Glens and Valleys

Here are some words for valley, glen and related things that are found in some or all of the Celtic languages, and related words in other languages.

Strath Croe
Strath Croe

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *stratos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) srath = grassland, swarth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) srath, sreth, sraith = grass, sward, valley, bottom, meadow or grassy place near a river, fine, tax
Irish (Gaeilge) srath [sˠɾˠa(h)] = river valley, low-lying land along a river
srathach = bottom, low-lying, marshy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) srath [sdrah] = strath, wide valley, vale
srathach = pertaining to or abounding in straths / wide valleys
Manx (Gaelg) strah = level valley, plain, strath, flatness
Proto-Brythonic *strad = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystrad, istrad, ystrat = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystrad [ˈəsdrad] = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Old Cornish stræt = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Middle Cornish (Cernewec strat = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Cornish (Kernewek) stras = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Old Breton (Brethonoc) strat = bottom, low ground
Middle Breton (Brezonec) strat = bottom, low ground
Breton (Brezhoneg) stad [strɑːt] = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *str̥h₃tós (stretched, spread), from *sterh₃- (to spread, extend, stretch out [Source]. Words from the same roots include sternum, strategy, stratus, stray, street (a type of cloud) and stratosphere in English, estrato (layer, stratum, stratus [cloud]) in Spanish, and sarnu (to trample, tread, ruin) in Welsh [Source].

Cwm Idwal
Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *kumbā = valley
Transalpine Gaulish *cumba = valley
Gaulish *kumba = valley
Irish (Gaeilge) com [kʌmˠ] = coomb, cirque, mountain recess
Proto-Brythonic *komm = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cum, cwm(m), kwm = a deep narrow valley, dale, dingle
kwm(m)an = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
kwmarch, cwmaearch = ravine, dingle, little valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwm [ˈəsdrad] = a deep narrow valley, coom, glen, dale; hollow, bowl-shaped depression
cwmach = a stoop
cwman = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
cwmanu = to stoop, hunch
cwmanllyd, cwmanog = hunchbacked, crooked, bent
cwmarch = ravine, dingle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec cum = a valley opening downwards, from a narrow point, a dingle
Cornish (Kernewek) komm = cirque, corrie, cwm
Middle Breton (Brezonec) comm = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
Breton (Brezhoneg) komm [ˈkɔ̃mː] = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
komman, kommañ = to form hollows
kommek = forming hollows

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kumbʰos / *kumbʰéh₂, either from PIE *kew- (bend) or a from non-Indo-European substrate [Source].

Words from the same roots include cwm, combe (a valley or hollow, often wooded and with no river; a cirque) in English, combe (combe) in French, and coma (combe, cwm, cirque; an alpine meadow situated between two peaks) in Catalan [Source].

A dingle is a small, narrow or enclosed, usually wooded valley [Source].

Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain
Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain

Proto-Celtic *glendos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) glenn [ɡʲlʲen͈] = valley
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glenn = valley, hollow, depression
glennach = having vales or hollows, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) gleann [ɟlʲɑun̪ˠ(h) / ɟlʲɑːn̪ˠ / ɟlʲan̪ˠ] = glen, hollow
gleann = abounding in glens, hollow-backed, wavy (hair)
gleanntán = small glen, dell, dale
gleanntóir = glensman, dalesman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gleann [glaun̪ˠ] = glen, valley
gleannach [glan̪ˠəx] = having or related to glens, steep sided
gleannan [glan̪ˠan] = small glen / valley
gleann crochte = hanging valley
gleann sgoraidh = rift valley
Manx (Gaelg) glion(e) [ɡlʲɔᵈn] = valley, glen, vale, creek
Proto-Brythonic *glɨnn [ɡlɨnː] = glen, dale, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glynn, glyn = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) glyn [ɡlɨ̞n / ɡlɪn] = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley, gloom, distressing experience
Middle Cornish (Cernewec glen, glyn = valley (through which a river flows), a woody valley, dale
Cornish (Kernewek) glynn, glydn = deep wooded valley, glen
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glenn, glen = earth, country
Breton (Brezhoneg) glen = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *glendos (shore). Words from the same root include klit (dune) in Danish, klettur (rock, crag, cliff) in Icelandic, and cleit (rocky outcrop, cliff, reef) in Scottish Gaelic [Source].

The Irish word ailt refers to a steep-sided glen, ravine, height or cliff. There are cognate words in other Celtic languages, such as allt (hill, slope, cliff) in Welsh [More details].

Nant Gwrtheyrn
Nant Gwrtheyrn

Proto-Celtic *nantos / nantus = stream, valley
Gaulish nanto, nantu = valley
Proto-Brythonic *nant [nant] = stream, river, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nant = river, stream, brook
Welsh (Cymraeg) nant [nant] = river, stream, brook, rivulet; torrent, ditch, valley, glen, dale; ravine, gorge
nentig, nennig = small stream
Middle Cornish (Cernewec nans = valley, dale, ravine
Cornish (Kernewek) nans [nans / nænz] = dale, vale, valley
krognans = hanging valley
Old Breton (Brethonoc) nant = valley with watercourses
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nant, ant = valley with watercourses
Breton (Brezhoneg) nant [nãnt] = valley with watercourses (found in place names – archaic)

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *nemetom (sacred place, sanctuary), from the Proto-Indo-European *nem- (to give, take, distribute) [source].

The Francoprovençal word nant (stream) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots [source], as does the French place name Nanterre [source], the Irish word neimheadh (sanctuary, privilege of rank, holy thing), and the Breton word neved / neñved (sanctuary) [source].

More details of words for Streams and Currents in Celtic languages.

Old Welsh (Kembraec) t(o)nou = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tnou, tonou, tyno, tino = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Welsh (Cymraeg) tyno = valley, vale, hollow, dale, plain, green
Cornish (Kernewek) tnow = dale, valley-bottom
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tenou, tnou = bottom, lower part, valley
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tnou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley
trauyen = valley
Breton (Brezhoneg) traoñ, traou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley (found in place names)
traoñienn [ˈtrãw.jɛn] = valley

Etymology: unknown [Source].

Another Welsh word for valley is dyffryn [ˈdəfrɨ̞n / ˈdəfrɪn], which comes from dwfr (water) and hynt (course, way). There are no cognates in other Celtic languages, as far as I can discover [Source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Meaty Flesh

Today we’re looking at the words for meat, flesh, breast and related things in Celtic languages.

MEAT

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kīkos = breast
Primitive Irish ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐ (ccica-) = breast
ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐᚋᚔᚅᚔ (ccicamini) = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) cích [kʲiːx] = breast
Cíchmuine [ˈkʲiːxmunʲe] = male given name
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cích [kʲiːx] = pap, breast, nipple, teat
cíchech, cīgech [ˈkʲiːxʲəx] = big-chested
Cichmuine, Cichmhuine, Cíchmaine = male given name
Irish (Gaeilge) cíoch [ciəx] = breast, pap, papilla, protuberance
cíochach = mammary
cíochbheart = bra(ssiere)
cíoch-chruthach = mammiform
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cìoch [kʲiəx] = breast, pap
cìochach [kʲiəxəx] = mammary, pertainning to breasts, ample-bosomed
cìochag
cìoch [kʲiəxag] = valve, small breast
cìocharan [kʲiəxan] = suckling infant
Manx (Gaelg) keeagh [kiːx] = breast, bud, nipple, pap, teat
keeaghagh = mammary
Proto-Brythonic *kig = meat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cic, kic = meat
cigva meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cicbran, cicuran, kigvrain, kicfran = raven
kicawc, kigawc = meaty, fleshy
kiccyd, kygyd, kigydd = butcher
Welsh (Cymraeg) cig [kiːɡ] = meat, flesh
cigaf, cigo = to fatten, become fleshy
cigaidd = meaty, fleshy, bloody, cruel, carnivorous,
cigfa meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cigfran = raven
cigog = meaty, fleshy
cigydd = butcher
Old Cornish cic, chic = meat, flesh
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cig, kig = meat, flesh
cigliu = flesh-coloured
cigver, kiguer = flesh-fork
Cornish (Kernewek) kig = meat, flesh
kiger, kigores = butcher
kigereth = butchery, slaughterhouse
kigliw = flesh (colour), pink
kigti, kigva = butcher’s, butchery, slaughterhouse
Old Breton cic = meat, flesh
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quic = meat, flesh
quicguec = fleshy, muscled
Breton (Brezhoneg) kig [kiːk] = meat, flesh
kigder = overweight
kigek = fleshy, muscular, plump
kigenn [ˈkiːɡɛn] = complexion, muscule
kigennan, kigennañ = to build muscule, to heal
kigennek [kiˈɡɛnːek] = muscule
kiger [ˈkiːɡɛr] = butcher
kigerezh [ki.ˈɡɛː.rɛs] = butcher’s shop

Etymology: assumed to be of expressive/imitative origin [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) brollach = breast, bosom, chest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brollach, brothlach = breast, bosom, chest
Irish (Gaeilge) brollach [bˠəɾˠˈl̪ˠax/ˈbˠɾˠɔl̪ˠəx] = breast, bosom, front, beginning, preface, prologue
brollaiocht = close wrestling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brollach [brɔl̪ˠəx] = bosom, breast, bust, chest, brisket
Manx (Gaelg) brollagh = bosom, breast

Etymology: related to the Old Irish bruinne (breast) and brú (belly) [source]. See also the post about Hills

Proto-Celtic *weɸolis = flesh, meat (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) feóil, féuil [fʲeːu̯lʲ] = flesh, meat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) feóil, feól = flesh, meat
feólaigid = to make or form flesh
feólairecht = butchery, slaughter
feólamail = the flesh, worldly
feólmar = fleshy
Irish (Gaeilge) feoil [fʲoːlʲ/fʲɔːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feoilteach = carnivorous
feoilteoir = carnivore
feoilséantóir = vegetarian
feoilaire = butcher
feoilmhar = fleshy, fat, flabby
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feòil [fjɔːl̪ˠ] = flesh, meat
feòil-itheach [fjɔːl̪ˠ içəx] = carnivorous
feòil-itheadair [fjɔːl̪ˠ içədɪrʲ] = carnivore
feòil-sheachnair = vegetarian
Manx (Gaelg) feill [feːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feillagh = fleshy, meaty
feill-eeagh = carnivorous
feilleyder = butcher
feill-haghnagh = vegetarian (adj)
feill-haghneyder = vegetartian (person)

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cnes = skin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cnes, cnis, cneis, cneas = skin, surface, body, flesh, bosom, breast
Irish (Gaeilge) cneas [cnʲasˠ/cɾʲasˠ] = skin, good appearance
cneasach = covered with skin, cutaneous
cneasaí = close companion, spouse, healer
cneasaigh = to cicatrize, heal
cneasluiteach = skintight
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cneas [krʲẽs] = skin, bosom
cneasachadh [krʲesəxəɣ] = (act of) squeezing, tightening, pressing, making slender, curing, healing
Proto-Brythonic *knōto- = flesh (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) knaud, cnaut, knaỽt, knawt = flesh
knowdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
knaỽtaỽl, knaỽdaỽl, knoawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnawd [knau̯d] = flesh
cnawdaidd = pertaining to the flesh, carnal
cnawd(i)edig = fleshy, carnal
cnawdiad = incarnation, putting on of flesh
cnawdiaf, cnawdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
cnawdig = fleshy, carnal, fat, plump
cnawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Cornish (Kernewek) kneus = skin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kneud = carnality, fleshliness (?)

Etymology: possibly from PIE *kneu-t- [source].

More Celtic words for breast and meat can be found on the posts about Hills, Central Hearts, Baskets, Wings, Bones, Fatty Lard and Food

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ploughs

Words for plough* and related things in Celtic languages.

Plough

*plough = plow for those of you in North America.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *aratrom = plough
Old Irish (Goídelc) arathar = plough, ploughing equipment, tillage
airid = to plough
airem = ploughman
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arathar = plough, ploughing equipment, tillage
airem = ploughman, tiller
airid = to plough, till
airithe = ploughed
Irish (Gaeilge) arathar = ploughing equipment, plough, ploughing (literary)
air = plough (literary)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrach [aːrəx] = ploughshare, utensils for ploughing (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) erroo = ploughman, tiller of land
errooid = cultivation, tillage, ploughmanship
Proto-Brythonic *aradr [aˈradr] = plough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aratrum, aradyr, aradr, aratr = plough
aradrur, aradrwr = ploughman
aradỽy, aradwy = arable or ploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) aradr [ˈaradr/ˈaːradr] = plough, the Plough
aradraf, aradu = to plough, till, cultivate
aradrswch = ploughshare
araduriaeth = (act of) ploughing, ploughmanship
aradrwr = ploughman
aradrwy = arable or ploughed land
Old Cornish aradar = plough
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) aradar, ardar, aratum = plough
araderuur, arator = ploughmen
aras = to plough, till
Cornish (Kernewek) arader = plough
araderor = ploughman
aradow = arable
aras = to plough
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ararz, arazr = plough
Breton (Brezhoneg) arar [ˈɑːrar] = plough
aradeg = ploughing, ploughing competition
aradenn = ploughing, surge of anger
arat = to plough, spin

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₂érh₃trom (plough), from *h₂erh₃- (to plough) and *-trom (instrumental suffix). Words from the same roots include ard (a simple plough consisting of a spike dragged through the soil) in English, arður (plough, profit, gain) in Icelandic, årder (plough) in Swedish, ader (plough) in Estonian and arado (plough) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanktus / *kanxtus = plough, plough beam
Old Irish (Goídelc) cécht = plough-beam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cécht, cecht = plough-beam, plough
Irish (Gaeilge) céachta [ˈkeːx.t̪ˠə] = plough
céachtaíl = ploughing
céachtaire = ploughwright
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceuchd = plough (obsolete)
Manx (Gaelg) keeaght [ˈki.axt] = plough

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *kankā (branch), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱank- (branch). Words from the same roots include géag (branch, bough, limb) in Irish, cainc (branch) in Welsh, gancio (hook) in Italian, and gancho (hook, peg) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) trebaid = to cultivate, till, plough, inhabit
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trebad = (act of) ploughing cultivating, husbandry
trebaid = to cultivate, till, plough, inhabit, dwell
Irish (Gaeilge) treabh [ˈtʲɾʲavˠ/ˈtʲɾʲəu] = to plough; till, cultivate, occupy, inhabit (literary)
treabhadh = ploughing
treabhdóir = ploughman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = to till (the ground), plough, cultivate, delve
treabhadh = ploughing
treabhta = ploughed, tilled, cultivated
Manx (Gaelg) traaue = to plough (up), till, furrow, cleave, ploughing, tilling
traauee = ploughing, contributing, to tillage
traaueyder = ploughman

Etymology: from Old Irish treb (house(hold), farm, tribe), from Proto-Celtic *trebā (dwelling), from Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source]. For more related words, see the post about Towns and Tribes.

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyd, guyd = (wooden frame of a) plough
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwŷdd [ɡwɨːð] = plough (North Wales), tree(s), branches, timber, masts, loom
Etymology: from Proto-Brythonic *gwɨð (wood, trees), from Proto-Celtic *widus (wood, trees), from PIE *h₁weydʰh₁- (to separate, split, cleave, divide) [source]. For more related words, see the post about Trees, Wood(s) and Forests.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Colourful Hues

Words for colour, hue, pigment and related colours in Celtic languages.

Multilingual banner

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *līwos = colour
Gaulish *lios = colour
Old Irish (Goídelc) [ˈtane] = lustre, beauty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lí, li = beauty, lustre, glory, complexion, slendour, appearance, pallor
Irish (Gaeilge) [l̠ʲiː] = colour, complexion, lustre, sheen, pigment(ation)
líú = (act of) colouring, painting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = paint, colour, tinge, hue, complexion, properity, happiness
lìth [l̪ʲiː] = lustre, gloss, splendour, complexion, hue
lìtheach [l̪ʲiː] = greasy, slimy,slippery
Manx (Gaelg) lhee = pigment, pigmentation
Proto-Brythonic *lliw = colour
Old Welsh liu = colour, hue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llyu, lliw, lliỽ, llyw = colour,hue
lliwyav, lliwaw = to colour, paint, dye
lliỽyd, lliwyd = dyer, colourer, painter
Welsh (Cymraeg) lliw [ɬɪu̯] = colour, hue, tint, complexion, countenance, colouring
lliwddall = colourbind
lliwgar = colourful, vivid, beautiful, handsome
lliw(i)af, lliw(i)o = to colour, tinge, paint, dye
lliw(i)og = coloured, tinted, dyed, painted
lliwydd = dyer, colourer, painter
Old Cornish liu = colour
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) liu, lyw = colour, dye, hue
liue = to colour, paint
liuor = painter, dyer
Cornish (Kernewek) liw = colour,dye, paint
liwa = to colour, dye, paint
liwans = painting
liwus = colourful
liwayans = painting, picture
liways = coloured, dye
Old Breton (Brethonoc) liu = colour, ink, dyed
Middle Breton (Brezonec) liu, liou = colour, ink, dyed
liuaff = to colour, dye, paint
Breton (Brezhoneg) liv [liw] = colour, ink, paint, dyed
livañ [ˈliː.vã] = to colour, dye, paint, depict
livek [ˈliːvek] = coloured
liver, livour [ˈliː.vɛr/ˈli.wːər] = painter, colourist
livus [ˈliːvys] = dye, picturesque

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *slih₂-wó-s from *(s)leh₃y- (blueish, plum-coloured) and *-wós (creates adjectives from verb stems) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include livid, lurid and sloe in English, slíva (plum) in Czech, and possibly lloer (moon) in Welsh, loor (moon) in Cornish and loar (moon) in Breton [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dath [daθ] = colour, dye
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dath = colour, dye, hue, tint, complexion
dathach = coloured
dathaid, daithaigid = colours, dyes, stains
dathamail = coloured, fine, handsome, beautiful, comely, graceful
dathugud = colouring, dyeing, painting
Irish (Gaeilge) dath [d̪ˠax/d̪ˠɑh/d̪ˠah] = colour, dye
dathach = coloured
dathadóir = colourist, dyer, painter, exaggerator, fictionist
dathadóireacht = (act of) dyeing, painting
dathaigh = to colour,dye, paint
dathannach = multi-coloured, gaily-coloured, colourful, glowing
dathdhall = colour-blind
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dath [dah] = colour, colouring, dye, pigment, dying, hue, tint, staining, suit (of cards)
dathach [dahəx] = coloured, colourful
dathachadh [dahəxəɣ] = colourising, dyeing, staining
dathadair [dahədɪrʲ] = dyer, colourist
dathail [dahal] = colourful
dathte [dahdʲə] = coloured
Manx (Gaelg) daah = colour, dye, hue, paint, pigment, singe, stain, tincture
daahagh = coloured, stainable
daahder = colourer, colourist, dyer, exaggerator, painter
daahit = coloured, dyed, painted, pigmented, stained
daahoil = colourful, picturesque, well-coloured

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) gné = appearance, form, kind, sort, species
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gné = kind, species, appearance, form, way, manner
Irish (Gaeilge) gné [ɟnʲeː/ɟɾʲeː] = species, kind, form, appearance
gnéitheach = specific, of good appearance
gnétheacht = specificity
gnéthigh = to regain appearance, mend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnè [grʲɛ̃ː] = sex, gender, genre, kind, sort, temper, disposition, genus, species
gnè-fhàs [grɛ͂ː aːs] = evolution
gnè-eòlas = typology
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
gorne = colour, hue, tint
Welsh (Cymraeg) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
agne = colour, tincture
gorne = colour, hue, tint, tincture, blush, brightness, appearance, aspect

Etymology: from PIE *ǵenh₁- (to produce, beget, give birth) [source]. Words from the same roots include gender, general, generate, genius and germ in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Thin & Slender

Words for thin, slender and related things in Celtic languages.

The Spire of Dublin.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *tanauyos = thin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tana [ˈtane] = thin, slender
tanacht = thinness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tana = thin, slender, narrow, shallow, sparse, scanty, scattered
tanacht = thinness, tenuity, shallowness
tanaide = subtle, abstract, thin, slender
tanaigid = to thin (out), dilute
Irish (Gaeilge) tanaí [t̪ˠəˈn̪ˠiː / ˈt̪ˠan̪ˠiː] = thin, shallow
tanaigh = to thin, slim
tanaíochan = thinning
tanaíocht = thinness, sparseness, flimsiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tana [tanə] = lean, slender, slim, thin, gaunt, skinny, shallow, flimsy
tanalachd [tanəl̪ˠəxg] = shallows, shallowness
tanach [tanəx] = narrow, slender
tanachadh [tanəxəɣ] = thinning, makeing thinner, diluting
tainead [tanəd] = degree of thinness
tanlach [tanəl̪ˠəx] = shallow water, shallows, shoal, thin soil, epidermis
tanachd [tanəxg] = thinness
tanaichte [tanɪçdʲə] = diluted, thinned
Manx (Gaelg) thanney = thin, watery, weak, flimsy, rare, shallow, slender, slim
thannaghey = to dilute, liquefy, rarefy, reduce
thannid = thinness, shallowness, leanness
Proto-Brythonic *tanẹw = thin
Old Welsh teneu = thin, slender, slim
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tenev, tenau, teneu = thin, slender, slim, flat, sparse, rare, tenuous, liquid, runny
teneir = to make or become thin(ner)
teneuder = thinness, leanness, slenderness
Welsh (Cymraeg) tenau [ˈtɛnaɨ̯ / ˈteːnai̯] = thin, slender, watery, thin, scarce, rare
teneuaf, teneuo = to make or become thin(ner), lose weight, slim, dwindle, thin, dilute, water down
teneuder = thinness, leanness, slenderness, rareness, scarcity, keenness
teneudra = thinness, leanness, slenderness
teneuedig = thin, thinned, diluted, depleted, rarefied
teneuwr = dieter, weight-watcher, slimmer
Old Cornish tenewen = thin
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tanow, tanaw = thin, slim, slender, lean, few, scarce
tanowder = thinness, scantiness, scarcity
Cornish (Kernewek) tanow = flimsy, lean, rare, scarce, sparse, tenuous, thin
tanowder = rarity, scarcity, thinness
tanowhe = to thin out
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tanau, tano = thin, fine
Breton (Brezhoneg) tanav [ˈtãː.naw / ˈtãː.no] = thin, fine, fluid, rare, hypocritical
tanavaat = (to be) refined, (to be) rarefied, to liquefy, dilute, weed & clear, cut (bread for soup)
tanavded = tenuity, liquidity
tanavder = tenuity, decay
tanavenn = thin place (in fabric), sparse, liquid, emaciated, hypocritical

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ténh₂us (thin), from *tenh₂- (to stretch) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include thin and tenuous in English, tenú (tenuous, thin, slender) in French, dünn (thin, slender, slim) in German, and tenký (thin) in Czech [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cauldrons and Kettles

Words for cauldron, kettle, pot and related things in Celtic languages.

Cauldron

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷaryos = cauldron
Gaulish *parios = cauldron
Old Irish (Goídelc) coire [ˈkorʲe] = cauldron
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) coire [ˈkorʲə] = cauldron, pot, whirlpool
coirén = little pot
Irish (Gaeilge) coire [ˈkɛɾʲə] = large pot, cauldron, boiler, corrie, cirque, amphitheatre, deep mountain hollow, pit, whirlpool
coire bolcáin = volcanic crater
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = kettle, corrie, cauldron
coireag [kɔrʲag] = small kettle, small corrie, small cauldron
Manx (Gaelg) coirrey = cauldron, boiler, pothole, hollow in hills, corrie, maelstrom, vent of volcano
Proto-Brythonic *pėr = cauldron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyr, peir, pair = cauldron
peireit, peried = cauldron(ful)
Welsh (Cymraeg) pair [ˈpai̯r] = cauldron, large pot, boiler, melting-pot
peiran = corrie, cwm, cirque (in geology)
peir(i)aid = cauldron(ful)
Old Cornish per = cauldron
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) per = cauldron, kettle, boiler, furnace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) per = cauldron
Breton (Brezhoneg) per [ˈpeːr] = cauldron

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- (to do, make, build). Words from the same roots include Britain, Brittany and karma in English, and words for time and shape in Celtic languages [source].

The city of Paris in France gets it name from Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parīsiī), a Gallo–Roman town that was established on the Left Bank of the Seine after the Romans conquered the local Gaulish tribe, the Parisioi, or Parīsiī in Latin, in 52 BC. The Gaulish name *Parisioi comes from Gaulish *parios (cauldron) [source].

Old Welsh calaur = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kallaur, kallawr, callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Welsh (Cymraeg) callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
calloriad = the fill or contents of a cauldron
calloryn = a small cauldron, skillet, kettle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) caltor = kettle
Cornish (Kernewek) kalter = kettle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cauter = boiler, cauldron, cooking pot
Breton (Brezhoneg) kaoter [ˈko.tɛr] = boiler, cooking pot
kaoteriad [kɔ.ˈtɛ.rjat] = contents of a pot, Cotriade /Brittany Fish Stew, fish that fishermen bring home for meals
primgaoter [prim.ˈɡo.tɛr] = pressure cooker

Etymology: from Latin caldāria (warm bath, kettle, cooking pot, cauldron, from caldārius (hot water), from cal(i)dus (warm, hot) [source]. The English word cauldron comes from the same roots, as do chowder, caldera and nonchalant [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Weak and Feeble

Words for weak, feeble and related things in Celtic languages.

WEAK

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *lubros = weak
Old Irish (Goídelc) lobur = weak, sick, infirm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lobar, lobur, lobor = weak, infirm, sick, afflicted
lobrae = weakness, infirmity, sickness
lobrán = weakling, weak person, afflicted person
loburda = sickly, ailing
loibríne = weak little one
Irish (Gaeilge) lobhar [tʲasˠ/tʲæsˠ] = leper, (literary) weak, ailing person, afflicted person
lobhra = leprosy, (literary) weakness, infirmity, affliction
lobhrach = leprous, (literary) weak, ailing, afflicted
lobhrán = leper, (literary) weakling, afflicted person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lobhar [l̪ˠo.ər] = leper, disgusting wretch
lobhar-leigheas = antiseptic
Manx (Gaelg) lourane = heat, warmth
louraanagh, louranagh, louraneagh = leprous
loihrey, lourey; louraanys, louraneys = leprosy
Proto-Brythonic *lluβr = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llwfyr, llwrf, llwfr = cowardly, craven, timid
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwfr = cowardly, craven, timid, faint-hearted, unadventurous, apathetic, shy, mean, idle, lazy, improvident; damp; coward
llwfrgalon, llyfrgalon = timid, faint-hearted
Middle Breton (Brrezhonec) loffr, lofr = leper, leprous, oaf
lovradur = leprosy
Breton (Brezhoneg) lovr = leper, oaf
lovrezh = leprosy
lovrañ = to contract/give leprosy

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *luprós and *lewp- (to peel, strip) [source].

Proto-Celtic *wannos = weak
Old Irish (Goídelc) fann = helpless, weak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fann = weak, helpless, soft, pliant
fannach = weak, weakling
fannaid = weakens, grows weak
fanntaise = a swoon, faintness
Irish (Gaeilge) fann [fanˠ] = faint, weak, languid
fannaigh = to weaken, enfeeble, grow weak
fannán = gentle breeze
fanntais = faaint, swoon, fainting-fit
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fann [fãũn̪ˠ] = weak, feeble, faint, helpless, delicate
fannachadh [fan̪ˠəxəɣ] = becoming/making weak, fainting
fannachd [fan̪ˠəxg] = weakness, state of being off/spoilt (food)
fanntas [fãũn̪ˠdəs] = weakness, faintness
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guan, gvann, gwan(n) = weak, feeble
guander, gvander, gwan(n)der = weakness, feebleness, debility
guanhau, gwanhau = to grow weak, weaken, languish
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwan [ɡwan] =weak, feeble, languid, faint, mild, gentle, lenient, sad, depressing, gloomy, unlucky, foolish, simple, credulous, timid
gwander = weakness, feebleness, debility
gwanedu = to dilute
gwanedig = enfeebled, enervated, faint
gwanhad = weakening, enfeeblement, enervation
gwanhau = to grow weak, weaken, languish
Old Cornish guan = weak
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guan, gwan = weak, feeble, infirm, poor
gwander = weakness, infirmity, debility
Cornish (Kernewek) gwann, gwadn = faint, frail, weak
gwanna, gwadna = to weaken
gwannhe, gwadnhe = to weaken
gwannliwek, gwadnliwek = pale
Old Breton guoaean = weak
Middle Breton (Brezhonec) guan, goan, goann = weak
goanaff, goano = to weaken
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwan [ˈɡwãːn] = weak, intransitive
gwanaat [ɡwãˈnɑːt] = to weaken
gwanadenn, gwanded, gwander = weakness
gwanadur = weakening, dimming
gwanaj = weak
gwanded [ˈɡwãn.det] = weakness

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂-sn (to disappear, vanish), *h₁weh₂- (to leave, abandon, give out). English words from the same PIE root include vacant, vacuum, vain, void, wane, want and waste [source]

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic