
Breton (Brezhoneg) doue = god

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *deywós (god), from *dyew- (sky, heaven) [source]. The Latin name for the city of Chester, Deva, possibly comes from the same Celtic root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau