Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cauldrons and Kettles

Words for cauldron, kettle, pot and related things in Celtic languages.

Cauldron

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷaryos = cauldron
Gaulish *parios = cauldron
Old Irish (Goídelc) coire [ˈkorʲe] = cauldron
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) coire [ˈkorʲə] = cauldron, pot, whirlpool
coirén = little pot
Irish (Gaeilge) coire [ˈkɛɾʲə] = large pot, cauldron, boiler, corrie, cirque, amphitheatre, deep mountain hollow, pit, whirlpool
coire bolcáin = volcanic crater
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = kettle, corrie, cauldron
coireag [kɔrʲag] = small kettle, small corrie, small cauldron
Manx (Gaelg) coirrey = cauldron, boiler, pothole, hollow in hills, corrie, maelstrom, vent of volcano
Proto-Brythonic *pėr = cauldron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyr, peir, pair = cauldron
peireit, peried = cauldron(ful)
Welsh (Cymraeg) pair [ˈpai̯r] = cauldron, large pot, boiler, melting-pot
peiran = corrie, cwm, cirque (in geology)
peir(i)aid = cauldron(ful)
Old Cornish per = cauldron
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) per = cauldron, kettle, boiler, furnace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) per = cauldron
Breton (Brezhoneg) per [ˈpeːr] = cauldron

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- (to do, make, build). Words from the same roots include Britain, Brittany and karma in English, and words for time and shape in Celtic languages [source].

The city of Paris in France gets it name from Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parīsiī), a Gallo–Roman town that was established on the Left Bank of the Seine after the Romans conquered the local Gaulish tribe, the Parisioi, or Parīsiī in Latin, in 52 BC. The Gaulish name *Parisioi comes from Gaulish *parios (cauldron) [source].

Old Welsh calaur = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kallaur, kallawr, callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Welsh (Cymraeg) callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
calloriad = the fill or contents of a cauldron
calloryn = a small cauldron, skillet, kettle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) caltor = kettle
Cornish (Kernewek) kalter = kettle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cauter = boiler, cauldron, cooking pot
Breton (Brezhoneg) kaoter [ˈko.tɛr] = boiler, cooking pot
kaoteriad [kɔ.ˈtɛ.rjat] = contents of a pot, Cotriade /Brittany Fish Stew, fish that fishermen bring home for meals
primgaoter [prim.ˈɡo.tɛr] = pressure cooker

Etymology: from Latin caldāria (warm bath, kettle, cooking pot, cauldron, from caldārius (hot water), from cal(i)dus (warm, hot) [source]. The English word cauldron comes from the same roots, as do chowder, caldera and nonchalant [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Weak and Feeble

Words for weak, feeble and related things in Celtic languages.

WEAK

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *lubros = weak
Old Irish (Goídelc) lobur = weak, sick, infirm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lobar, lobur, lobor = weak, infirm, sick, afflicted
lobrae = weakness, infirmity, sickness
lobrán = weakling, weak person, afflicted person
loburda = sickly, ailing
loibríne = weak little one
Irish (Gaeilge) lobhar [tʲasˠ/tʲæsˠ] = leper, (literary) weak, ailing person, afflicted person
lobhra = leprosy, (literary) weakness, infirmity, affliction
lobhrach = leprous, (literary) weak, ailing, afflicted
lobhrán = leper, (literary) weakling, afflicted person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lobhar [l̪ˠo.ər] = leper, disgusting wretch
lobhar-leigheas = antiseptic
Manx (Gaelg) lourane = heat, warmth
louraanagh, louranagh, louraneagh = leprous
loihrey, lourey; louraanys, louraneys = leprosy
Proto-Brythonic *lluβr = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llwfyr, llwrf, llwfr = cowardly, craven, timid
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwfr = cowardly, craven, timid, faint-hearted, unadventurous, apathetic, shy, mean, idle, lazy, improvident; damp; coward
llwfrgalon, llyfrgalon = timid, faint-hearted
Middle Breton (Brrezhonec) loffr, lofr = leper, leprous, oaf
lovradur = leprosy
Breton (Brezhoneg) lovr = leper, oaf
lovrezh = leprosy
lovrañ = to contract/give leprosy

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *luprós and *lewp- (to peel, strip) [source].

Proto-Celtic *wannos = weak
Old Irish (Goídelc) fann = helpless, weak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fann = weak, helpless, soft, pliant
fannach = weak, weakling
fannaid = weakens, grows weak
fanntaise = a swoon, faintness
Irish (Gaeilge) fann [fanˠ] = faint, weak, languid
fannaigh = to weaken, enfeeble, grow weak
fannán = gentle breeze
fanntais = faaint, swoon, fainting-fit
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fann [fãũn̪ˠ] = weak, feeble, faint, helpless, delicate
fannachadh [fan̪ˠəxəɣ] = becoming/making weak, fainting
fannachd [fan̪ˠəxg] = weakness, state of being off/spoilt (food)
fanntas [fãũn̪ˠdəs] = weakness, faintness
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guan, gvann, gwan(n) = weak, feeble
guander, gvander, gwan(n)der = weakness, feebleness, debility
guanhau, gwanhau = to grow weak, weaken, languish
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwan [ɡwan] =weak, feeble, languid, faint, mild, gentle, lenient, sad, depressing, gloomy, unlucky, foolish, simple, credulous, timid
gwander = weakness, feebleness, debility
gwanedu = to dilute
gwanedig = enfeebled, enervated, faint
gwanhad = weakening, enfeeblement, enervation
gwanhau = to grow weak, weaken, languish
Old Cornish guan = weak
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guan, gwan = weak, feeble, infirm, poor
gwander = weakness, infirmity, debility
Cornish (Kernewek) gwann, gwadn = faint, frail, weak
gwanna, gwadna = to weaken
gwannhe, gwadnhe = to weaken
gwannliwek, gwadnliwek = pale
Old Breton guoaean = weak
Middle Breton (Brezhonec) guan, goan, goann = weak
goanaff, goano = to weaken
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwan [ˈɡwãːn] = weak, intransitive
gwanaat [ɡwãˈnɑːt] = to weaken
gwanadenn, gwanded, gwander = weakness
gwanadur = weakening, dimming
gwanaj = weak
gwanded [ˈɡwãn.det] = weakness

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁weh₂-sn (to disappear, vanish), *h₁weh₂- (to leave, abandon, give out). English words from the same PIE root include vacant, vacuum, vain, void, wane, want and waste [source]

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

With and Without

Words for with, without, by and related things in Celtic languages.

Gaelic Song Class 2023

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The emphatic forms of this word combined with personal pronouns are shown after the /.

Proto-Celtic *letos = side
Old Irish (Goídelc) la [la] = with, beside, by, belonging to, among; in the language of, in the opinion of
lem(m), lim(m), leim, lium(m) / lemsa, li(u)msa = with me
lat(t) / latso, latsu = with you (sg)
leiss, les(s), lais(s), letha / le(i)som, laisem = with him
l(a)ee, lǽ / lési = with her
li(u)nn, le(i)nn, linn(a)i = with us
lib / libsi = with you (pl)
leu, léu leo, lethu / leusom, leosom = with them
lam = with my
lat = with your (sg)
lia = with his/hers/its/their
liar = with our
lassa = with, which
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) la = beside, by, touching, along with, in the same direction as, following to course of, in the company of
lem(m), lim(m), lium = with me
lat(t), let = with you (sg)
leiss, less, les = with him
lee, laee, lea = with her
lenn, leinn, linn = with us
lib = with you (pl)
leu, leo = with them
Irish (Gaeilge) le [lʲɛ] = with, to, for, by, against, in proximity to, in contact with, beside, towards, facing, open to, along the face of, in company with, at, against
liom / liomsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leis-sean = with him
léi / léise = with her
linn / linne = with us
libh / libhse = with you (pl)
leo / leosan = with them
le mo, lem = with my
le do, led = with your (sg)
lena = with his/hers/its
lenár = with our
lena = with their
le haghaidh = for, near, in store for
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) le [le] = with, by, using, in possession of, in favour of, downhill, downstream, lee(ward), port(side)
leam / leamsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leissan = with him
leatha / leathase = with her
leinn / leinne = with us
leibh / libhse = with you (pl/frm)
leotha / leothasan = with them
Manx (Gaelg) lesh [lɛʃ] = for, with, toward
lhiam / lhiams = with me
lhiat / lhiats = with you (sg)
lesh / leshsyn = with him
lhee / lheeish = with her
lhien / lhienyn = with us
lhiu / lhiuish = with you (pl)
lhieu / lhieusyn = with them

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *letos (side), which is possibly related to *ɸletos (side) [source].

Words for half, side, wide, broad and related things in Celtic languages possibly come from the same roots [more details].

Proto-Celtic *writu = against
*writbero = to come against, return
*writkomfarsko- = to ask
*writtongo = to renounce
Old Irish (Goídelc) fri [fʲrʲi] = towards, against, along, beside, close to, on the point of
frimm, frium(m) / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friut(t) / fritso, fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom, frissium = against him
frie = against her
frinn / finn(a)i = against us
frib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fri = towards, facing, turned to, against, alongside, by, next to, at, in contact with
frim(m), frium / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friutt / fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom = against him
frie, friae / frise = against her
fri(u)nn, frind / finn(a)i = against us
frib, frithib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Irish (Gaeilge) re [rˠeː] = with, to, for, by, against (archaic, le is used instead)
fara [ˈfˠaɾˠə] = along, with, beside, in addition to (rare, used in Munster)
frae, fré [fˠɾˠeː] = with, along with (used in Connacht)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ri [rʲi] = against, busy with, engaged in, to, than
ruim/ ruimsa = against me
ruit / riutsa = against you (sg)
ris / ris-san = against him
rithe / rithese = against her
rinn / rinne = against us
ribh / ribhse = against you (pl)
riutha / riuthasan = against them
Manx (Gaelg) rish [rɪʃ] = along, beside, by, during, for
rhym / rhyms = to me
rhyt / rhyts = to you (sg)
rish / rishyn = to him
r’ee / r’eeish = to her
rooin / rooinyn = to us
riu / riuish = to you (pl)
roo / roosyn = to them
Old Welsh gurth = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wrth, vrth, Ỽrth = by, at, near
Welsh (Cymraeg) (g)wrth [(g)ʊrθ / (g)ʊθ] = by, at, near, close to, opposite, facing, in contact with, on, against, also, with, beside, because of, as a result of, about, concerning
wrth angen = according to need, as necessary
wrth angor = at anchor
wrth fron = near, close to, at the point of, almost
wrth law, wrth y llaw = nearby, at hand, by hand
wrth fynd heibio = in passing (of comment)
wrth ben = on top of, above, over
Old Cornish gurth = by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) (w)orth = at, by, to, for, with
(w)orthyf of/from/to/against me
(w)orthys = of/from/to/against thee
(w)orto = by/upon him or it
(w)orty = by/upon her or it
(w)orthyn = of/from/to/against us
(w)ortheuch = of/from/to you
orte, worté = by/upon them
Cornish (Kernewek) orth = against, at
orth ow brys = in my opinion
orth bodh ow brys = intentionally
orth niver = in number
Middle Breton (Brezonec) oz, ouz, ouc’h, oud = against, to, of, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) ouzh [us] = towards, to, against
ouzh beg = below, at the bottom (of)
diouzh [ˈdiːus/ˈdjuːs] = of, according to
diouzh re = in case of need, if necessary
diouzhtu [djusˈtyː] = immediately

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wert- (to turn) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include divert, invert, pervert, verse, verus, vortex and worth [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanta = together with
*kantyos = assembly, gathering
Gaulish *kantyos = assembly, gathering
cantio = assembly, gathering
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét- = with
céite = assembly, hill, mound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cét- = with
céite = hill, mound, open space, racecourse, meeting-place, assembly, square, market-place
Old Welsh cant = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) can, cann, gen, gant, gan = with, together with
genhyf = with me
genhyt = with thee
gant(h)aw = with him or it
gent(h)i = with her or it
genhym, genhyn, gennyn = with us
genhwch, gennwch = with you
gantu(d), gantunt, ganthud = with them
gid, y gyd, kyd, gyt = with, together with
Welsh (Cymraeg) gan [ɡan] = with, together with, alongside, beside, by (means of), through, because of, on account of, from , of
gyda = with, together with, in addition to, in the company of, close by, next to, alongside, besides, for
Old Cornish cant, cans = with, by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gan, gans = with, by
genef, gynef = with me
genes, gynes = with thee
ganso = with him or it
gynsy = with her or it
genen, gynen = with us
geneuch = with you
gansé = with them
Cornish (Kernewek) gans = by, with
gans ganow = by word of mouth
gans golow, gans tan = alight, lit
gans henna = thereby
gans oll ow holon vy = sincerely yours
gans pub bolonjedh da = with all good wishes
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gant = with, on the occasion of, so much
Breton (Brezhoneg) gant [ˈɡãnt] = with, because of
digant = with, of

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

Proto-Celtic *sekʷo- = besides, without
Old Irish (Goídelc) sech [sʲex] = past, beyond, different from, more than
sechum = different from me
sechut = different from you (sg)
sech(a)e, sechæ = different from him
secce = different from her
sechund = different from us
seccu = different from them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sech = past, beyond, different from, more than,
sechum, seacham , seocham = different from me
sechut, seachad, seochad = different from you (sg)
(se)chae, secha, sechai = different from him
seochu, seacha = different from him
secci, seicce, seice = different from her
sechund, sechoind, seachoinn = different from us
sechaib = different from you (pl)
seccu, seocu, seoca = different from them
Irish (Gaeilge) seach [ʃax] = by, past, beyond, other than, more than
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seach [ʃɛx] = compared with/to, in preference to, past, by, rather than
seach-rathad = bypass, relief road, byway
seach-thìm = overtime
Manx (Gaelg) shagh [ʃax] = past
shaghey = bye, bygone, past, delay, prolong, neglected
shiaghey = past
shagh-votal = proxy vote
shagh-chlou = offprint
shagh-teiyder = proxy
Proto-Brythonic *heb = besides, without
Old Welsh hep = without
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heb, hep = without, past
hebof, hebofy = without me
hebot = without thee
hebddaw = without him or it
hebddi, hebdi, hebti = without her or it
hebom, heibom = without us
heboch = without you
hebddudd = without them
heb law, hebillaw, heb-law = besides, not counting
eb vn ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annot = without delay, immediately
Welsh (Cymraeg) heb [hɛb/heːb] = without, minus, free from, void of, lacking, in the absence of, past, besides, in addition to, not including, excluding, apart from,
heblaw = besides, not counting, over and above, in addition to, except, but, without, past
heb ei ail, heb (un) ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annod = without delay, immediately
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) heb, hep = without, destitute, void of
hebford = without a road
Cornish (Kernewek) heb = witout
heb ahwer = readily
heb bri = irrelevant
heb danjer = safely
heb difuna = dormant
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
Old Breton ep = without
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hep, hemp, eb = without
hep quen, ep quen, hemb kin, epken = only
hep muy, hep-mui = without further …, only
hep muy quen, hep mui quen = only
Breton (Brezhoneg) hep [hep] = without
hepken = only, exclusiveness
hepmuiken = without further …

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to follow) or from *sek- (to cut) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include sect, sign, signal, social, sue, suit, suite [source].

Proto-Celtic *kina = on this side of
Old Irish (Goídelc) cen [kʲen] = except, without, unbeknownst to, unknown to
cene, cenae [ˈkʲene] = besides, in any case, already
olchene, olchenae [olˈxʲene] = besides, the other(s), the rest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cen, cin, can, gen, gin, gan = on this side of, apart from, besides, except, without, -less
Irish (Gaeilge) gan [ɡən̪ˠ/ɡan̪ˠ] = without, not
gan amhras = undoubtedly
gan fáth gan ábhar = for no reason whatever
gan fhios = unknown, secretly
gan on = faultless, unblemished
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gun [ɡən̪ˠ] = without, not
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
gun fhiù = worthless, trashy, trivial
gun iarraidh = unwanted, unbidden, unsought
gun mhaille = forthwith
gun sgot = clueless
Manx (Gaelg) gyn = ex, un-, devoid, without
gyn baare = pointless
gyn bun = baseless, bogus, unfounded
gyn currym = carefree, unencumbered
gyn ennym = anonymous, nameless, unnamed
gyn feill = vegetarian
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quen, quin, gen, ken = no more, other
Breton (Brezhoneg) ken [ˈkɛnː] = other, only, no more

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe (this, here) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Boats and Ships

Words for boat, ship and related vessels in Celtic languages.

Douglas / Doolish

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *longā- = boat, vessel
Old Irish (Goídelc) long [l͈oŋɡ] = boat, ship
longfort = camp, encampment, stronghold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) long, longa = boat, ship, vessel, long-ship, galley; vessel, container; house; bed
longphort, lonngport = camp, encampment, temporary stronghold, mansion, princely dwelling; stronghold, fortress
Irish (Gaeilge) long [l̪ˠɔŋ] = ship, vessel, container, house
longbhá = shipwreck
longbhac = embargo (on ships), naval blockade
longbhoth = (navel) dock
longbhriste = shipwrecked
longcheárta, longchlós = shipyard
longfort = camp, stronghold, fortified residence
longlann = dockyard
longmhar = abounding in ships
longtheach = boat-house
longthógáil = shipbuilding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) long [l̪ˠɔuŋg] = ship
longas = shipping, shipment
longart = seaport
long-adhair = airship
long-bhriste = shipwreck
long-chasgadh = embargo
long-fhada = galley (ship)
long-fhànais = spaceship
long-lann = dockyard
long-phort = seaport
long-thogail = shipbuilding
Manx (Gaelg) lhong [loŋ] = ship, vessel
lhong aer = airship
lhong-chaardee = boatyard, shipyard
lhong chrowal = hovercraft
lhong liauyr = longship
lhong-phurt = basin, seaport
lhong spoar = spaceship
lhong spooillee = pirate ship
lhuingys = fleet, shipping
Proto-Brythonic *llong = ship, vessel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) loggou, log, llogeu, llong = ship, boat
llongi = to embark, ship
llongeidiev, llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llog porth, llogborth, llong-borth = seaport, haven, harbour
long-dorr = shipwreck
longhawl, llonghavl. llongawl = nautical, maritime, naval
llongỼyr, llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
Welsh (Cymraeg) llong [ɬɔŋ] = ship, boat; the Great Bear (Ursa Major)
llongaf, llongi = to embark, ship
llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llongborth = seaport, harbour, dock, quay
llongdor = shipwreck
llongol = nautical, maritime, naval
llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
llong awyr = airship, aeroplane
llong y diffeithwch, llong dir = ship of the desert, camel
llong ofod = spaceship, spacecraft
llong hofran = hovercraft
llong danfor(ol) = submarine
Old Breton locou = ship, boat

Etymology: possibly from the Latin (navis) longa ([long] boat), or from an unknown source [Source].

Proto-Celtic *nāwā- = boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) nau, nó = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) nó, noe = boat (generally a small one, propelled by oars)
Irish (Gaeilge) nae [n̪ˠeː] = boat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) noe = large vase, bowl
Welsh (Cymraeg) noe = (wooden) vessel used in making butter, kneading dough, etc. shallow dish, bowl, pan, basin, laver, wooden trough
noeaid = dishful
Cornish (Kernewek) new = sink, trough, washbasin
new doos = trough
new-droghya = sheep dip
Middle Breton (Brezonec) néau, néff, neo, nev = trough, bucket
néay-doas, neo-doaz, nev-doaz = kneading-trough
Breton (Brezhoneg) nev = trough, bucket

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *néh₂us (boat), from *(s)neh₂- (to swim) [Source]. Words from the same roots include navy, navigate, andnautical in English [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelic) bát = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bát, bád = boat
Irish (Gaeilge) bád [bˠɑːd̪ˠ/bˠaːd̪ˠ] = boat
bádóireacht = (act of) boating
bád iascaigh = fishing boat
bád seoil = sailing boat
bád tarrthála = lifeboat
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàta [baːhdə] = boat, craft
bàtaireachd = boating
bàta-aigeil = submarine
bàta-asieig = ferry boat
bàta-falbhain = hovercraft
bàta-iasgaich = fishing boat
bàta-sàbhalaidh = lifeboat
bàta-siùil = sailing boat
Manx (Gaelg) baatey [ˈbɛːðə] = boat, even keel
baateyrys = boating
baatey assaig = ferry boat
baatey bieauid = speedboat
baatey eeastee = fishing boat
baatey etlagh = seaplane
baatey sauaillagh = lifeboat
baatey
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bat, bad = boat
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
Welsh (Cymraeg) bad = boat, barge, (small) ship
badaid = boatful
badlong = ketch, pinnace
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
bad acbub = lifeboat
bad pysgota = fishing boat

Etymology: from Old English bāt (boat) or from Old Norse bátr (boat), both of which come from Proto-Germanic *baitaz (boat, ship), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to break, split) [Source].

The English word boat comes from the same roots, as do words for boat in many other languages [Source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scaf, scaffu, scafa = ship
Irish (Gaeilge) scafa [sˠkɑfˠə] = ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgoth [sgɔh] = skiff
sgothag = little skiff, small yacht, cutter
sgiof [sgʲif] = skiff (boat)
sgib [sgʲib] = small ship (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) skiff = skiff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) esgraff, yscraff, ysgraff = boat, barge, ferry
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgraff, sgraff = boat, barge, skiff, ferry, ship, raft
ysgraffbont = pontoon
ysgraffwr, ysgraffydd = ferryman, boatman, bargee
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scath = boat
scath hîr = long boat
Cornish (Kernewek) skath = boat
skathik = dinghy
skath hir = barge
skath kloos = raft
skath tan = motor-boat
skath sawya = lifeboat
skath-wolya = sailing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) scaph, scaff, sqaff, skaf = skiff
skavat, skafad = contents of a skiff
Breton (Brezhoneg) skaf = skiff, landing net

Etymology: possibly from Latin scapha (a light boat, skiff), from Ancient Greek σκάφη (skáphē – light boat, skiff), from σκᾰ́πτω (skáptō – to dig, delve); or from Old Norse skúta (small craft, cutter) [Source].

Proto-Celtic *lestrom = vessel, pot
Old Irish (Goídelic) lestar = vessel, container, beehive
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lestar = vessel, container, beehive, ship, boat
lestarach = frequented by ships
Irish (Gaeilge) leastar [ˈl̠ʲasˠt̪ˠəɾˠ] = vessel, container (for liquids), cask, firkin, (wash) tub, punt (boat), tub; squat, dumpy person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leastar = small boat, cup, vessel, furniture of a house
Proto-Brythonic *llestr = vessel, container
Old Welsh lestir = vessel, container
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llestri, llestyr = vessel, container
llestreit, llestraid, llestred = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestryn, llestrun = small vessel, small barrel, boat
Welsh (Cymraeg) llestr [ɬɛstr/ˈɬɛstɛr] = vessel, bushel, ship, boat, beehive, womb, uterus
llestraid = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestrwr = maker of vessels, potter
llestryn = small vessel, small barrel, boat, human body
Old Cornish lester = vessel, container
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lester = vessel, ship
golowlester = a light-vessel, a lamp
Cornish (Kernewek) lester = dish, ship, utensil vessel
lester eth = steam boat
lester-bargesi = hovercraft
lester=gwari = yacht
lester-sedhi = submarine
annedh lester = houseboat
lestrier = (kitchen) dresser
lestriva = dockyard
lestryn = container
Old Breton lestr = ship, vessel, container
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lestr = ship, vessel, container
lestr-dre-dan = steamship
lestr-kroazer, lestr-reder = cruiser
Breton (Brezhoneg) lestr [ˈlɛstʁ] = vessel, container, ship
lestr-spluj[lɛs.ˈplyːʃ] = submarine
aerlestr [ˈɛʁlestʁ] = aircraft
lestrañ [ˈlɛstrã] = to board, load (a vehicle)
dilestrañ [diˈlɛsːtrã] = to disemark

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pleḱ- (to fold, weave). The Goidelic words were possibly borrowed from Proto-Brythonic [Source].

Kogge

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cwch, cŵch = boat, beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwch [kʊχ] = boat, beehive
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) coc = boat
Cornish (Kernewek) kok = fishing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) couc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
kouc’hañ = to cover (a beehive)

Etymology: possibly cognate with the English word cog (a clinker-built, flat-bottomed, square-rigged mediaeval ship of burden, or war with a round, bulky hull and a single mast; a small fishing boat), which comes from Middle Dutch cogghe (clinker-built, flat-bottomed sailing cargo ship of the Middle Ages), from Proto-Germanic *kuggō, from PIE *gugā (hump, ball) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse dictionary

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Near and Close

Words for near, close and and and related things in Celtic languages.

A group of meerkats

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *onkus = at
*onkus-tus = near, close, and
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocus [ˈoɡus] = near, close, nearness, proximity, and
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocus, acus = and, near, nearness, proximity
com(ḟ)ocus, comacus = near, proximate, neighbouring; equidistant, proximity; relationship
focus = near, close
bean fagas, bean ḟogas = kinswoman
Irish (Gaeilge) agus (⁊) [ˈɑɡəsˠ/ˈaɡəsˠ] = and, while, although, as
agusóir = halting, inarticulate, speaker
aguisín = addition, addendum
fogas [ˈfˠʌɡəsˠ] = nearness, closeness, near, close
fogasghaol = near relationship, near relative
foisceacht = nearness, proximity
bráthair fogas = near kinsman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) agus (⁊) [agəs] = and, plus, as, while, although
agusan = Tironian/Gaelic ampersand (⁊)
fagas [fagəs] = close, near
fagasg [fagəsg] = proximity, nearness
fagasachd [fagəsəxg] = adjacency, nearness, proximity
fagasach [fagəsəx] = adjacent
faisg [faʃgʲ] = close, near
faisgead [faʃgʲəd] = degree of nearness/proximity
Manx (Gaelg) as = and, as
faggys = almost, close, contiguous, handy, near, nearby, neighbouring
faggys-yalloo = closeup
faggysaght = adjacency, nearness
Old Welsh ha, hac, hay, ac = and
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) a(c)= and
agos = near, close
agoseieit = close relations or friends
Welsh (Cymraeg) a(c) [a(k), a(ɡ)] = and
agos [ˈaɡɔs / ˈa(ː)ɡɔs] = near, close, almost, nearly, on the verge of, about to
agosâd = a drawing near, approach
agosaf, agosi = to draw near, approach
agosaol = approaching
agoseiaid = close relations or friends
agosiad = close relation or friend
agosrwydd = closeness, nearness, proximity
agoster = closeness, nearness, proximity
Old Cornish ha = and
ogos = near, close
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) ha(g), a = and
ogas, oges, ogos, agos = near, neighbouring
Cornish (Kernewek) ha(g) [ha(ɡ)] = and, plus, while
hag erel (h.e.) = etc.
hag oll = moreover
ogas = adjoinging, close, near, almost, nearly, vicinity
ogas ha = approximately
ogas lowr = approximate
yn ogas, en ogas = closely, nearby
ogasti, ogatti = almost, nearly
Old Breton a, ha, hac = and
ocos = near, close
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ha, hag, ham, haz = and
hag all, ha a, hag e-se = etc.
hogos, hegos, ogos, egos = almost, barely, close, near
hogoster, hogosder = proximity
hogozik, hogosicq, hogosic = almost, close, near
Breton (Brezhoneg) ha(g) = and
hag all (h.a.) = etc.
hogos = near, close, almost
hogosder = proximity

Etymology: not known [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Teanglann.ie, Am Faclair Beag, Fockleyreen: Manx – English Dictionary, Online Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Lexicon cornu-britannicum : a dictionary of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall, Gerlyver Kernewek, Devri : Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

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Blindness

Words for blind, one-eyed and related words in Celtic languages.

One-eyed squirrel

Proto-Celtic *dallos = blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) dall = blind
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dall, dáll, = blind, dark, gloomy,
daillín = blind man
dalla(id) = to blind, deprive of sight, darken, obscure
dallóc = a little blind animal, mole, leech
Irish (Gaeilge) dall [d̪ˠaul̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑːl̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑl̪ˠ] = blind person, dull, uninformed person, dimness, gloom, obscurity, to blind, dazzle, daze, stupefy
dallacán = purblind person, dim-witted person, fool, mask
dallacántacht = purblindness, dim-wittedness
dallachar = dazzle
dalladh = blinding, dazzlement, plenty, lashings
dallaigeanta = dull-witted
dallamlán = stupid fool, dolt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dall [daul̪ˠ] = blind, obscure, blind person
dallaran = blind person
dalladh [dal̪ˠəɣ] = blinding, misleading
dall-bhrat = blindfold
dallanach = dark, gloomy, inebriated
dallta = blinded, deceived, mislead
Manx (Gaelg) doal = blind, sightless, unseeing
dallaghey = to befog, blind, daze, dazzle, glare
doallaghey, doalley, doallee = blind, blinding
Proto-Brythonic *dall [ˈdal͈] = blind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dall, dâll = blind, unseeing, dark, random
dallaf = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallineb, dallinep = blindness, folly, recklessness
Welsh (Cymraeg) dall [da(ː)ɬ] = blind, unseeing, dark, random, purblind, ignorant, rash, thoughtless, mistaken, blind person
dallaf, dallu = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallaidd = blindness, purblind
dallan = blind person
dalledig = blinded, darkened
dallineb = blindness, folly, recklessness
Old Cornish dal = blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dall = blind
dalla = to (make) blind
Cornish (Kernewek) dall = blind
dalla = to blind
dallhe = to blind, dazzle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dall, dal = blind, blunt, blinkered
dallaff, dallañ, dalliñ = to gouge out sb’s eyes, to blind, to fill a hole, to blunt, crumble
dallente, dallentez, dallezh = blindness
dallet = blinded
Breton (Brezhoneg) dall [ˈdalː] = blind, blunt, blinkered, dead end
dallentez, dallezh = blindness

Etymology: from PIE *dʰwl̥no-, from *dʰwolno (to dim, make obscure) [source].

Words from the same roots include dull and dwell in English, toll (great, nice, wonderful) in German, dol (crazy, silly, mad, mindless, irate) in Dutch, and dulls (crazy, mad) in Latvian.

Proto-Celtic *kaikos/*kayko- = one-eyed, blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáech [kaːi̯x] = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, blind creature
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cáech = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, dimsighted creature
cáiche = state of being one-eyed, blind in one eye
cáichén = an ignorant person
Irish (Gaeilge) caoch [keːx/kiːx] = blind, purblind person / creature, empty, closed up; to blind, daze, dazzle, close, become blocked, wink
caochadh = to wink, close
caochadóir = purblind creature
caochaíl = purblindness, blockage
caochán = purblind creature, mole
caochóg = purblind person, cubby-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoch [kɯːx] = empty, hollow, blind (creature)
caochag = empty / hollow object, dummy
caochadh [kɯːxəɣ] = blinking, shutting one eye, winking, peeping, ogling
bealach-caoch = cul-de-sac
Manx (Gaelg) kyagh = weak-eyed
kyaght = blindness
kyragh = blind
bollagh kyagh = cul-de-sac
Proto-Brythonic *koɨg = vain, empty, one-eyed, blind (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coeg, coec, koeg = vain, empty, false, deceitful; blind, one-eyed
koegi to deride, mock, deteriorate; become blind
koec ddall, koegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Welsh (Cymraeg) coeg [koːɨ̯ɡ/kɔi̯ɡ] = vain, empty, false, deceitful, mean, evil, good-for-nothing, arrogant, scornful, sarcastic; blind, one-eyed, squinting
coegaf, coegi = to deride, mock, lampoon, use sarcasm; to be(come) worthless, deteriorate; to become blind, have defective eyesight, darken
coegaidd = vain, empty, haughty, conceited, saucy
coegathrawgar = pedantic
coegathro = pedant
coegbeth = worthless thing, triviality, trifle, bauble
coegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Old Cornish cuic = one-eyed, blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cuic = blind in one eye
Cornish (Kernewek) koog = vain, worthless, barren, infertile

Etymology: from PIE *kéh₂ikos (one-eyed, blind) [source].

Words from the same roots include caecus (blind) and caecum (uncertainity, obscurity) in Latin, cécité (blindness) in French, ciego (blind, blind person, very drunk, caecum) in Spanish, and caecum (a part of the intestine) in English [source].

Incidentally, purblind means partially blind, dim-sighted, dim-witted, unintelligent, and used to mean blind or having one eye [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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