Flowers

Words for flower, blossom and related words in Celtic languages.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *blātus = flower, blossom
Old Irish (Goídelc) bláth = flower, blossom, bloom
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth [bˠl̪ˠɑː/bˠl̪ˠaː] = blossom, flower; bloom, beauty, prime; prosperity, abundance
bláthach = floral, flowering
bláthadóir = florist
bláthadóireacht = cultivation of flowers
bláthaigh = to blossom, bloom
bláthóg = floret
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) blàth [bl̪ˠaː] = bloom, blossom, flower; consequence, effect; heyday
blàthaich = (to) flower, flourish
blàthach = flowery
Manx (Gaelg) blaa [bleː] = bloom, blossom, flower; heyday, pride
blaaghey = to bloom, blossom, bud, flourish, flower
blaagheyder = florist
blaaoil = floral, florid, flowery
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flower
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blodeuyn, blodeun, blodeuoed = flower
blodeu, blodev, bloden, blawt, blawd = flowers
Welsh (Cymraeg) blodyn [ˈblɔdɨ̞n / ˈbloːdɪn] = flower, bloom, blossoms, florets, flowering plant, petal
blodau = flowers, blooms, blossom, florets; flowering plant
blodeuad = flowering, blooming, blossoming
blodeua(f), blodeuo = to flower, bloom, blossom, bud; flourish, thrive, prosper; mature, gather flowers; to menstruate
blodeuaidd = floral, flower-like, flowering, floriform
blodeuas = bouquet
blodeuddwyn = floriferous, flower-bearing
Old Cornish blodon = flower, blossom
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blodon, bledzhian, bledzhan = flower, blossom
Cornish (Kernewek) bleujen [ˈblɛdʒən] = blossom, flower
bleujyowa = to blossom, flower
bleujyowek = flower bed
Old Breton bloduu = blossom, flower
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bleuzff = blossom, flower
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleuñv [blœ̃w] = flowers, flowering; apogee; menstruation
bleuã‘venn = flower
bleuñveg = flowerbed
bleuñvell = jewel, floret
bleuñvellek = flowery
bleuñvin = to flower, blossom, flourish

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (bloom, flower) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include bloom, blossom, blade, flower, flour and flourish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blood

Words for blood and related things in Celtic languages.

Blood

Proto-Celtic *wolis, *weli- = blood
Old Irish (Goídelc) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) fuil [fˠɪlʲ / fˠɨ̞lʲ] = blood
fuilaistriú = blood transfusion
fuilbheartach = sanguinary, bloody-minded
fuilchill = blood cell
fuilchíocrach = bloodthirsty
fuilchoirpín = blood corpuscle
fuildoirteadh = bloodshed
fuiligh, cuir fola = to bleed
cú fola = bloodhound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuil [ful] = blood, family, tribe, kindred
fuileachdach = bloody, bloodthirsty
fuil-mìos = menstruation, period
brùthadh-fala = blood pressure
cion-fala = anæmia
iomlaid fala = blood transfusion
marag-fhala = black pudding
ruith-fala = haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, piles
Manx (Gaelg) fuill [fuɪlʲ] = blood, breeding, kindred
fuill-vreck = bloodstained
coo folley = bloodhound
lhiggey fuill, roie folley = to bleed
mooinjer folley = blood relation
ym-roie folley = hemophilia
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gweli, gwely, gueli = wound, cut, gash
Welsh (Cymraeg) gweli [ˈɡwɛli] = (bleeding) wound, cut, gash, ulcer, sore
gweli angheuol mortal wound
gwelïaf, gwelïo = to wound, injure, hurt, exulcerate; to fester
gwelïog = fulls of wounds, sores, ulcers, wounded, bruised
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goly = wound, mark, hurt
guli = wound
Cornish (Kernewek) goli = injury, wound
goli bew/byw = ulcer
golia = to wound
goliesiges = casualty
Middle Breton gouli, goulyow = wound, injury
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouli = wound, injury

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to wound, strike) [source]. Words from the same root include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla [source].

Proto-Celtic *krū- = blood
*krowos = blood
*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crú = gore, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) cró [kɾˠoː / kɾˠɔː] = blood, gore
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crò [krɔː] = blood, gore, blood oath
crò-dhearg = crimson
Proto-Brythonic *krow = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crev, creu = blood
Welsh (Cymraeg) crau [kraɨ̯ /krai̯] = blood, gore, carnage, bloody
creulon = bloody, cruel, fierce, brutal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crow = gore, blood, death
Cornish (Kernewek) krow = bloodshed, gore

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kréwh₂s (blood) [source]. English words from the same root include crude and raw [source].

Proto-Celtic *wayos = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guayt, guaed, gwaet = blood. gore, juice, sap
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwaed [ˈɡwaːɨ̯d /ˈɡwai̯d] = blood. gore, juice, sap
gwaedlyf haemorrhage
gwaedlyd = bloody, sanguinary
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedogen = black pudding
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedu = to bleed
Old Cornish guit = blood
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gois, goys, goos, gos = blood
gosys = bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) goos [ˈɡuːz] = blood, bloodline
devera goos = to bleed, lose blood
gwaskedh goos = blood pressure
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwad [ˈɡwaːt] = blood, essence
gwadañ = to bleed
gwadegenn = black pudding, blood sausage
gwadgi = bloodhound
gwadorged = incest

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sailing

Words for sail and related things in Celtic languages.

sailing ship

Proto-Celtic *siglom = sail, course, run
Old Irish (Goídelc) séol [sʲeːu̯l] = sail
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) séol = sail
séolaid = to sail
Irish (Gaeilge) seol [ʃoːl̪ˠ/ʃɔːlˠ] = sail; covering, canopy; drift, tend, course, direction, flow, motion
seoladh = to sail, sailing; course, direction, guidance, dispatch
seoladóir = shipper
seoladóireacht = shipping
seolchrann = mast
seoltóir = sailor, sender, remitter, drover, (electrical) conductor
seoltóireacht = sailing
long seol = sailing ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seòl [ʃɔːl̪ˠ] = sail; navigate, direct, guide, govern, regulate
seòlaid = shipping route, passage, sway(ing), nervous movement
seòl-mara = tide
seòladair = sailor
seòladaireach = nautical
Manx (Gaelg) shiauill = sail, navigate,
shiauilley = to sail, navigate, sailing
shiauilteyr = ferryman, sailor, seafarer, seaman
shiaulteyragh = nautical
Proto-Brythonic *hɨɣl = sail, course, run
Old Welsh huil = sail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwyl, hvyl, huyl = sail
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwyl [huːɨ̯l/hʊi̯l] = sail, sheet, covering, pall; journey, progress, revolution, orbit, course, route, career, rush, assault; hilarity, jollity, mirth, amusement, fun, humour
hwylbawl, hwylbolyn = boom, bowspirt
hwylbren = mast, flagstaff
hwyldroaf, hwyldroi = to tack, change course, veer
hwylfa = way, narrow road or street, lane, path, alley, voyage
hwylfwrdd = sailboard, windsurfer
hwylfyrddio = to sailboard, windsurf
hwylio = to sail, embark, set out on a voyage or journey, navigate
hwyliwr = navigator, mariner, sailor, leader, organizer
Old Cornish guio = sail
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) gol, goyl, guil = sail (of a ship)
gwelan gôl = sail yard
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = sail
golya = to sail
skath-wolya = sailing boat
gorhel golyow = sailing ship
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = sail
gouelier = to sail
gouelierezh = sailmaker

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly from the Old English seġ(e)l (sail), from the Proto-Germanic *segl (sail), from *seglą (sheet, sail), the origins of which are uncertain. Possibly cognate with the Latin sagum (coarse woolen coat), from the Gaulish *sagos (wool cloak). Related words include sail in English, zeil (sail, tarpaulin) in Dutch, Segel (sail) in German, and sejl (sail) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s Leis an Lurgainn, a song in Scottish Gaelic about sailing:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sieving Riddles

Today we’re looking at the words for sieve and related things in Celtic languages.

Woman hands sieving flour

Proto-Celtic *krētros = sieve
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve, riddle
críatharach = marsh, morass, boggy wasteland
críathrad = act of winnowing, sifting, riddling
críathraid = sifts, riddles, spreads
Irish (Gaeilge) criathar [ˈcɾʲiəhəɾˠ / ˈcɾʲiːhəɾˠ] = sieve, riddle
criathach = pitted, perforated, swampy
criathrú = winnowing, sifting, honeycombing
criathradóir = winnower, sifter, maker of sieves
criathraigh = to sieve, winnow, riddle, sift, honeycomb
criathróir = animal surefooted on boggy ground
criathar meala = honeycomb
criathar mín = fine sieve
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criathar [krʲiə.ər] = riddle, sieve
criathar-tomhais = bushel (measure and implement)
criathar-garbh = riddle (implement)
criatharair [krʲiəhərɛrʲ] = sieve-maker
criathradh [krʲiarəɣ] = (act of) filtering
Manx (Gaelg) creear = sieve, riddle
creearey = sieve, pan, sift, riddle
creear meein = fine sieve
creear garroo = rough sieve
jannoo creear = to honeycomb
Proto-Brythonic *kruɨdr = wandering, sieve
Old Welsh cruitr = winnowing shovel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cruidir, crwydr = sieve
Welsh (Cymraeg) crwydr [ˈkrʰʊɨ̯dr̩ / ˈkrʰʊi̯dr̩] = a wandering, a roaming; misfortune, trouble, confusion, rout, dispersion; a straying, aberration, error; winnowing-fan, winnowing-shovel, sieve
crwydro = to wander, roam, stroll, gad about, stray, go astray, deviate, digress
crwydredig = wandering, vagrant, roving, stray
crwydro = barn, granary, farm building
crwydrwr = wanderer, vagrant, vagabond, rover, nomad
Old Cornish croider = sieve, riddle
Middle Cornish croider, crodar = sieve, riddle
Cornish (Kernewek) kroder = coarse sieve, strainer, riddle
kroder kroghen = bodhrán, hold-all
Old Breton croitir = sieve, riddle
Middle Breton croezr = sieve, riddle
Breton (Brezhoneg) krouer = sieve, riddle, screen
krouerañ = to sift, riddle, sieve
krouer liammoù = link generator
rakkroueriañ = pre-screening

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krey-trom (sieve) from *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include crime, crisis, riddle and secret in English, ceart (right, correct, true) in Irish, and crynu (to tremble, shake) and ergryn (horror, dread) in Welsh [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ferns and Bracken

Today we’re looking at the words for fern, bracken and related things in Celtic languages.

Maidenhair Spleenwort

Proto-Celtic *ɸratis, *frati- = fern, bracken
Gaulish ratis = fern, bracken
Old Irish (Goídelc) raithnech [ˈr͈aθʲnʲex] = fern, bracken
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) raith = fern, bracken
Irish (Gaeilge) raithneach = fern, bracken
raithneachán = ferny place
raithneachúil = ferny
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raineach [r̪ˠan̪ʲəx] = fern, bracken; hashish, weed
raith [r̪ˠɛ] = fern, bracken
raineachail = abounding in fern, ferny, like fern
Manx (Gaelg) renniagh = fern, bracken
renniaghoil = ferny
Proto-Brythonic *rrėdɨn = ferns, bracken
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rhedyn = ferns, bracken
retinoc, redinauc, rhydynog = ferny
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhedyn [ˈr̥ɛdɨ̞n / ˈr̥eːdɪn] = ferns, bracken
rhedynen = fern
rhedyn eryraidd = bracken
rhedyna = to gather ferms
rhedynaidd = ferny
rhedyneg = ferny ground
rhedynog = ferny (land), abounding with ferns, fern-like, made of fern
Old Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen, redanen = fern
Cornish (Kernewek) reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Breton reden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern
Breton (Brezhoneg) raden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *p(t)erH- (fern) [source].

The English word fern comes from the same PIE root, via the Old English fearn and the Proto-West-Germanic *farn [source].

Other words from the same PIE root include paparde (fern) in Latvian, paproć (fern) in Polish, and папрат (fern) in Bulgarian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos is the root of the Galician words camba (doorjamb of an oven, handmill), cambar (to bend), cambiar (to change) [source].

*kambos was possibly also borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Proto-Celtic *wēros = crooked
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíar = bent, crooked, curved
Irish (Gaeilge) fiar [fʲiəɾˠ] = slant, tilt, bias, obliquity, bend, twist, crookedness, perverseness; slanting, tilted, oblique, diagonal
fiaradh to slant, tilt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fiar [fiər] = bent, crooked, squint, wry, oblique, perverse
fiaragach = slanted, twisted, touchy
fiaranaich = slant
fiaradh = slanting, slant, distorting, skewing, distortion
fiarach = inclinning, slanting
fiaras = crookedness
Proto-Brythonic *gwuɨr = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvir, gwyr [ɡwɨr] = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyr [ɡuːɨ̯r/ɡʊi̯r] = askew, slanting, oblique, aslant, cross(-eyed), squinting, crooked, curved, bent, distorted, unjust, dishonest, wrong, evil; wickedness, error, wandering, twist
gwyrio = to bow, stoop, bend, lean, incline, slant, slope
gwyraidd = sloping, slanting, stooping
Cornish (Kernewek) gwarr = curve
gwarak = arch, arc, bow, crescent
Middle Breton goar = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwar = curved
gwared = arch

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *weh₁iros (turned, twisted), from *weh₁y- (to twist, wrap) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sisters

Today we’re looking at the words for sister and related people in Celtic languages.

Sisters

Proto-Celtic *swesūr [ˈswe.suːr] = sister
Gaulish suiorebe = sister
Old Irish (Goídelc) siur [ˈsʲi.ur] = sister, kinswoman, female relation
derbṡiur [ˈdʲerʲvʲ.fʲi.ur] = sister (by blood / in a religious community)
sinserṡiur [ˈsʲinsʲerˌhi.ur] = elder sister
Irish (Gaeilge) siúr [ʃuːɾˠ] = sister, kinswoman; Sister (member of a religious community); (nursing) sister
deirfiúr = sister
deirfiúr athar = paternal aunt
deirfiúr máthar = maternal aunt
deirfiúr céile = sister-in-law
leathchúpla deirféar = twin sister
iníon deirféar = brother’s son, niece
mac deirféar = sister’s son, nephew
deirféar = sisterly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) siùir [ʃuːrʲ] = sister (archaic)
piuthar [pju.ə] = sister
piùthrag [pjuːrag] = little sister, sis
piutharail [pju.əral] = sisterly
peathrachas [pɛrəxəs] = sisterhood, soroity
piuthar-chèile = sister-in-law
piuthar leth-aon = twin sister
piuthar-altraim = foster-sister
piuthar-athar = paternal aunt
piuthar-màthar = maternal aunt
Manx (Gaelg) shuyr [ʃuːr] = sister
shayragh, shuyroil = sisterly
shuyrys = sisterhood
shuyr (v)ayrey = aunt
shuyr gholtit = foster-sister
shuyr lannoonagh = twin sister
shuyr ‘sy leigh = sister-in-law
Proto-Brythonic *hwehir = sister
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chwaer = sister
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwaer [χwaːɨ̯r / χwai̯r] = sister, half-sister, female mate or partner; maiden, sweetheart, mistress; nun, sister (in hospital)
chwaer efell = twin sister
chwaer faeth = foster sister
chwaer fedydd = god-sister
chwaer yng nghyfraith = sister-in-law
hanner chwaer = half-sister, step-sister
chwaerol = sisterly
chwaeroliaeth = sisterhood
Old Cornish huir = sister
Cornish (Kernwek) hwor = sister
hanter-hwor = half-sister
Old Breton guoer = sister
Middle Breton hoer = sister
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hoar = sister
c’hoarig = sis, little sister; twin sister
c’hoarelezh = sisterhood
c’hoar-gaer, c’hoareg = sister-in-law, stepsister

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *swésōr (sister) [source].

Here’s a traditional Scottish Gaelic song about sisters – A’ phiuthrag ’sa phiuthar

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Salt

Today we’re looking at the words for salt and related things in Celtic languages.

salt

Proto-Celtic *salanos = salt
Old Irish (Goídelc) salann [ˈsalan͈] = salt
Irish (Gaeilge) salann [ˈsˠɑl̪ˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠalˠən̪ˠ / ˈsˠɔlˠən̪ˠ] = salt
saill = to salt, cure, season
sailleadh = salting, curing
saillteacht = saltiness
saillteoir = salter, curer
sáiltéar = salt-cellar
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) salann [sal̪ˠən̪ˠ] = salt
salainneach [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəx] = salty
salainneachadh [sal̪ˠɪn̪ʲəxəɣ] = (act of) salting, (act of) curing with salt, salinisation
Manx (Gaelg) sollan [ˈsolan] = salt
sailjey = brackish, briny, corned, pickled, saline, salt, salty
Proto-Brythonic *haluɨn = salt
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) halaen, halen = salt
Welsh (Cymraeg) halen [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = salt, sodium chloride; brine; moral élite, the excellent of the earth, wit, eloquence
halenu = to salt, become salt
halenaidd = saline, salty, brackish
halenydd = salt, saline, brackish
halenog = salt, saliferous, saline, salty
halenwr = salt dealer, salt maker
hâl = salt, alkali, salty, saline, alkaline
hallt = salt, salty, briny, brackish, sharp, preserved in salt, pickled; bitter, sharp, harsh, severe; sea, the brine, the briny
halltog = salt, salty
Old Cornish haloin = salt
Middle Cornish halan, halen = salt
Cornish (Kernewek) holan = salt
holanen = grain of salt
Middle Breton halon = salt
Breton (Brezhoneg) holen = salt
holener = salt cellar
holenañ = salt dealer/seller

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *séh₂ls (salt) [source].

The English words salt, salary, salad, sauce and salsa come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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