Sailing

Words for sail and related things in Celtic languages.

sailing ship

Proto-Celtic *siglom = sail, course, run
Old Irish (Goídelc) séol [sʲeːu̯l] = sail
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) séol = sail
séolaid = to sail
Irish (Gaeilge) seol [ʃoːl̪ˠ/ʃɔːlˠ] = sail; covering, canopy; drift, tend, course, direction, flow, motion
seoladh = to sail, sailing; course, direction, guidance, dispatch
seoladóir = shipper
seoladóireacht = shipping
seolchrann = mast
seoltóir = sailor, sender, remitter, drover, (electrical) conductor
seoltóireacht = sailing
long seol = sailing ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seòl [ʃɔːl̪ˠ] = sail; navigate, direct, guide, govern, regulate
seòlaid = shipping route, passage, sway(ing), nervous movement
seòl-mara = tide
seòladair = sailor
seòladaireach = nautical
Manx (Gaelg) shiauill = sail, navigate,
shiauilley = to sail, navigate, sailing
shiauilteyr = ferryman, sailor, seafarer, seaman
shiaulteyragh = nautical
Proto-Brythonic *hɨɣl = sail, course, run
Old Welsh huil = sail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwyl, hvyl, huyl = sail
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwyl [huːɨ̯l/hʊi̯l] = sail, sheet, covering, pall; journey, progress, revolution, orbit, course, route, career, rush, assault; hilarity, jollity, mirth, amusement, fun, humour
hwylbawl, hwylbolyn = boom, bowspirt
hwylbren = mast, flagstaff
hwyldroaf, hwyldroi = to tack, change course, veer
hwylfa = way, narrow road or street, lane, path, alley, voyage
hwylfwrdd = sailboard, windsurfer
hwylfyrddio = to sailboard, windsurf
hwylio = to sail, embark, set out on a voyage or journey, navigate
hwyliwr = navigator, mariner, sailor, leader, organizer
Old Cornish guio = sail
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) gol, goyl, guil = sail (of a ship)
gwelan gôl = sail yard
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = sail
golya = to sail
skath-wolya = sailing boat
gorhel golyow = sailing ship
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = sail
gouelier = to sail
gouelierezh = sailmaker

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly from the Old English seġ(e)l (sail), from the Proto-Germanic *segl (sail), from *seglą (sheet, sail), the origins of which are uncertain. Possibly cognate with the Latin sagum (coarse woolen coat), from the Gaulish *sagos (wool cloak). Related words include sail in English, zeil (sail, tarpaulin) in Dutch, Segel (sail) in German, and sejl (sail) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s Leis an Lurgainn, a song in Scottish Gaelic about sailing:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Trembing

Words for trembling, fever and related words in Celtic languages. I chose these words because I have a bit of a fever at the moment.

Thermometer

Proto-Celtic *kritos = fever, trembling, shaking
Old Irish (Goídelc) crith [ˈkʲr͈ʲiθ] = shaking, trembling
crithnaigid = to shake, tremble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crith = shaking, trembling, a shake, tremble
crothaid = shakes, causes to tremble, brandishes
Irish (Gaeilge) crith [crʲɪ(h) / crʲɪç] = tremble, shiver, tremor, shudder, vibration, quiver; to tremble, shake
critheagla = quaking fear, terror, timorousness
crithloinnir = shimmer
crithlonraigh = to shimmer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crith [krʲih] = quake, shudder, shock, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate; quaking, shuddering, shocking, shaking, trembling, shivering
critheanaich = trembling
crith-cheòl = warbling, quavering, trills (in music)
crith-thalmhainn = earthquake
Manx (Gaelg) crie = to shake
craa = to shake
Old Welsh crit = shivering, trembling, fever
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crid, cryt, kryt = shivering, trembling, fever
Welsh (Cymraeg) cryd [krɨːd / kriːd] = shivering, trembling, dread, fear, ague, fever, disease
crydu, crydio = to shake, tremble, quake
echryd = dread, terror, fright, fear, trembling, shivering, tremor; fearful, dreadful, frightful
ysgryd = shiver, trembling, shudder, fright, horror, agony
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crenne = to tremble, quake
Cornish (Kernewek) kren = shake
krena, kerna = to shake, shiver, tremble
krenans = vibration
Krener, Krenores = Quaker
dorgrys = earthquake
Old Breton crit = shivering, trembling
Middle Breton kren, creen, crein = trembling
Breton (Brezhoneg) kren = tremblement
kren-douar = earthquake
krendourarel = seismic

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krit-, from *(s)kreyt-, from *(s)ker- (twist, turn, bend) [source].

The English word scree (loose stony debris on a slope), comes from the same PIE root, via the Old Norse skriða (landscape, landslip) and the Proto-Germanic *skrīþaną (to crawl, glide, walk) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lamentation

Words for lament and related words in Celtic languages.

Words of lament in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *kiyeti = to fall, cry
Old Irish (Goídelc) caí = weeping, lamentation
ciïd [ˈkʲi.ɨðʲ] = to cry, weep
coínid = to lament, mourn, keen, regret, deplore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) caí = weeping, wailing, lamentation
ciïd = to cry, weep, lament, mourn
caínid = lament
Irish (Gaeilge) caí [ˈd̪ˠɪnʲə] = lament, lamentation
caoin [kiːnʲ] = to keen, lament, cry, weep
caígh = to weep, lament
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoidh [kɤj] = lamenting, bewailing, lamentation, mourning, grieving
caoin [kɯːn̪ʲ] = to weep for, mourn, cry, lament, wail
Manx (Gaelg) coe = weep, mourn, weeping, woe
keayney = to cry, wail, weep, mourn, lament; mourning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cwyn, cŵyn, kwyn = complaint
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn [kuːɨ̯n / kʊi̯n] = complaint, plaint, grievance, lament, grief
cwyno [ˈkʊɨ̯nɔ / ˈkʊi̯nɔ] = to complain, lament, bemoan, mourn, pity
cwynawdr = complainant
cwynddig = lamenting angrily
cwynfa = lamentation
cwynfanwr = whiner
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cyny, kyny = to mourn, lament, weep
Cornish (Kernewek) kynvan = lament, lamentation, moan, mourning
kyni = to mourn, lament, wail, moan
Breton (Brezhoneg) keuziañ = to regret, miss, be sorry, deplore. lament

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱey- (to fall) [source], or *gʷey- (to lament, complain) [source].

The English word keen (to mourn, utter with a loud wailing voice or wordless cry) was borrowed from the Irish caoin [source].

The Icelandic word kveina (to wail, cry, lament) comes from the same PIE root (*gʷey-), via the Old Norse kvein(k)a (to whine, wail), and the Proto-Germanic *kwainōną (to lament) [source], as does the Scots word quink (a type of goose) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rawness

Today we’re looking at the words for raw and related things in Celtic languages.

Raw

Proto-Celtic *omos = raw
Old Irish (Goídelc) om [oṽ] = raw, uncooked
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) om = raw, uncooked; crude, undigested, immature; rude, unrefined, barbarous
Irish (Gaeilge) amh [ˈavˠ / ˈaw] = raw, uncooked
amhábhar = raw material, staple
aimhe = rawness, crudeness
amhainse = sharpness, astuteness
amhainseach = sharp, astute
amhchaoin = rough, uncouth
amhola = crude oil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amh [af] = raw, uncooked; extra rare, blue (meat); uncouth, crude
amhachd [avəxg] = rawness
Manx (Gaelg) aw = crude, raw, uncooked, undressed
awid = crudeness, rawness, rareness
awaneagh = moron, oaf; oafish, raw, rude, uncivilsed, vain
feill aw = raw meat
ooill aw = crude oil
Proto-Brythonic *oβ̃ = raw
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) of = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) of [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = crude, untreated, uncooked, raw, bitter, sharp, nauseating, sickly
ofaf, ofi = to decompose, crumble, analyse

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour), probably from *h₂eh₃- (to be hot, burn) [source].

Words for copper and bronze in Celtic languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the word *omiyom [source].

The Greek word ὠμός [oˈmos] (raw, uncooked, crude, brutal) comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cri = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) cri [kriː] = raw, fresh, new, crude, coarse, unfulled (cloth), unleavened
bara cri = unleavened bread
defnyddiau cri = raw materials
teisen gri = griddle cake, Welsh cake
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) criv = rude, raw, green, newly made, unripe
Cornish (Kernewek) kriv = crude, fresh, raw, uncooked, unripe
krivder = rawness
gossen griv = raw umber
Middle Breton criz, cry = raw, crude, cruel, rough
Breton (Brezhoneg) kriz = raw, crude, cruel, rough
gopr kriz = gross salary
hollad kriz = gross total
obar kriz = act of barbarism

Etymology: possibly from the Latin crūdus (raw, bloody), from the Proto-Italic *krūros (bloody), from the Proto-Indo-European *kruh₂rós (bloody), from *krewh₂- (raw meat, fresh blood). The English words crude and cruel come from the same Latin root, and raw comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrwt = raw, uncooked
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrwd [ˈamrʊd] = raw, uncooked, unprocessed, undigested, crude, untreated, unrefined, rough, approximate

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *an (un-) and *brutus (boiling heat), from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to boil, brew) [source].

Other words from the Proto-Celtic root *brutus include brwd (eager, keen, passionate, zealous) and brwdfrydedd (enthusiasm) in Welsh, and bruth (heat, rash, eruption, nap, pile, surf) in Irish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rotten Fragrance

Today we’re looking at the words for rotten and related things in Celtic languages.

Rotten wood

Proto-Celtic *bragnos = rotten
Gaulish brennos = rotten
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) brén [bʲrʲeːn] = foul, putrid, rotten, stinking
Irish (Gaeilge) bréan [bʲɾʲiːa̯nˠ / bʲɾʲeːnˠ] = foul, putrid, rotten; to pollute, putrefy
bréanlach = filthy place, cesspool
bréanóg = refuse heap
bréantachán = stinker
bréantas = rottenness, stench, filth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breun [brʲeːn] = foetid, putrid, disgusting, filthy, nasty, stinking
breunlach = sinking bog
breunachd = corruption, rottenness
breunan = dunghill, dirty person, dirty/smelly object, crabbit/grumpy person, grouch
breunad = degree of foetidness/putridness, degree of disgustingness/filthiness/nastiness, degree of stink
breuntas = stench, stink, putrefaction, putridness
Manx (Gaelg) breinn = foetid, loathsome, malodorous, nasty, offensive, pestilential, putrid, rancid, rotten, smelly, stinking
breinnaghey = to become smelly, putrefy, taint, stink
Proto-Brythonic *braɨn = foul, stinking putrid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brean = rotten
Welsh (Cymraeg) braen [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = rotten, putrid, corrupt, mouldy, withered, fragile; rot, putrefaction, corruption, decay
braen(i)ad = rotting, decomposition, rottenness, putridness
braenu = to rot, putrefy, make/become corrupt, become mouldy
braenedig = rotten, putrefied, corrupt, festering, gangrenous, mouldy, wounded
Cornish (Kernewek) breyn = putrid, rotten
breyna = to decay, rot
breynans = decay
breynder = rot
Middle Breton brein = rotten
Breton (Brezhoneg) brein = rotten
breinadur = corruption
breinañ = to rot, decay
breinidigezh = putrefaction

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreHg- (to smell, have a strong odour) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include flair, fragrant, and bray in English, and брезгать (to be fastidious/squeamish, to disdain) in Russian [source].

The Gaulish word brennos was borrowed into Vulgar Latin and ended up as brener (to trick, fool, hoodwink) in French, via the Old French bren (bran, filth, excrement). The English word bran comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Middle English bran(ne) / bren and the Old French bren [source].

The Galician word braña (mire, bog, marsh, moorland) is thought to come from the Proto-Celtic *bragnos, possibly via Celtiberian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sieving Riddles

Today we’re looking at the words for sieve and related things in Celtic languages.

Woman hands sieving flour

Proto-Celtic *krētros = sieve
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve, riddle
críatharach = marsh, morass, boggy wasteland
críathrad = act of winnowing, sifting, riddling
críathraid = sifts, riddles, spreads
Irish (Gaeilge) criathar [ˈcɾʲiəhəɾˠ / ˈcɾʲiːhəɾˠ] = sieve, riddle
criathach = pitted, perforated, swampy
criathrú = winnowing, sifting, honeycombing
criathradóir = winnower, sifter, maker of sieves
criathraigh = to sieve, winnow, riddle, sift, honeycomb
criathróir = animal surefooted on boggy ground
criathar meala = honeycomb
criathar mín = fine sieve
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criathar [krʲiə.ər] = riddle, sieve
criathar-tomhais = bushel (measure and implement)
criathar-garbh = riddle (implement)
criatharair [krʲiəhərɛrʲ] = sieve-maker
criathradh [krʲiarəɣ] = (act of) filtering
Manx (Gaelg) creear = sieve, riddle
creearey = sieve, pan, sift, riddle
creear meein = fine sieve
creear garroo = rough sieve
jannoo creear = to honeycomb
Proto-Brythonic *kruɨdr = wandering, sieve
Old Welsh cruitr = winnowing shovel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cruidir, crwydr = sieve
Welsh (Cymraeg) crwydr [ˈkrʰʊɨ̯dr̩ / ˈkrʰʊi̯dr̩] = a wandering, a roaming; misfortune, trouble, confusion, rout, dispersion; a straying, aberration, error; winnowing-fan, winnowing-shovel, sieve
crwydro = to wander, roam, stroll, gad about, stray, go astray, deviate, digress
crwydredig = wandering, vagrant, roving, stray
crwydro = barn, granary, farm building
crwydrwr = wanderer, vagrant, vagabond, rover, nomad
Old Cornish croider = sieve, riddle
Middle Cornish croider, crodar = sieve, riddle
Cornish (Kernewek) kroder = coarse sieve, strainer, riddle
kroder kroghen = bodhrán, hold-all
Old Breton croitir = sieve, riddle
Middle Breton croezr = sieve, riddle
Breton (Brezhoneg) krouer = sieve, riddle, screen
krouerañ = to sift, riddle, sieve
krouer liammoù = link generator
rakkroueriañ = pre-screening

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krey-trom (sieve) from *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include crime, crisis, riddle and secret in English, ceart (right, correct, true) in Irish, and crynu (to tremble, shake) and ergryn (horror, dread) in Welsh [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ferns and Bracken

Today we’re looking at the words for fern, bracken and related things in Celtic languages.

Maidenhair Spleenwort

Proto-Celtic *ɸratis, *frati- = fern, bracken
Gaulish ratis = fern, bracken
Old Irish (Goídelc) raithnech [ˈr͈aθʲnʲex] = fern, bracken
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) raith = fern, bracken
Irish (Gaeilge) raithneach = fern, bracken
raithneachán = ferny place
raithneachúil = ferny
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raineach [r̪ˠan̪ʲəx] = fern, bracken; hashish, weed
raith [r̪ˠɛ] = fern, bracken
raineachail = abounding in fern, ferny, like fern
Manx (Gaelg) renniagh = fern, bracken
renniaghoil = ferny
Proto-Brythonic *rrėdɨn = ferns, bracken
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rhedyn = ferns, bracken
retinoc, redinauc, rhydynog = ferny
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhedyn [ˈr̥ɛdɨ̞n / ˈr̥eːdɪn] = ferns, bracken
rhedynen = fern
rhedyn eryraidd = bracken
rhedyna = to gather ferms
rhedynaidd = ferny
rhedyneg = ferny ground
rhedynog = ferny (land), abounding with ferns, fern-like, made of fern
Old Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen, redanen = fern
Cornish (Kernewek) reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Breton reden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern
Breton (Brezhoneg) raden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *p(t)erH- (fern) [source].

The English word fern comes from the same PIE root, via the Old English fearn and the Proto-West-Germanic *farn [source].

Other words from the same PIE root include paparde (fern) in Latvian, paproć (fern) in Polish, and папрат (fern) in Bulgarian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Waterfalls

Today we’re looking at the words for waterfall and related things in Celtic languages.

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Proto-Celtic *riyatros = waterfall
Old Irish (Goídelc) ríathor = torrent
Irish (Gaeilge) riathar = torrent (literary)
Old Welsh réátir = torrent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) raeadyr, raiader, rhaiadr = cataract, waterfall
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhaeadr [ˈr̥ʰeɨ̯.adr̩ / ˈr̥ʰei̯.adr̩] = waterfall, cataract, cascade, torrent
rhaeadru = to fall or pour in a cascade or waterfall, fall steeply, gush, flow, stream
rhaeadraidd = like a waterfall
rhaeadriad = the act of falling or flowing like a waterfall

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃reiH- (to flow) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ess = rapids, waterfall
Irish (Gaeilge) eas = waterfall, cascade, cataract; swift current, rapid
easach = having, abounding in waterfalls, cascading
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eas [es] = waterfall, cataract, cascade
easach [esəx] = abounding in waterfalls
easachan [esəxan] = small waterfall
easan [esan] = small waterfall; thin gruel
easgraich [esgrɪç] = torrent
easraich [esrɪç] = plunge pool, waterfall lake; bustle, commotion
eas muilinn = mill-race
con-eas = multiple waterfalls
poll-easa = plunge pool
Manx (Gaelg) eas = cascade, cataract, chute, shoot, waterfall
easan = small waterfall, small cataract
mwyllin roie’n eas = water mill

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ysgwt, ysgwd, ysgŵd = waterfall, cataract, cascade
Welsh (Cymraeg) sgwd [skuːd] = waterfall, cataract, cascade, chute, millstream, mill-race, sluice, floodgate (South Wales)

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pistill = waterfall, cataract, cascade
Welsh (Cymraeg) pistyll = waterfall, cataract, cascade, chute, millstream, mill-race, sluice, floodgate (South Wales)
pistyll yr ysgyfaint = trachea
Cornish (Kernewek) pistyl = little waterfall
pistylla = to spout

Etymology: possibly from the Latin pistillum (pestle), which is also the root of the English word pestle [source].

Cornish (Kernewek) dowrlam = waterfall
Breton (Brezhoneg) lamm-dour = waterfall

Etymology: from dowr / dour (water) and lam / lamm (leap).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Emptiness

Today we’re looking at the words for empty, soft and related things in Celtic languages.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *wāstos = empty
Old Irish (Goídelc) fás = empty, vacant, deserted
fásaogod to empty, despoil
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fás = empty, vain, futile, vacant
Irish (Gaeilge) fás [fˠɑːsˠ / fˠaːsˠ] = waste, vacant, empty, void; wild, luxuriant
fásach = waste, desert; uncultivated, uninhabited region; empty, deserted place
fásaigh = to lay waste, leave uncultivated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fàs [faːs] = empty; barren, waste, uncultivated, fallow, desolate
fàsach = desert, wilderness, empty place
fàsaich = to depopulate, lay waste to a place, desolate
fàslach = hollow, void, cavity
fàslail = desolate, lonely, solitary
Manx (Gaelg) faase = feeble, weak; desolate, void, barren, infirm
faasagh = desert, desolate, waste place, wilderness
faaselagh = weakest part, poor part of lawn
faasoil = desert

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (to leave, abandon) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) folam = empty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) folam, falam = empty, uninhabited, shallow, barren, destitute, vain, worthless
folma = emptiness
Irish (Gaeilge) folamh [ˈfˠɔl̪ˠəvˠ / ˈfˠaːl̪ˠə / ˈfˠɔlˠuː] = empty
folmhaigh = to empty, discharge, exhaust; purge, evacuate
folmhach empty, vacant, sapce, gap (between teeth)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) falamh [fal̪ˠəv] = empty, hollow, void
falamhachd = emptiness, voidness, vacancy, vacuum, void
falamhaich = to empty, void, evacuate
falamhaichte = emptied
Manx (Gaelg) follym = void, flat, shallow, barren, vacuous, waste, blank, empty, hollow, blank
folmaghey = to empty, void, hollow, vacate, deflate

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish lomm (bare, naked, smooth) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cúacca = empty
Proto-Brythonic *gwag = empty, vacant
Old Welsh guac = empty, desolate, vacant
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwac, gwag = empty, desolate, vacant
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwag [ɡwaːɡ] = empty, desolate, vacant, void, barren; meaningless, senseless, unsubstantial, frivolous, null and void, invalid
gwagedd = vanity, vainglory, conceit, empitness, unreality
gwagio = to empty, make empty, become empty
gwagle = empty place or space, vacuum, void, gap, chasm, space
Middle Cornish gwag = hungry, vain, void, vacant, at leisure; void, vacuum, hunger
Cornish (Kernewek) gwag = blank, empty, hollow, hungry, unfurnished, unoccupied, vacant
gwaga = to break into a cavity
gwagen = blank
gwagla = vacancy
gwagva = vacuum
gwakhe = to empty, vacate
Middle Breton goac = soft, tender
goacat = to soften
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwak = soft, tender
gwakaat = to soften
gwakadur = softening

Etymology: from the Vulgar Latin *vacus, from the Latin *vacuus (empty), from vacō (I am empty, void), from the Proto-Italic *wakos (empty), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂- (to lack, empty) [source].

A Breton word for empty is goullo or gollo, the origins of which are not known.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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