Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm [ˈɛjl] = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos was possibly borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sisters

Today we’re looking at the words for sister and related people in Celtic languages.

Sisters

Proto-Celtic *swesūr [ˈswe.suːr] = sister
Gaulish suiorebe = sister
Old Irish (Goídelc) siur [ˈsʲi.ur] = sister, kinswoman, female relation
derbṡiur [ˈdʲerʲvʲ.fʲi.ur] = sister (by blood / in a religious community)
sinserṡiur [ˈsʲinsʲerˌhi.ur] = elder sister
Irish (Gaeilge) siúr [ʃuːɾˠ] = sister, kinswoman; Sister (member of a religious community); (nursing) sister
deirfiúr = sister
deirfiúr athar = paternal aunt
deirfiúr máthar = maternal aunt
deirfiúr céile = sister-in-law
leathchúpla deirféar = twin sister
iníon deirféar = brother’s son, niece
mac deirféar = sister’s son, nephew
deirféar = sisterly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) siùir [ʃuːrʲ] = sister (archaic)
piuthar [pju.ə] = sister
piùthrag [pjuːrag] = little sister, sis
piutharail [pju.əral] = sisterly
peathrachas [pɛrəxəs] = sisterhood, soroity
piuthar-chèile = sister-in-law
piuthar leth-aon = twin sister
piuthar-altraim = foster-sister
piuthar-athar = paternal aunt
piuthar-màthar = maternal aunt
Manx (Gaelg) shuyr [ʃuːr] = sister
shayragh, shuyroil = sisterly
shuyrys = sisterhood
shuyr (v)ayrey = aunt
shuyr gholtit = foster-sister
shuyr lannoonagh = twin sister
shuyr ‘sy leigh = sister-in-law
Proto-Brythonic *hwehir = sister
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chwaer = sister
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwaer [χwaːɨ̯r / χwai̯r] = sister, half-sister, female mate or partner; maiden, sweetheart, mistress; nun, sister (in hospital)
chwaer efell = twin sister
chwaer faeth = foster sister
chwaer fedydd = god-sister
chwaer yng nghyfraith = sister-in-law
hanner chwaer = half-sister, step-sister
chwaerol = sisterly
chwaeroliaeth = sisterhood
Old Cornish huir = sister
Cornish (Kernwek) hwor = sister
hanter-hwor = half-sister
Old Breton guoer = sister
Middle Breton hoer = sister
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hoar = sister
c’hoarig = sis, little sister; twin sister
c’hoarelezh = sisterhood
c’hoar-gaer, c’hoareg = sister-in-law, stepsister

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *swésōr (sister) [source].

Here’s a traditional Scottish Gaelic song about sisters – A’ phiuthrag ’sa phiuthar

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Salt

Today we’re looking at the words for salt and related things in Celtic languages.

salt

Proto-Celtic *salanos = salt
Old Irish (Goídelc) salann [ˈsalan͈] = salt
Irish (Gaeilge) salann [ˈsˠɑl̪ˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠalˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠɔlˠən̪ˠ] = salt
saill = to salt, cure, season
sailleadh = salting, curing
saillteacht = saltiness
saillteoir = salter, curer
sáiltéar = salt-cellar
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) salann [sal̪ˠən̪ˠ] = salt
salainneach [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəx] = salty
salainneachadh [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəxəɣ] = (act of) salting, (act of) curing with salt, salinisation
Manx (Gaelg) sollan [ˈsolan] = salt
sailjey = brackish, briny, corned, pickled, saline, salt, salty
Proto-Brythonic *haluɨn = salt
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) halaen, halen = salt
Welsh (Cymraeg) halen [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = salt, sodium chloride; brine; moral élite, the excellent of the earth, wit, eloquence
halenu = to salt, become salt
halenaidd = saline, salty, brackish
halenydd = salt, saline, brackish
halenog = salt, saliferous, saline, salty
halenwr = salt dealer, salt maker
hâl = salt, alkali, salty, saline, alkaline
hallt = salt, salty, briny, brackish, sharp, preserved in salt, pickled; bitter, sharp, harsh, severe; sea, the brine, the briny
halltog = salt, salty
Old Cornish haloin = salt
Middle Cornish halan, halen = salt
Cornish (Kernewek) holan = salt
holanen = grain of salt
Middle Breton halon = salt
Breton (Brezhoneg) holen = salt
holener = salt cellar
holenañ = salt dealer/seller

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *séh₂ls (salt) [source].

The English words salt, salary, salad, sauce and salsa come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Key Openings

Today we’re looking at the words for to open, keys and related things in Celtic languages.

Crete thru open doors

Proto-Celtic *koros = putting, casting
*exs-koris = the opener
Old Irish (Goídelc) cor [kor] = putting, setting, throwing
eochair = key
Irish (Gaeilge) cor [kɔɾˠ] = to turn, turn, turning movement, cast, lively air, reel
corach = turning, twisting
coradh = to turn, bend
eochair [ˈɔxəɾʲ] = key, clef
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) car [kar] = to bend, spin, turn, twist, trick, fraud, movement, job, task
iuchair [ˈɔxəɾʲ] = key, clef
Manx (Gaelg) cor = twirl
ogher = key, peg, headstone, keystone, clef, legend
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) agory, agori, egor = open
egoriad = key
Welsh (Cymraeg) agor [ˈaɡɔr] = to open, unlock, unfasten, undo, loosen, disclose, divulge, reveal, declare, expound, explain, interpret
agored = open(ed), ajar, clear, dilated, spread, broad, wide
agoredrwydd = openness
agoriad = key, opening, hatch, aperture, gap, entrance
agoriawdr = opener, (musical) clef
agorwr / agorydd = opener, expounder, interpreter
Middle Cornish ygor(i) = to open
ygor = open
Cornish (Kernewek) ygor(i), egor(i) = to open
ygor, egor = open
ygorys, egerys = opened
ygeryans, egeryans = opening
Middle Breton igueriff, igor = open
Breton (Brezhoneg) digor = open
digoriñ = to open

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European (s)ker- (to turn, curve) [source].

From the same PIE root we get the Latin word cancer (crab, tumor, cancer, lattice, grid), and related words in other languages, such as cancer, canker and incarcerate in English, and cangrejo (crab) and cáncer (cancer) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Brythonic *alchwedd = key
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) allwed = key
Welsh (Cymraeg) allwedd [ˈaɬwɛð/ˈaɬwɛð] = key, corkscrew, pedal
allweddu = to key or type, keyboard
allweddair = keyboard, password, buzz-word, catchword, slogan
allweddog = bearing/having keys, keyed
allweddol = key, critical, pivotal, crucial, strategic
Old Cornish alped = key
Middle Cornish alwheth = key
Cornish (Kernewek) alhwedh = key
alhwedha = to lock
alhwedhor(es) = treasurer
Middle Breton alhouez = key
Breton (Brezhoneg) alc’hwez [ˈal.ɣwe/ˈal.ɣwɛs] = key
alc’hweziek = keyed

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kleh₂w- (hook, peg) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Druids

Today we’re looking at the words for druids in Celtic languages.

Druids

Proto-Celtic *druwits = druid
Gaulish *druwits / *druwides = druid
Old Irish (Goídelc) druí [ˈdruːi̯] = druid, sorcerer, magician
Irish (Gaeilge) draoi = druid, wizard, magician, augur, diviner, trickster
draíocht = druidic art, druidism, witchcraft, magic, charm, enchantment
draíochtach = magicial, bewitching, entrancing
draíodóir = magician
draíodóireacht = magic, sly, cunning, hypocrisy, trickery, secretiveness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) draoidh [drɯj] = druid, sorcerer, magician, wizard
draoidheachd [drɯjəxg] = magic, sorcery, druidism
draoidheil [drɤjal] = druidic(al), magic(al)
ceò-draoidh = magic mist
eun-draoidh = augur
Manx (Gaelg) druaight = charm, druid
druaightagh = smithcraft, smithery, smithywork
druaightys = charming, druid, druidism, magic
Proto-Brythonic *drüw [ˈdryu̯] = druid, seer
Welsh (Cymraeg) dryw [drɨu̯/drɪu̯] = druid, seer
derwydd [ˈdɛrwɨ̞ð / ˈdɛrwɪð] = prophet, wise man, druid
derwyddaidd = druidical
derwyddiaeth = druidism, the druid cult
derwyddol = druidic, druidical
archderwydd = archdruid
Old Cornish druw = druid
Cornish (Kernewek) drewydh = druid
Breton (Brezhoneg) drouiz [ˈdruː.is] = druid
drouizek / drouizel = druidic
drouizelezh / drouiziezh = druidism

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *dóru (tree) and *weyd- (to see, to know) [source].

The Gaulish words for druid were borrowed by Ancient Greek, as δρυΐδαι (druḯdai), and Latin, as Druidēs. The Latin word was borrowed into French as druide, which was borrowed into English as druid [source].

The Proto-Brythonic word *drüw was borrowed into Old English as drȳ (sorcerer, magician), which became drī(mann)/driʒ(mann) (sorcerer, magician) in Middle English [source]. A few modern druids use the word drymann, or something similiar, to refer to themselves.

Here’s a traditional Welsh tune called Y Derwydd (The Druid):

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Smiths

Today we’re looking at the words for smiths and related people in Celtic languages.

Blacksmiths

Proto-Celtic *gobanns / *goban- = smith
Gaulish Gobano = personal name
Cobanno = name of a god
Old Irish (Goídelc) gobae [ˈɡove] = smith
goibnecht / gaibnecht = the craft or calling of a smith
Irish (Gaeilge) gabha [ɡəu.ə/ɡəu/ɡoː] = smith
gabha buí = goldsmith
gabha dubh = backsmith, dipper, water ouzel
gabha geal = silversmtih, whitesmith
gabha óir = goldsmith
gabha stáin = tinsmith
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gobha [go.ə] = (black)smith
gobha-dubh = blacksmith
gabha-geal = whitesmith
gobha-ghunnachan = gunsmith
gobha-ghlasan = locksmith
Manx (Gaelg) gaaue = blacksmith, forger, smith
gaauenys = smithcraft, smithery, smithywork
gaauenaght = smithcraft
gaaue airh = goldsmith
gaaue argid = silversmith
gaaue armyn = armourer
gaaue cabbil = farrier
gaaue glish = locksmith
gaaue gunney = gunsmith
gaaue stainney = tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *goβ = smith, blacksmith
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gof, gob, gou, geueil = smith, blacksmith
Welsh (Cymraeg) gof [ɡoːv] = smith, blacksmith, ironsmith
gof angorau = anchor-smtih
gof afrau = harness-maker
gof arain = silversmtih
gof aur = goldsmith
gof cloeau = locksmith
gof du = blacksmtih
gof ffrasau = maker of phrases
gof pren = carpenter
gof pres = brass-smith, copper-smith, tinker
Old Cornish gof = smith
Cornish (Kernewek) gov = blacksmith, smith
govel = forge
Old Breton gob, gobail = smith
Middle Breton goff = smith
Breton (Brezhoneg) gov [ˈɡow] = smith
govel = forge, wire, forging, sharpening
govelaj = forging
goveliañ = to forge
govelier = smith
govelierezh = forging, sharpening

Etymology: uncertain – possibly related to the Latin word faber (artisan, craftsman, maker, forger, smith), or from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰobʰ-/*gʰwobʰ- [source].

The surname McGowan comes from Mac Gabhainn (Irish) or Mac Gobhainn (Scottish Gaelic), both of which mean “son of the smith”. Other versions of this name are available, including MacGabhainn, O’Gowan, McGavin, McGowin and McCowan [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Corners

Today we’re looking at the words for corners, backs and related things in Celtic languages.

corner

Proto-Celtic *kūlos = corner
Old Irish (Goídelc) cúl [kuːl] = back, rear
iarcúl = remote place
Irish (Gaeilge) cúl [kuːlˠ] = back, reserve, support, rear, reverse (of coin), counter
cúlaí = back (in rugby, etc)
cúlaigh = to back, move back, reverse, retreat
cúláire = recess, nook, back of throat
cúlaistín = backer, henchman
cúlsráid = back street
iargcúil = remote corner, backward, out-of-the-way place, isolated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cùl [kuːl̪ˠ] = back, hind part, tress, shadow
cùl-fraon = background
cùl-chainnt = backbiting, slander, defamation, calumny
cùl-taic = patron, supporter, patronage, support, (military) reserves
cùl-shràid = back street
Manx (Gaelg) cooyl = back, behind, astern, reverse
cooyl-charrey = backer
cooyl-eaishtagh = to eavesdrop
cooyl-pholt(al) = backfire
cooyl-raad = back street
Proto-Brythonic *kil = corner, angle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kil = corner, angle
Welsh (Cymraeg) cil [kiːl] = corner, angle, back, nape of the neck, retreat, flight, recess, covert, nook, eclipse, wane
cilaidd = retiring, elusive, furtive
cilio = to retreat, withdraw, depart, recede, retire, pass away
Old Cornish chil = back
Cornish (Kernewek) kil = back, nape of the neck, book, reverse
kilans = recession
kilden = retreat
kildenna / kildedna = to back off, withdraw
kildennans / kildednans = withdrawal
Breton (Brezhoneg) kil = back, reverse, lapel, neck, heel
kiladenn = reverse
kilañ = to return
kilober = feedback
kilseller = retrospective

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH-lo-, from *(s)kewH- (to cover, conceal, hide). The English words such as hide, hose, house and sky come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wings

Today we’re looking at the words for wings and related things in Celtic languages.

Wings

Proto-Celtic *ɸeto/*feto- = to fly
*fatar/*fatanos/*fetnos = wing, bird
Old Irish (Goídelc) ette [ˈetʲe] = wing, pinion, fin, feather, plume
ettech/ittech = winged, finned, flying, fluttering
Irish (Gaeilge) eite [ˈɛtʲə] = wing, pinion, wing feather, fin, vane
eiteach = winged, pennate, plumed, feathered, finned
eiteog = wing, (little) wing feather, (little) fin, wing-like
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ite [içdʲə] = feather, plume, fin, overlap, blade
iteach [ihdʲəx] = feathery, feathered, finned
itealach = winged, flying, hovering, fluttering
Manx (Gaelg) fedjag [ˈfaiaɡ] = feather, plume, quill, pinion
fedjagagh = pinnate, feathery
Proto-Brythonic *atanī = wing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) adain = wing, fin
Welsh (Cymraeg) adain [ˈadai̯n/ˈadɛn/ˈaːdɛn] = wing, fin, arm, sleeve
adeiniog = winged
Old Cornish aden = leaf of a book
Old Breton attanoc = wing

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *peth₂- (to fly, to spread out) [source]. The English words such as feather, petal, pinion and helicopter come from the same PIE root [source].

Words for birds and larks come from the same Proto-Celtic roots.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ascall = armpit
Irish (Gaeilge) ascaill [ˈasˠkəl̠ʲ/ˈasˠkəl̪ˠ] = armpit, recess, avenue, axil
asclán = something carried under arm, armful, gusset
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) asgall [asgəl̪ˠ] = breast, bosom, armpit
Manx (Gaelg) aghlish = axil, armful, armpit
Proto-Brythonic *askell = wing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) asgell, askell = wing
Welsh (Cymraeg) asgell [ˈasɡaɬ / ˈaskaɬ] = wing, feather, fin, flank, side
asgellog = winged, feathered, flying, finned, scaly, barbed
asgellwr = winger, wing-forward (in sports)
asgellu = to feather (an arrow), put wings on, grow wings, shelter/protect (with wings)
Old Cornish ascall = wing
Cornish (Kernewek) askel = wing
Breton (Brezhoneg) askell [ˈas.kɛl] = wing, fin, flipper

Etymology: from the Latin ascella (wing), from axilla (little wing, axilla, armpit), a diminutive of āla (wing, armpit, shoulder blade) from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱs- (axis) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Knives

Today we’re looking at words for knife, and related words, in Celtic languages.

My Sgian Dubh

Proto-Celtic *skiyenā = knife
*skeno- = knife
Old Irish (Goídelc) scían [ˈɡavul] = knife
Irish (Gaeilge) scian [ʃciənˠ/ʃciːn̪ˠ] = knife, edge, side
scian aráin = bread knife
scian bhoird = table knife
scian feola = carving knife
scian fola = lancet
scian phóca = pocket knife, penknife
scianchlár = knife board
sciantaca knife rest
sceanra = knives, cutlery
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgian [sgʲiən] = knife, blade (of a peat spade)
sgian-dubh = skean dhu
sgian-bhùird = table knife
sgian-pheann = penknife
sgian- phòca(id) = pocket knife
sgian-arain = bread knife
Manx (Gaelg) skynn = knife
skynn annee = scalpel
skynn arran = bread knife
skynn attey = dagger, dirk, poniard, stiletto
skynn foalley = carving knife
skynn phenney/phoagey/phoggaid = penknife
skynn vuird = table knife
skynneyder = cutler
skynneydys = cutlery
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) esgïen / ysgien / sgïen / yskien = knife, sword, rapier
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgïen / sgien = knife, sword, rapier, cutter, parer, chopper, scymeter
Middle Breton squei(g)aff = to cut
Breton (Brezhoneg) skejañ = to cut, sever, split; severing, cutting, sectioning

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *skei- (to cut) [source]. The Welsh words were probably borrowed from Old Irish.

Proto-Brythonic *kullell = knife
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) celeell, kyllell, kallel = knife
Welsh (Cymraeg) cyllell [ˈkəɬɛɬ/ˈkəɬaɬ] = knife
cyllell bapur = paper knife
cyllell fara = bread knife
cyllell fwrdd = table knife
cyllell gerfio = carving knife
cyllell glun = dagger
Old Cornish collel = knife
Cornish (Kernewek) kollell = knife
kelyllik = pocket knife
Breton (Brezhoneg) kontell [ˈkɔ̃ntɛl] = knife
kontell amann = butter knife
kontell geuz, kontell fourmaj = cheese knife
kontell-vara = bread knife
kontellazh = cutlass
kontelleg = knife
kontilli, kontellerezh = cutlery

Etymology: from the Latin cultellus (small knife, dagger), from culter (knife, razor), possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kelH- (to cut, slipt, separate) [source], which is the root of the English word shelf [source], or from the PIE *(s)ker- (to cut off), which is also the root of such English words as carnival, carnivore, cortex, curt, sharp, shear and share [source].

English words from the same Latin root (cultellus) include: cutlass and cutlery [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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