Halloween

Words for Halloween, November and related things in Celtic languages.

Happy Halloween Season Flickr!

Proto-Celtic *samonios, *samoni- = assembly, (feast of the) first month of the year
Gaulish samoni- = assembly, (feast of the) first month of the year
Old Irish (Goídelc) samain [ˈsaṽinʲ] = Halloween, November, All Saint’s Day, All Hallows, Samhain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) samain, samḟuin = first November, the festival held on that date, All Saints’ Day, All Hallows
idchi samna = the eve of samain
Irish (Gaeilge) Samhain [sˠaunʲ/sˠəunʲ/ˈsˠãuwənʲ] = Halloween, November, All Saint’s Day, All Hallows, Samhain
Mí na Samhna = (month of) November
Oíche Shamhna = Halloween
Lá Samhna = first November, All Hallows
Lá Sean-Samhna = 12th November
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Samhain [ˈsãũ.ɪn̪ʲ] = All Saints’ Day, All Souls’ Day
An t-Samhain [ən̪ tãũ.ɪn̪ʲ] = November
Oidhche Shamhna = Halloween
bó-Shamhna = Halloween cow (cow killed at Halloween for a winter supply of beef)
samhnag [sãũnag] = Halloween bonfire
samhnair [sãũnɛrʲ] = Halloween guiser/mummer
Manx (Gaelg) Sauin [ˈsoːɪnʲ] = November, Hollantide
Souney = All Hallow’s Day, Hollantide Day
Laa Souney = November
Mee Houney = November
Oie Houney = All Hallow’s Eve, Hallowe’en, Hollandtide Eve, Hop tu Naa
veih Sauin gys Boaldyn = long-winded (from Samhain to Beltane)
cro souney = horse chestnut

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sem- (together, one), or from the Proto-Celtic *samo- (summer) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) callan = calends
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) callann = calends, first day of the month
Irish (Gaeilge) caileann = calends
Lá Caille = New Year’s Day
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cailindha = calends (of a month)
Manx (Gaelg) Caillyn = calends
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kalan = first day of the year, New Year’s day, first day of each month, calends
Kalan Gayaf = All hallows’ day, All Saints’ day, first of November
Welsh (Cymraeg) calan [ˈkalan/ˈkaːlan] = first day of the year, New Year’s day, first day of each month, calends
Calan Gaeaf = All hallows’ day, All Saints’ day, first of November
nos Galan Gaeaf = Halloween
calannig [kaˈlɛnɪɡ/ˈklɛnɪɡ] = gift given at New Year, (Christmas) present
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) calan = the calends, first day of the month
Calan gauav = first November
Deu halan gûav = All Saints’ Day, the calends of winter
Dydh Calan = New Year’s Day
Cornish (Kernewek) kalan = calends, first of the month
Kalan Genver = New Year’s Day
Kalan Gwav = All Hallows
Dy’ Halan Gwav = Saint Allan’s Day, Feast of Saint Allan (day of the first day of winter)
Nos Kalan Gwav = Allantide (eve of the first day of winter)
Middle Breton kaland = calends
kal, kala = first day of the month
kala-bloaz = first day of the year
kala-goañv = first November
kal-ar-goañv, Kalar goan, kal ar goañ = All Saints’ Day, first November
Breton (Brezhoneg) kala = calends, first day of the month
kala-bloaz = first day of the year
kala-goañv, Kalan Goañv = first November

Etymology: from the Vulgar Latin calandae (calends, the first day of the month) from the Latin kalendae (calends, the first day of the month), from calō (I call, announce solemnly, call out) from the Proto-Italic *kalēō from the Proto-Indo-European *kelh₁- (to call, summon) [source].

Words from calendar many languages, including English, come from the same roots, via the Latin calendārium (account book, debt book) [source].

Details of Celtic traditions associated with this time of year:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samhain
https://ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lá_Samhna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-tu-Naa
https://gv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-tu-Naa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halloween
https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gŵyl Calan Gaeaf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allantide

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Seasons

Words for seasons in Celtic languages.

Spring

Proto-Celtic *wesrakos / *wesantos = spring
Old Irish (Goídelc) errach [ˈer͈ax] = spring
Irish (Gaeilge) earrach [əˈɾˠax / ˈaɾˠəx / ˈaɾˠa(h)] = spring
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) earrach [jar̪ˠəx] = spring
Manx (Gaelg) arragh [ˈarax] = spring
Proto-Brythonic *wesantēnos = spring
Old Welsh guiannuin = spring
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwaeanhwyn / gwaeannwyn / gwannwyn = spring
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanwyn [ˈɡwanwɨ̞n / ˈɡwanwɪn] = spring, springtime
Old Cornish guaintoin = spring
Cornish (Kernewek) gwaynten = spring
Breton (Brezhoneg) nevez-amzer = spring

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *wósr̥ (spring) [source].

Spring Blossom / Blodau y Gwanwyn

Summer

Proto-Celtic *samos = summer
Gaulish samo- = summer
Old Irish (Goídelc) sam [saṽ] / samrad [ˈsaṽrað] = summer
Irish (Gaeilge) samhradh [ˈsˠəuɾˠə / ˈsˠəuɾˠuː / ˈsˠəuɾˠu] = summer, summer garland
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) samhradh [sãũrəɣ] = summer
Manx (Gaelg) sourey [ˈsaurə] = summer
Proto-Brythonic *haβ̃ = summer
Old Welsh ham = summer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) haf = summer
Welsh (Cymraeg) haf [haːv / haː] = summer
Old Cornish haf = summer
Cornish (Kernewek) hav = summer
Old Breton ham = summer
Middle Breton haff = summer
Breton (Brezhoneg) hañv = summer

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-h₂-ó- (summer) [source].

King John's Castle / Caisleán Luimnigh

Autumn

Old Irish (Goídelc) fogamar / fogomur [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = autumn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fogamur = harvest
Irish (Gaeilge) fómhar [ˈfˠoːɾˠ / ˈfˠoːvˠəɾˠ / ˈfˠɔːwəɾˠ] = autumn, harvest season, harvest
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foghar [fo.ər] = autumn, harvest, (act of) harvesting
Manx (Gaelg) fouyr = harvets, autumn
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heduref / heduueref = autumn
possibly from hydd (stag) &‎ bref (bellow)
Welsh (Cymraeg) hydref [ˈhədrɛ(v) / ˈhədra] = autumn, period of full maturity, rutting season, mating time
Cornish (Kernewek) hedra / kynnyay / kydnyadh = autumn
Breton (Brezhoneg) here / kozhamzer / diskar-amzer = autumn

Etymology (Goidelic languages), from the Proto-Celtic *wo-gamur (under winter) from *gamur (winter) [source].

autumn falls...

Winter

Proto-Celtic *gyemos / *gamur = winter
Gaulish giamos = winter (personal name)
Primitive Irish ᚌᚐᚋᚔ- (gami/gen) = winter
Old Irish (Goídelc) gam / gaim = winter, winter storm
gaimred [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = winter
Irish (Gaeilge) geimhreadh [ˈɟiːɾʲə / ˈɟiːvʲɾʲə / ˈɟɛvʲɾʲu] = winter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geamhradh [gʲãũrəɣ] = winter
Manx (Gaelg) geurey [ˈɡʲeurə / ˈɡʲuːrə] = winter
Old Welsh gaem = winter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gayaf = winter
Welsh (Cymraeg) gaeaf [ˈɡeɨ̯av / ˈɡei̯av] = winter
Old Cornish goyf = winter
Cornish (Kernewek) gwav / gwâv = winter
Old Breton guoiam = winter
Middle Breton gouaff = winter
Breton (Brezhoneg) goañv [ˈɡwãw / ˈɡwã] = winter

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰyem- (winter, year, frost, snow) [source].

Coed efo eira arno

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the seasons, days and seasons in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Days

Words for day in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *dīyos = day
*gdijes = yesterday
*noxt-yēr- = yesterday evening, last night
*se-diwos = today
*sindai noxtē = tonight
Old Irish (Goídelc) día [dʲiːa̯] = day
indé = yesterday
irráir [əˈɾʲeːɾʲ] = yesterday evening, last night
indiu = today
innocht = tonight
i mbárach = tomorrow
Irish (Gaeilge) dia [dʲiə] = day
inné [əˈn̠ʲeː] = yesterday
aréir [əˈɾʲeːɾʲ] = yesterday evening, last night
inniu [əˈn̠ʲʊ / ɪˈn̠ʲʊv] = today
anocht [əˈn̪ˠɔxt̪ˠ] = tonight
amárach [əˈmˠaːɾˠəx] = tomorrow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dia [dʲiə] = day
an-dè [ən̠ʲ’dʲeː] = yesterday
a-raoir [əˈrɤirʲ] = yesterday evening, last night
an-diugh [əɲˈdʲu] = today
a-nochd [əˈn̠ˠɔ̃xg] = tonight
a-màireach [əˈmaːrʲəx] = tomorrow
Manx (Gaelg) je/jy = day
jea = yesterday
riyr = yesterday evening, last night
jiu = today, nowadays
noght = tonight
mairagh = tomorrow
Proto-Brythonic *dið = day, daytime
*hanoɨθ = tonight
Old Welsh did = day
heddiw = today
henoid = tonight
yfory = tomorrow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyð [dɨːð] = day
doe = yesterday
neithuir / neithwyr = yesterday evening, last night
heddiw / hediw / hetiv = today
heno = tonight
auory = tomorrow
Welsh (Cymraeg) dydd [dɨːð / diːð] = day, time of daylight, light
ddoe [ðoːɨ̯ / ðɔi̯] = yesterday
neithiwr [ˈnei̯θjʊr / ˈnei̯θjʊr] = yesterday evening, last night
heddiw [ˈhɛðɪu̯ / ˈheːðɪu̯] = today
heno [ˈhɛnɔ / ˈheːnɔ] = tonight
yfory [əˈvɔrɨ / əˈvoːri] = tomorrow
Old Cornish det = day
doy = yesterday
hetheu = today
aurorou = tomorrow
Cornish (Kernewek) dydh [diːð] = day
de = yesterday
nyhewer = yesterday evening, last night
hedhyw = today
haneth = tonight
a-vorow [əˈvɔɾoʊ] = tomorrow
Breton (Brezhoneg) deiz [ˈdɛj / ˈdɛjs / ˈdeː] = day
dec’h = yesterday
neizheur / dec’h da noz = yesterday evening, last night
hiziv = today
fenoz = tonight
(w)arc’hoazh [war.ˈɣwɑːs] = tomorrow

Etymology (day): from the Proto-Indo-European *dyew- (to be bright, sky, heaven) [source].

Etymology (tomorrow): from the Proto-Celtic bāregos (morning), either from *bā-rigos (cow-tying), or from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂-h₃reǵos (light-extending) [source].

Proto-Celtic *latyom = day
Old Irish (Goídelc) [l̪ˠaː] / laithe = day
Irish (Gaeilge) [l̪ˠɑː / l̪ˠæː] = day, daytime; current time; lifetime; point of time
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) latha [l̠ˠa.a] = day
Manx (Gaelg) laa [leː / laː] = day, daytime

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *leh₁t- (warm part of the year) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the months (and days and seasons) in Celtic languages

Days in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Globse

Weeks

Words for week and related words in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) sechtmain = week
Irish (Gaeilge) seachtain [ˈʃaxt̪ˠənʲ] = week
an tseachtain seo caite = last week
an tseachtain seo = this week
an tseachtain seo chugainn = next week
deireadh seachtaine = weekend
coicís = fortnight
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seachdain [ʃɛxgɛn̪ʲ] = week
an t-seachdain sa chaidh = last week
an t-seachdain-sa = this week
an ath-sheachdain = next week
deireadh-seachdain / ceann-seachdain = weekend
cola-deug = fortnight
Manx (Gaelg) shiaghtin = week
yn çhiaghtyn s’jerree, yn çhiaghtyn shoh chaie = last week
yn çhiaghtin shoh = this week
yn çhiaghtin er giyn, yn çhiaghtin shoh çheet = next week
jerrey shiaghtin = weekend
kegeesh = fortnight
Welsh (Cymraeg) wythnos [ˈʊɨ̯θnɔs / ˈʊi̯θnɔs] = week
yr wythnos diwetha(f) = last week
yr wythnos hon = this week
yr wythnos nesa(f) = next week
penwythnos = weekend
pythefnos = fortnight
Cornish (Kernewek) seythen [ˈsəiθən] = week
an seythen diwettha = last week
an seythen ma = this week
an seythen nessa = next week
pennseythen [pɛnsəiθən] = weekend
hanter-mis = fortnight
Breton (Brezhoneg) sizhun [ˈsiː.zỹn] = week
ar sizhun diwezhañ = last week
ar sizhun-mañ = this week
ar sizhun nesañ = next week
diben-sizhun = weekend
pemzektez = fortnight

Weeks in Celtic languages

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx): from the Late Latin septimāna (week), from the Latin septimus (seventh) [source]. The Cornish and Breton words are also related to seven.

Etymology (wythnos): from wyth (eight) and nos (night) – so a week in Welsh has eight nights, counting from midnight on Saturday to the following Saturday night.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the months, days and seasons in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Globse

Months

Words for month in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *mīns = month
Old Irish (Goídelc) mi = month
Irish (Gaeilge) [mʲiː] = month
an mhí seo cáite = last month
an mhí seo = this month
an mhí seo chugainn = next month
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mìos [miəs] = month
a’ mhìos sa chaidh = last month
a’ mhìos seo = this month
an ath-mhìos = next month
Manx (Gaelg) mee [miː] = month
yn vee shoh chaie = last month
yn vee sho = this month
yn vee shoh çheet = next month
Proto-Brythonic *mis = month
Welsh (Cymraeg) mis [miːs / miːs / miːʃ] = month, oestrus
y mis diwedda(f) = last month
y mis hwn = this month
y mis nesa(f) = next month
Cornish (Kernewek) mis = month
Breton (Brezhoneg) miz = month
ar miz diwezhañ = last month
ar miz-mañ = this month
ar miz kentañ = next month

Etymology (month): possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *mḗh₁n̥s (moon, month) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the months (and days and seasons) in Celtic languages

Months in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Years

Words for year in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *blēdanī / *bleido = year
*ɸeruti = last year
*se-blidnī = this year
Old Irish (Goídelc) blíadaín = year
uraid [ˈurəðʲ], urid, innurid = last year
Irish (Gaeilge) bliain [bʲlʲiənʲ] = year
anuraidh [əˈn̪ˠɔɾˠə] = last year
i mbliana = this year
an bhliain seo chugainn = next year
athbliain / An Bhliain Nua/Úr = (the) New Year
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bliadhna [bliən̪ˠə] = year, vintage
an-uiridh [ˈurəðʲ] = last year
am bliadhna [əm’bliən̪ˠə] = this year
(an) athbhliadhna [(ə’n̪ˠ)aflɪn̪ʲ] = next year
athbliain / A’ Bhliadhna Ùr = (the) New Year
Manx (Gaelg) blein [blʲeːnʲ / blʲiᵈn] = year, twelvemonth
nurree = last year
mleeaney = this year
yn vlein ry heet, yn vlein shoh çheet = next year
Nollick Veg, Yn Vlein Noa = New Year
Old Welsh bloidin = year
Welsh (Cymraeg) blwyddyn [ˈblʊɨ̯ðɨ̞n / ˈblʊi̯ðɪn] = year, a long time, ages; lifetime, life
blwydd [bluːɨ̯ð / blʊi̯ð] = year (of age), twelve months (old), birthday, yearling
llynedd [ˈɬənɛð] = last year
eleni [ɛˈlɛnɪ / ɛˈleːni] = this year
blwyddyn nesaf = next year
blwyddyn Newydd = New Year
Old Cornish bliþen = year
Cornish (Kernewek) bledhen = year
bloodh = year (of age)
warlena / warleni = last year
hevlena / hevleni = this year
nessa bledhen = next year
Bledhen Nowydh = New Year
Breton (Brezhoneg) bloavezh = year
ar bloaz a zeu = last year
hevlene = this year
ar bloaz tremen(et) / paseet = next year
kala-bloaz = New Year

Etymology (year): possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰloyd- (pale) [source].

Etymology (last year – Goidelic languages): from the Proto-Indo-European *péruti (last year) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Athbhliain faoi mhaise duit, Bliadhna mhath ùr, Blein Vie Noa, Blwyddyn newydd dda, Bledhen Nowydh Da, Bloavezh mat, Happy New Year!

Thames Festival fireworks

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Time & Weather

Words for time and weather in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) amm = point of time
Irish (Gaeilge) am [aumˠ / ɑːmˠ / amˠ] = time, point of time, occasion, usual, due, proper, opportune, season, period
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àm [ãũm/amə] = time, occasion, period
Manx (Gaelg) am = time

Etymology: unknown

Proto-Celtic *amsterā = time, movement
Old Irish (Goídelc) aimser [ˈamʲsʲer] = point in time, period of time, age, epoch, rule, reign, season, weather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aimser [ˈamʲʃər] = time
Irish (Gaeilge) aimsir [ˈamʲʃəɾʲ / ˈæːmʲʃəɾʲ] = mind, mental state, disposition, attention, spirits, intention, accord
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aimsir [ɛmɛʃɪrʲ] = climate, weather, season, era, time, reign
Manx (Gaelg) emshir [ˈɛmʃər] = weather, weather conditions, tense, time
Old Welsh amser = time
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amser [ˈamser] = time
Welsh (Cymraeg) amser [ˈamsɛr / ˈamsar] = time, occasion, date, opportunity
Cornish (Kernewek) amser = (grammatical) tense
Breton (Brezhoneg) amzer = time, weather

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂meh₁- (to mow, reap, harvest).

Proto-Celtic *trātu = time, hour
Old Irish (Goídelc) tráth [traːθ] = period of time, hour, point in time, day
Irish (Gaeilge) tráth [t̪ˠɾˠɑː / t̪ˠɾˠæː] = hour, time, occasion, day, period
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tràth [traː] = time, meal, (grammatical) tense, when, phrase, season
Manx (Gaelg) traa = duration, time, period, occasion, tempo

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross, pass).

Proto-Celtic *kʷritus = time, movement
Old Irish (Goídelc) cruth [kruθ] / crud [kruð] = form, shape, manner, way
Irish (Gaeilge) cruth [kɾˠʊ(h)] = shape, appearance, state, condition, manner, mode
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruth [kruh] = form, shape, figure
Manx (Gaelg) croo = shape, appearance, format, coinage, creation, create, coining, form, build
Proto-Brythonic *prɨd = shape, form. time
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pryd/pryt = time. occasion
Welsh (Cymraeg) pryd [prɨːd / priːd] = time, occasion, period, season, day, meal(time), when, while
Old Cornish prit = time
Cornish (Kernewek) prys = time, season
Middle Breton pred = moment, meal
Breton (Brezhoneg) pred = moment, meal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- (to do, make, build).

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tywyd = weather
Welsh (Cymraeg) tywydd [ˈtəu̯.ɨ̞ð / ˈtəu̯.ɪð] = weather
Cornish (Kernewek) tewedha = weather

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

DUBLIN

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek