Similar Likeness

Today we’re looking at words for likeness, similarity and related things in Celtic languages.

Horses at Castlebridge Stud, Ireland

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *samalis = likeness, similarity
Gaulish samalo- = similar, like
Old Irish (Goídelc) samail [ˈsaβ̃ɨlʲ] = likeness, similarity, description
cosmail [ˈkosβ̃ɨl] = like, alike, similar
maccsamla = equal, match
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) samail, samhail = likeness, similarity, description, simile, metaphor; like, as
cosmail = like, similar, likely, probable, fitting, proper, becoming, likeness, similarity
mac(c)samla = an equal, match, the like (of)
Irish (Gaeilge) samhail = likeness, semblance, similitude, image, effigy, represetation, model, phantom, spectre
samhailchomhartha = symbol
samhailchomharthaigh = to symbolize, typify
samhailteach = imaginary
samhalta = visionary, fanciful, unreal, virtual
samhaltach = symbolic
samhaltas = symbolism
cosúil [kəˈsˠuːlʲ / ˈkɔsˠuːlʲ] = resembling like
macasamhail = like, equal, counterpart, reproduction, copy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) samhail, samhla [sãũ.al / sãũl̪ˠə] = figure, sign, symbol, shape, form, allegory, metaphor, likeness, (re)semblance, like, as similar to
samhailt [sãũ.aldʲ] = figure, sign, symbol, shape, form, example, apparition
samhlach = emblematical, typical, ghostly
samhlachas = analogy, symbolism
samhlachdainn = comparing, likening, symbolising
samhlaidheachd = symbolism
cosail [kɔsal] = similar, (a)like
mac-samhail = likeness, replica, duplicate, facsimile, equal, like
Manx (Gaelg) soyl = model
cosoyley = semblance, simile, symbol, analogy
cosoylagh = alike, allegoric(al), likely, symbolic
macsoyley = instance, metaphor
Proto-Brythonic *haβ̃al [haˈβ̃aːlˑ] = like, similar, as
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) haval, haual, hafal = like, similar
val, fal = as, like, similar
cyhaual, kyhafal, cyhafal = (very) similar, like, resembling, alike, even, equal
dyfaly, dyfalu = to guess, suppose
euylychv, euelychu = to imitate, copy
Welsh (Cymraeg) hafal [ˈhaval] = like, similar, resembling, equal, fellow
hafalu = to equal(ize), equate
hafaledd = equality
hafaliad = equation
fel, fal [vɛl, val] = as, like, similar
cyhafal = (very) similar, like, resembling, alike, even, equal
dyfalu = to guess, suppose, fancy, imagine
efelychu = to imitate, copy
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) haval = like, similar, resembling
havalder = likeness, similitude, resemblance
avel = like, similar
cehafal = equal, like, similar
Cornish (Kernewek) haval = alike, resembling, similar
avel, vel = as, like
kehaval = alike, equal
kehavalen = equation
Old Breton (Brethonoc) amal, hamal, hemel = similar, thus, like, similarly
Middle Breton (Brezonec) haual, haffual, hânvel = similar, likely
haualder = resemblance, likeness
haualier = to compare, seem, resemble
dishaval = dissimilar, different
Breton (Brezhoneg) hañval [ˈhã.val] = similar, likely
heñval [ˈhɛ̃ː.vɛl] = similar, same
hañvalat = apparent, seeming
hañvalder = resemblance, likeness
hañvalidigezh = appearance, aspect, resemblance
hañvalout = to compare, seem, resemble
dishañval = dissimilar, different, extra, great, super

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *sem-h₂-lo-, from *sem- (together, one) [source]. Words from the same roots include mile, same, seem, simple, some, similar and system in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Seeds

Words for seed and related things in Celtic languages.

Seeds

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīlom = seed
Old Irish (Goídelc) síl [sʲiːl] = seed, cause, origin, semen, race, progency, descendants, offspring, breed
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) síl = seed, race, progency, descendants, offspring, breed,
sílach = seed
sílaid = to sow spread, breed, sower
sílaige = disseminator, one who propagates
sílaigthid = sower
sílem = sower
sílne = seed, sperm
Irish (Gaeilge) síol [ʃiː(ə)l̪ˠ] = seed, semem, sperm, offspring, progeny
síolach = seedy
síoladóir = seedsman, sower, disseminator
síoladóireacht = (act of) seeding, sowing
síoladaí = disseminator, propagator
síolaicme = race, breed
síolaigh = to seed, sow, disseminate, spread
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìol [ʃiəl̪ˠ] = seed, sperm, descendants, progency, line, lineage, increase
sìolach [ʃiə̪ˠəx] = breed, brood, offspring
sìolachadh [ʃiəl̪ˠəxəɣ] = (act of) sowing seed, reproducing, propagating, breeding
sìoladair [ʃiəl̪ˠədɪrʲ] = seedsman, sower
sìolag [ʃiəl̪ˠag] = seedling, strainer
sìolaiche [ʃiəl̪ɪç] = propagator
Manx (Gaelg) sheel = seed, sperm,
sheelag = seedling
sheelagh = seedy, fruitful, seminal
sheeleyder = seedsman, distiller, dribbler, refiner
sheelraghey = to breed, propagate, breeding
Proto-Brythonic *hil = race, lineage
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hil = seed, issue, offspring, progeny, descendents
hiliad = producing, generation, propagation
hylyo, hilyo = to bring forth, breed, beget
Welsh (Cymraeg) hil [hiːl] = seed, issue, offspring, progeny, descendents, posterity, stock, lineage, race
hiliad = producing, generation, propagation, procreation, progency, lineage, offspring
hiliaeth = generation, progeny, lineage
hilio = to bring forth, breed, beget, propagate, increase, populate
hiliog = prolific, fruitful, fecund, fertile, pregrant
hiliogaeth = issue, offspring, seed, breed, race, posterity, descendants, lingeage
hiliwr, hilydd = racist
Cornish (Kernewek) hil = ethnicity, race
hilegydh(es) = racist
hilgasieth = racism
Breton (Brezhoneg) hil = seed, posterity
hilian, hiliañ = to procreate

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁- (to sow, plant, impress, insert) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include earn, season, seed, seminar and sow in English, säen (to sow) in German, siać (to spread, leave smth and forgot its location) in Polish, and sēt (to sow) in Latvian [source].

Proto-Celtic *satos = seed
Proto-Brythonic *had = seed
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hat, had = seeds
hadv, hadu = to bring forth or produce seed
Welsh (Cymraeg) had [haːd] = seeds, origin, source, bit, mite
hadaf, hadu = to bring forth or produce seed, grow seed, multiply, become fruitful, run to seed, sow, propagate
hadaidd = having seed, seedy, running to seed
hadblanhigyn = seedling
hadfa = seed-plot, nursery-garden
hadle = seed-plot, nursery, seminary, school
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) has, hâs = seed
Cornish (Kernewek) hasa = to sow
hasek = fruitful
has, hasen = seed, sperm
haslet = contraceptive
haslettyans = contraception
Old Breton (Brethonoc) att = seed
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hat = seed, grains, pips
hadaff, hadet, hada = to sow
Breton (Brezhoneg) had = seed, spawn, offspring
hadeg = seeding
hader = sower
haderezh = sowing
hadañ = to sow

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁- (to sow, plant, impress, insert) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Light Lungs

Words for light, lungs and related things in Celtic languages.

Feather

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *skamos = light (weight)
Old Irish (Goídelc) scam = lungs
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scamán, scaman = lung
scoim, scaim = lungs
Irish (Gaeilge) scamhóg [sˠkəˈvˠoːɡ / ˈsˠkawoːɡ] = lung
scamhógach = pulmonary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgamhan [sgavan] = lung
sgamhanach [sgavanəx] = pulmonary
Manx (Gaelg) scowan = lung
scowanagh = pulmonary, chesty, bronchial
Old Welsh (Kembraec) scamnhegint = to lighten
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ysgaỽn, yscafyn, ysgavyn, ysgafyn, yscawin, ysgawn = light, quick, swift, nimble
yscafny = to lighten
escavynder, yscavnder = lightness, frivolity, levity
yscaunhav, ysgauynhav, ysgauynhau = to lighten
eskeueynt, (y)scheueyn, yscefeint, ysgyueint = lungs, lights (food)
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgafn [ˈəsɡavn] = light, quick, swift, speedy, brisk, fleet, nimble, light-footed, mild, slight, cheap, easy, unimportant, trifling, soft (drink)
(y)sgafnaf, (y)sgafnu = to lighten, become giddy, brighten
ysgafnder = lightness, frivolity, levity
ysgafnhad = lightening, alleviation
ysgafnhau = to lighten
(y)sgyfaint, (y)sgyfain = lungs, lights (food), pulmonary disease, pneumonia
ysgyfeinaidd, ysgyfeiniol = pulmonary
Old Cornish sceuens = lungs
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scaf, scâv, scâff, sc(h)aff, sgav = light in weight, nimble
scevens, sceuens, skephans = lungs, lights
Cornish (Kernewek) skav = agile, flimsy, light, nimble, quick, slight, swift
skavder = agility, quickness, speed
skafhe = to lighten
skevens = lungs
scowanagh = pulmonary
Old Breton (Brethonoc) scam = light, frivolous, alert
Middle Breton (Brezonec) scanff = light, frivolous, alert
scaffhat = to lighten, mitigate, attenuate
squeuent, squèuent = lungs
Breton (Brezhoneg) skañv [ˈskã(w)] = light, frivolous, alert
skañvaad [skã.ˈfɑːt / skã.ˈvɑːt] = to lighten, mitigate, attenuate
skañvbennadurezh = frivolity
skañvded [ˈskãː.det] = lightness
skevent [ˈskeː.vɛnt] = lungs, pulmonary

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)ḱem- [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) étromm [ˈeːdrum] = light
étrommaigid = to lighten, alleviate
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étromm, etrom, étrom = light, airy, buoyant, slight, trifling, unimportant
Irish (Gaeilge) éadrom [ˈiːa̯d̪ˠəɾˠəmˠ / ˈeːd̪ˠɾˠəmˠ] = light, not deep, weak, thin, sparse, frivolous, trivial, light-headed, free from care
éadromaigeanta = light of spirit, light-hearted
éadromaigh = to lighten
éadromán = lightened, air-filled, object, balloon, float, light-headed person
éadromántacht = light-headedness, frivolity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aotrom [ɯːdrəm] = light, light-hearted, trivial, frivolous
aotromachd [ɯːdrəməxg] = lightness, levity, buoyancy
aotromaich [ɯːdrəmɪç] = lighten, make ligter, alleviate
aotromas [ɯːdrəməs] = lightness
Manx (Gaelg) eddrym = light(weight), unsubstantial, slight, mild, feint, benign, weak, empty (headed), flighty, shallow, silly, vain, frivolous
eddrymaghey = to lighten, unburden, alleviate, ease
eddrymid = lightness, levity, giddiness, mildness, shallowness
eddrymys = lightness, levity

Etymology: from Old Irish é- (un-) and trom (heavy) [source]. More on words for heavy in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Acorns

Words for acorns and related things in Celtic languages.

Acorns

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *messus = acorn, tree fruit
Old Irish (Goídelc) mess [mʲes] = nuts and berries, mast (fruit of forest trees, esp. if fallen and used as fodder for pigs, etc)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mes(s) = tree fruit, mast
mes(s)ach = fruitful
Irish (Gaeilge) meas [mʲasˠ] = fruit of forest tree, mast, offspring (literary)
measach = fruitful
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meas [mes] = fruit, mast
measraich [mɛsrɪç] = jam
measach [mesəx] = fruitful, fruity
measag [mesag] = small fruit
Manx (Gaelg) mess = fruit, issue
mess yn darragh = acorn
messoil = fruitful, fructiferous, plentiful, prolific, productive
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mes = acorns, mast, glands, measles (in animals)
messyryt, mesyryd = (abundance of) mast, autumn
Welsh (Cymraeg) mes = acorns, mast, glands, measles (in animals
mes derw = oakmast, acorns
mes Iau = chestnuts
mesa = to gather acorns, feed pigs on acorns
mesaig = meal of acorns
mesog = abounding in acorns, acorn-bearing, glandular, glandulous
meswr = acorn gatherer
Old Cornish mesin, mesen = acorn
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mesen = acorn
Cornish (Kernewek) mesen = acorn
mes = acorns
Old Breton (Brethonoc) mes = acorns, glands
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mez, mès, mes = acorns, glands
Breton (Brezhoneg) mezenn, mesenn = acron, gland
mez, mes [meːs] = acrons, glands
mesa = to look for acorns

Etmology: unknown, possibly from an non-Indo-European source [source].

Proto-Celtic *derkos = berry (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) derc [dʲerk] = berry
dercu = acorn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derc = berry
dercu, derucc, dearca, dercain = acorn
dercnach = abounding in acorns
Irish (Gaeilge) dearc = berry (literary)
dearca = acorn
dearcán = acorn, (head of) thistle
dearcnach = abounding in acorns
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearc [dʲɛr̪ˠxg] = berry
dearc-dharaich = acorn
dearcach [dʲɛr̪ˠxgəx] = pertaining to or abounding in berries
dearcag [dʲɛr̪ˠxgag] = small berry, shinty ball
dearcnag [dʲɛr̪ˠxgnag] = blackberry, brambles

Etmology: from PIE *dʰreh₂ǵ-, or from *derḱ- (to see) [source].

Another word for acorn in Welsh is gwerbl, the origins of which are uncertain.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mixed & Confused

In this post we’re getting mixed up and confused about words for drunk and related things in Celtic languages.

Drunk cat 1

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *miskos = mixture, confusion
*miskati = to mix, confuse
*kom-miskos = mixture, confusion
*kommiskati = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) mesc [mʲesk] = drunk, intoxicated
mescae [ˈmʲeskɘ] = drunkenness, intoxication
mescaid = to confuse
mesctha = confused, intoxicated
con·mesca [konˈmʲeska] = to mix together
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mesc(c) = drunk, intoxicated, mixed, confused, muddled, confusion
mescae = drunkenness, intoxication, daze, bewilderment, excitment
mescaid = to mix, bewilder, confuse, confound
mesctha = confused, intoxicated, mixed, variegated
con-mesca = to mix together, conmingle, join, unite
Irish (Gaeilge) measc [mʲasˠk] = jumble, confusion, to mix (up), blend, stir
meascadh = (ad)mixture, confusion
meascán = mass, lump, mixture, jumble, muddle
meascthóir = mixer, stirrer
meisce [ˈmʲɛʃcɪ / ˈmʲɪʃcɪ] = drunkenness, intoxication, daze, bewilderment
ar meisce = drunk, intoxicated
meisceoir = drunkard
meisceoireacht = drunkenness, inebriety
meisciúil = intoxicating, drunken, addicted to drinking
cumaisc = to mix together, blend, combine, compound, cohabit
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) measg [mesg] = mix, stir, mingle
am measg [ə mesg] = amongst, among
measgach [mesgəx] = sociable, gregarious, promiscuous
measgachadh [mesgəxəɣ] = mixing, mixure, combining
measgadair = mixer
measgadh [mesgəɣ] = mixing, stirring, mingling, mixture
misg [miʃgʲ] = drunkenness, inebriation, insobriety
air misg = drunk
misgeach [miʃgʲəx] = heady, drunk, intoxicated
misgear [miʃgʲər] = drunkard, tippler
coimeasg [kɔiməsg] = combine, merge, blend, mix
coimeasgadh [kɔməsgəɣ] = combining, combination, merging, merger, blending
Manx (Gaelg) mastey = amid(st), among(st), mingled, within, mixture
mestey = compound, mixture, jumble; to confuse, mix, mingle, mash, shuffle, stir
mestey-vestey = concoction, melee, mix up
meshtey [ˈmeʃtə] = inebriety
er meshtey = drunk, inebriated, intoxicated
meshtallagh = drunk(ard), boozer, inebriate
meshtallaght = promiscuity, drunkenness
meshtallys, meshtelllys, meshtyrys = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
covestey = to mix, mingle, merge
covestit = mixed, mingled, blended
Proto-Brythonic *mɨsk = amid, amidst
*mɨskad [mɨˈsˑkaːd] = to blend, mix, confuse
*kɨm-mɨsk = mixed, confused (?)
*kummɨskad = to mingle, confuse, mix
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mysc = mixing, mixture, confusion, mixed, confused
mysci, mysgi = turmoil, tumult
cymysc, kymysc, kymmysc, kymysg = mixed, mingled, blended, compound, mixture
cymyscu, kemescu, kymysgu, kymyscu = to mix, mixed, blend, compound
cymysced, cymmyscedd = mixture, compound, jumble
ymysg, ym mysc = among, between
Welsh (Cymraeg) mysg [mɨːsk / mɪsk] = mixing, mixture, confusion, mixed, confused, midst
mysgaf, mysgu = to undo, untie, unpick, unravel, disentangle, loosen, mix, mingle, jumble
mysgi = turmoil, tumult
cymysg [ˈkʰəmɨ̞sk / ˈkʰəmɪsk] = mixed, mingled, blended, compound, mixture
cymysgaf, cymysg(u) = to mix, mixed, blend, compound
ymysg = among, between, in the midst of
Old Cornish commisc = mixed
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mysc, mŷsk = midst, middle
cemescys, kemeskis, kemeskys = mixture
cemyscy, kemyskys, cymyscys, kemyskis = to mingle, mix
Cornish (Kernewek) mysk, mesk = midst
myska, meska = to blend, involve, mingle
myskas, myskii = mongrel
kemmysk = mix
kemyska = to mix, jumble, mingle
kemyskans = mixture
kemyskedh = hybrid
kemyskell = mixer (machine)
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mesc = mixture, chaos, disorder
mescaff, meskaff = to mix, blend, stir
quemesq [mɛ(z)w] = mixed, complex, confusion
quemesq(a) = to mix, merge
Breton (Brezhoneg) mesk [mesk] = mixture, chaos, disorder
meskaj [ˈmes.kaʃ] = mixure
meskañ [ˈmeskã] = to mix, blend, stir
meskata [ˈmeskat:a] = mixer
kemmesk [mɛ(z)w] = mixed, complex, confusion
kemmeskad = composite
kemmeskañ = to mix, merge

Etymology: from PIE *miḱsḱéti (to mix), from *meyḱ- (to mix) [source].

Words from the same roots include mash, meddle, medley, melee, miscellaneous, mix and promiscuous in English, mêler (to mix, meddle in, get mixed up in, shuffle) in French, mischen (to mix, shuffle) in German, and miesić (to knead) in Polish [source].

For words for drunk and related things in Brythonic languages, see the Celtiadur post Honey Wine.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Honey Wine

Words for mead, wine and related things in Celtic languages.

mead!

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *medu = mead, wine, alcoholic drink
*medwos = drunk
Celtiberian Mezu-kenos = personal name “mead-born”
Gaulish medu = mead
Medu-genos = personal name “mead-born”
Primitive Irish medu = mead
Primitive Irish *ᚋᚓᚇᚒ (*medu) = mead
ᚋᚓᚇᚇᚑᚌᚓᚅᚔ (meddogeni) = personal name “mead-born”
ᚋᚓᚇᚃᚃᚔ (medvvi) = personal name “meady”
Old Irish (Goídelc) mid [mʲið] = mead
Midgen = personal name “mead-born”
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mid, midh = mead
medb = strong, intoxicating (liquor)
Irish (Gaeilge) meá [mʲæh / mʲa(h)] = mead
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meadh [mjɤɣ] = mead
meadhach = fuddled with mead, like mead, abounding in mead
Manx (Gaelg) meddagh = mead-maker
Proto-Brythonic *með [mɛːð] = mead
Old Welsh (Kembraec) med = mead
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) met, med = mead
meddawt, meddavt, meddwdod = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
meddfaeth, metveith, meduaeth, medweith = nourished on mead, having feastedon mead, mead-feast
medgell, meddgell = mead-cellar, drink-cellar
met kirn, medgyrn, metgyrn, meddgyrn = mead-horn, drinking-horn
metv, medw, meddw = drunk
medwyt, medwi, meddwi [ˈmɛðwi] = to get drunk
Welsh (Cymraeg) medd [meːð] = mead
meddaidd = like mead, sweet
medd-dod, meddwdod = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
meddfaeth = luxurious, soft, gentle, delicate, pampered, effeminate
meddw [ˈmɛðu] = drunk, intoxicated, fuddled, tipsy
meddwi [ˈmɛðwi] = to be(come) drunk or tipsy, to be intoxicated or inebriated, to make drunky
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) medh, medu, meddou = mead
medhas = drunkenness, intoxication
medho = drunken, intoxicated
Cornish (Kernewek) medh = mead, hydromel
medhow = drunk, intoxicated
medhwenep = drunkenness, intoxication
medhwi = to intoxicate, make drunk
medhwynsi = drunkenness
Old Breton (Brethonoc) medot = mead
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mez = mead
Breton (Brezhoneg) mez [meː(s)] = mead
mezv [mɛ(z)w] = drunk, wobbly (furniture)
mezventi = alcoholism
mezvier = drunkard
mezvierezh = drunkenness
mezviñ [ˈmɛ(z)vĩ] = to get drunk
mezvus [ˈmɛ(z)vys] = intoxicating, heady

Etymology: from PIE *médʰu (honey, honey wine, mead), possibly related to Proto-Semitic *mataḳ- (sweet) [source].

Words from the same roots include mead in English, mead in English, mjöður (mead) in Icelandic, медведь [mʲɪdˈvʲetʲ] (bear, large clumsy person, lit. “honey eater”) in Russian, mesi (nectar) in Finnish, and possibly (mì / mitsu – honey) in Chinese and Japanese and (mil – beeswax, honey) in Korean [source].

The Irish name Méabh (Maeve) also comes from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *wīnom = wine
Leptonic 𐌖𐌉𐌍𐌏𐌌 (uinom) = wine
Old Irish (Goídelc) fín = wine
fín acat = vinegar
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fín = wine
fínán = cheap wine
fínda = pertaining to wine
fínmar = having abundance of wine
fíntan = vineyard
Irish (Gaeilge) fíon [fʲiːn̪ˠ] = wine
fíonchaor = grape
fíoncheannaí = wine merchant, vintner
fíonda = vinous, pertaining to wine
fíondaite = wine-coloured
fíonghort [ˈfʲiːnˠˌɣɔɾˠtˠ] = vineyard
fíonmhar = rich in wine, vinous
fíonsaothrú = viticulture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fìon [fiən] = wine
fìon-chaor [fiən xɯːr] = grape
fìon-chrann = grapevine
fìon-fhoghar = wine harvest, vintage
fìon-geur = vinegar
fìon-lios = vineyard
fìonadair = wine-maker
Manx (Gaelg) feeyn = wine
feeyney = of wine, vinous
feeyneyder = wine-maker, vintner
feeyneydys = viticulture
berrish-feeyney = grape
feeyn geayr = vinegar
fouyr feeyney = vintage
garey feeyney = vineyard
Proto-Brythonic *gwin = wine
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guin = wine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvin, guin, gwin = wine
gwinblas = mansion where wine is dispensed in abundance
gwindeveirn = wine-tavern
gwindy, gwin-dŷ = wine-house, wine-tavern, wine-cellar, banqueting house
guinegyr, gwinegyr = vinegar
guinlann, gwinllan(n) = vineyard, vine
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwin [ɡwiːn] = wine, fermented liquor made from the juice of fruits (apples, elderberries, rhubarb, gooseberries, etc), like wine, pleasant, sweet, fine, excellent
gwinbren = vine
gwindy = wine-house, wine-tavern, wine-cellar, banqueting house
gwinegr = vinegar
gwinllan = vineyard, vine, copse, grove, wood, plantation
gwinwr, gwinydd = vintner, vine-grower, vine-dresser, vineyard owner
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwin, guin = wine
gwinbren, guinbren = vine
Cornish (Kernewek) gwin [ɡwiːn] = wine
gwinbren = vine
gwinlan = vineyard
gwinyer = winemaker
Old Breton (Brethonoc) guin = wine
guiniin = vines
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guin, guyn = wine
guiny, guyni = vines
guynieyer = vineyard
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwin [ɡwĩːn / ɡɥĩːn] = wine
gwinegr [ɡwĩnˈɛk(r)] = vinegar
gwini [ˈɡɥĩːni] = vines
gwinieg [ɡɥĩ.ˈniː.ɛk] = vineyard
gwinier [ɡwĩ.ˈniː.ɛr / ɡɥĩ.ˈniː.ɛr] = winemaker
gwinioniezh [ɡɥĩ.nɔ̃ˈniː.ɛs] = oenology

Etymology: from Latin vīnum (wine, grapes, grapevine), from Proto-Italic *wīnom (wine), from Proto-Indo-European *wóyh₁nom (wine, vine). The Welsh and Cornish words come from Latin via Proto-Celtic, the Breton and Goidelic words were borrowed direct from Latin, and the Leptonic word comes direct from Proto-Italic [source].

Words from the same roots include wine, vine, vinegar and oenology (the scientific study of wines and winemaking) in English, wijn (wine) in Dutch, vino (wine) in Italian, wino (wine) in Polish, and possibly ወይን (wäyn – grape) in Amharic [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Eyebrows

Words for eyebrow, eyelash, eyelid and related things in Celtic languages.

002-365 Nothing But Eyebrows

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *abrant- = eyelid
Old Irish (Goídelc) abra = eyelash
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) abra eyelash, eyelid
fabra = eyelash, eyelid, fringe
Irish (Gaeilge) fabhra, abhra = eyelash, (eye)brow
fabhraí = fringe
fabhraíoch = pertaining to eyelashes, ciliary
fabhrán = cilium
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) abhra [aurə] = eyelid, eyelash
abhrad [aurəd] = eyelid, eyelash
fabhra [faurə] = eyelid, eyelash, fringe
fabhrad [faurəd] = eyelid, eyelash, fringe
Manx (Gaelg) ferroogh = eyelash, eyelid
Proto-Brythonic *abrant = eyelid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrant, amraỽt = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrant [ˈamrant] = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
ar amrant = in the twinkling of an eye, instantly
amrantaf, amrantu = to blink, wink, shut (eyes), doze, slumber sleep, fall asleep
amrantiad = twinkling of an eye, instant
amrantun = nap, sleep
amrantyn = twinkling of an eye, moment, instant, eyelid
Old Cornish abrans = eyebrow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) abrans = eyebrow
Cornish (Kernewek) abrans [ˈabrans] = eyebrow
Middle Breton abrant = eyebrow
abrantec = with large eyebrows
Breton (Brezhoneg) abrant [ˈa.brãnt] = eyebrow
abranteg = finicky, pernickety, haughty, supercilious, punctilious
abrantek = with large eyebrows

Etymology: related to Proto-Celtic *brū- (brow), from PIE *h₃bʰrúHs (eyebrow) [source]. Words from the same roots include brim, brine, brow and front in English, front (forhead) in French, and bryn (brow, edge, crest, ridge) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *malaxs = eyelid
Old Irish (Goídelc) mala = eyebrow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mala = eyebrow
Irish (Gaeilge) mala [ˈmˠɑl̪ˠə] = eyebrow, brow, slope, incline
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mala [mal̪ˠə] = eyebrow, brow
malairneach [mal̪ˠər̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = frowning
malach [mal̪ˠəx] = having / pertaining to eyebrows
Manx (Gaelg) mollee = brow, eyebrow
Middle Breton maluen = eyelid, eyebrow
maluennec = having big eyebrows
Breton (Brezhoneg) malvenn [ˈmal.vɛn] = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow, canopy
malvenneg = ciliated
malvennek = having big eyebrows
malvennin, malvenniñ = to blink

Etymology: from PIE *ml̥Hdʰo- [source]. Words from the same roots include brim, brine, brow and front in English, front (forhead) in French, and bryn (brow, edge, crest, ridge) in Swedish [source].

Old Welsh (Kembraec) ail = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ael = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead, edge, border, hem, side, summit
aeldew = thick-browed
Welsh (Cymraeg) ael [aːɨ̯l / ai̯l] = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead
aeldew = thick-browed
aeldrist = sad-faced
aeldrwm = heavy-browed, frowning
aeliad, aelio = to protrude
aeliog = (big-/large-)browed, large-brimmed
Old Breton (Brethonoc) guorail = eyebrow

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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The End

Words for end, after and related things in Celtic languages.

Kyle of Lochalsh / Caol Loch Aillse

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *dīwedom = end
Old Irish (Goídelc) dead [ˈdʲe] = end, conclusion, limit
déidenach = final, last
deired [ˈdʲerʲəð] = remainder, residue, end, rear, conclusion
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dead, deud, diud = end, conclusion, limit
i ndead, inna dead = below, further on, after, behind, since
co dead = forever, to the end, always
fo deoid = = at last, in the end, ultimately
deired = remainder, residue, end, rear, conclusion
deiredach = coming at the end, latest, last
Irish (Gaeilge) diaidh [dʲiəɟ / dʲiə]
as diaidh = after, behind
diaidh ar/i ndiaidh = gradually
i ndiaidh [əˈnʲiəɟ / əˈn̠ʲeːj] = after, later, subsequently
ina ndiaidh sin [ɪnˠə ˈjiə ʃin] = afterwards, after that
deireadh = end, conclusion, termination
deireanach = last, late, latter, recent
deireanaí = lateness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dèidh [dʲeː] = after
an dèidh [ən̪ʲˈdʲeː] = after, behind
dèidheanach = last, hindmost
deireadh [dʲerʲəɣ] = end, rear, stem, remains, leftovers
deireannach [dʲerʲənˠəx] = final, last, ultimate, hindmost, latter, late, tardy, slow, posterior, backward
Manx (Gaelg) jei = afterwards, after, behind
jei shoh = henceforth
jei-cheeayllagh = retarded, backward
jerrey = back, close, conclusion, effect, end, expiration, expiry, extreme, finale, finish
jerrinagh = absolute, belated, closing, end, final, last
jerrinaght = absoluteness, final, finality
Proto-Brythonic *diweð [ˈlɔːn] = end, ending
Old Welsh (Kembraec) diued = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) diuet, diwet, dyuet, diwed, diỽed = end, close, conclusion
diwedho, diwed = to end, finish, close
diwedar, diweddar = late, recent, modern, deceased
Welsh (Cymraeg) diwedd [ˈdɪu̯ɛð] = end, close, conclusion, consumation, termination, extremity, death, event, issue
diweddaf, diwedd(u) = to end, finish, close, terminate, perish, put an end to
diweddar [dɪu̯ˈɛðar] = late, recent, modern, deceased
diweddaru = to modernize, get or become late
diweddaf [dɪu̯ˈɛθav] = last, final, previous, most recent
ar y diwedd = in the end, at the end, at last, ultimately, finally
o’r diwedd = at last, finally
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diwedh, dewedh = an end, bound, goal, limit
diwedha = late, utmost
diwedhas = late
diwedhe = to end, finish, accomplish
diwedhva = an ending place, end, conclusion
Cornish (Kernewek) diwedh = end, outcome
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
war an diwedh = at long last, finally, in the long term
diwedha = to end, expire
diwedhans = expiry
diwedhes = late
diwedhva = destination, end, ending
diwedhys = ended, late, over
Old Breton diued = end
Middle Breton divez, diuez = end
diuezaff = last, final
Breton (Brezhoneg) diwezh [ˈdiwːɛ(s)] = end, final
diwezhañ [di.ˈweː.zã] = last, final
diwezhat [diˈweː(z)at] = late, remained, backward
diwezhataat = to postpone, adjorn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *dīwedeti (to stop), *dī- (from, away) and *wedeti (to lead), from Proto-Indo-European *wédʰeti (to lead), from *wedʰ- (to bind, secure, pledge, guarantee, lead) [source]. Words from the same roots include engage, gage, wage, wager and wed in English, and gager (to guarantee, wager, bet) in French [source]. The word Taoiseach (the Head of the Irish government), possibly comes from the same roots [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Glens and Valleys

Here are some words for valley, glen and related things that are found in some or all of the Celtic languages, and related words in other languages.

Strath Croe
Strath Croe

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *stratos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) srath = grassland, swarth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) srath, sreth, sraith = grass, sward, valley, bottom, meadow or grassy place near a river, fine, tax
Irish (Gaeilge) srath [sˠɾˠa(h)] = river valley, low-lying land along a river
srathach = bottom, low-lying, marshy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) srath [sdrah] = strath, wide valley, vale
srathach = pertaining to or abounding in straths / wide valleys
Manx (Gaelg) strah = level valley, plain, strath, flatness
Proto-Brythonic *strad = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystrad, istrad, ystrat = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystrad [ˈəsdrad] = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Old Cornish stræt = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Middle Cornish (Cernewec strat = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Cornish (Kernewek) stras = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Old Breton (Brethonoc) strat = bottom, low ground
Middle Breton (Brezonec) strat = bottom, low ground
Breton (Brezhoneg) stad [strɑːt] = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *str̥h₃tós (stretched, spread), from *sterh₃- (to spread, extend, stretch out [Source]. Words from the same roots include sternum, strategy, stratus, stray, street (a type of cloud) and stratosphere in English, estrato (layer, stratum, stratus [cloud]) in Spanish, and sarnu (to trample, tread, ruin) in Welsh [Source].

Cwm Idwal
Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *kumbā = valley
Transalpine Gaulish *cumba = valley
Gaulish *kumba = valley
Irish (Gaeilge) com [kʌmˠ] = coomb, cirque, mountain recess
Proto-Brythonic *komm = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cum, cwm(m), kwm = a deep narrow valley, dale, dingle
kwm(m)an = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
kwmarch, cwmaearch = ravine, dingle, little valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwm [ˈəsdrad] = a deep narrow valley, coom, glen, dale; hollow, bowl-shaped depression
cwmach = a stoop
cwman = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
cwmanu = to stoop, hunch
cwmanllyd, cwmanog = hunchbacked, crooked, bent
cwmarch = ravine, dingle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec cum = a valley opening downwards, from a narrow point, a dingle
Cornish (Kernewek) komm = cirque, corrie, cwm
Middle Breton (Brezonec) comm = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
Breton (Brezhoneg) komm [ˈkɔ̃mː] = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
komman, kommañ = to form hollows
kommek = forming hollows

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kumbʰos / *kumbʰéh₂, either from PIE *kew- (bend) or a from non-Indo-European substrate [Source].

Words from the same roots include cwm, combe (a valley or hollow, often wooded and with no river; a cirque) in English, combe (combe) in French, and coma (combe, cwm, cirque; an alpine meadow situated between two peaks) in Catalan [Source].

A dingle is a small, narrow or enclosed, usually wooded valley [Source].

Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain
Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain

Proto-Celtic *glendos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) glenn [ɡʲlʲen͈] = valley
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glenn = valley, hollow, depression
glennach = having vales or hollows, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) gleann [ɟlʲɑun̪ˠ(h) / ɟlʲɑːn̪ˠ / ɟlʲan̪ˠ] = glen, hollow
gleann = abounding in glens, hollow-backed, wavy (hair)
gleanntán = small glen, dell, dale
gleanntóir = glensman, dalesman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gleann [glaun̪ˠ] = glen, valley
gleannach [glan̪ˠəx] = having or related to glens, steep sided
gleannan [glan̪ˠan] = small glen / valley
gleann crochte = hanging valley
gleann sgoraidh = rift valley
Manx (Gaelg) glion(e) [ɡlʲɔᵈn] = valley, glen, vale, creek
Proto-Brythonic *glɨnn [ɡlɨnː] = glen, dale, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glynn, glyn = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) glyn [ɡlɨ̞n / ɡlɪn] = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley, gloom, distressing experience
Middle Cornish (Cernewec glen, glyn = valley (through which a river flows), a woody valley, dale
Cornish (Kernewek) glynn, glydn = deep wooded valley, glen
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glenn, glen = earth, country
Breton (Brezhoneg) glen = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *glendos (shore). Words from the same root include klit (dune) in Danish, klettur (rock, crag, cliff) in Icelandic, and cleit (rocky outcrop, cliff, reef) in Scottish Gaelic [Source].

The Irish word ailt refers to a steep-sided glen, ravine, height or cliff. There are cognate words in other Celtic languages, such as allt (hill, slope, cliff) in Welsh [More details].

Nant Gwrtheyrn
Nant Gwrtheyrn

Proto-Celtic *nantos / nantus = stream, valley
Gaulish nanto, nantu = valley
Proto-Brythonic *nant [nant] = stream, river, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nant = river, stream, brook
Welsh (Cymraeg) nant [nant] = river, stream, brook, rivulet; torrent, ditch, valley, glen, dale; ravine, gorge
nentig, nennig = small stream
Middle Cornish (Cernewec nans = valley, dale, ravine
Cornish (Kernewek) nans [nans / nænz] = dale, vale, valley
krognans = hanging valley
Old Breton (Brethonoc) nant = valley with watercourses
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nant, ant = valley with watercourses
Breton (Brezhoneg) nant [nãnt] = valley with watercourses (found in place names – archaic)

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *nemetom (sacred place, sanctuary), from the Proto-Indo-European *nem- (to give, take, distribute) [source].

The Francoprovençal word nant (stream) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots [source], as does the French place name Nanterre [source], the Irish word neimheadh (sanctuary, privilege of rank, holy thing), and the Breton word neved / neñved (sanctuary) [source].

More details of words for Streams and Currents in Celtic languages.

Old Welsh (Kembraec) t(o)nou = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tnou, tonou, tyno, tino = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Welsh (Cymraeg) tyno = valley, vale, hollow, dale, plain, green
Cornish (Kernewek) tnow = dale, valley-bottom
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tenou, tnou = bottom, lower part, valley
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tnou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley
trauyen = valley
Breton (Brezhoneg) traoñ, traou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley (found in place names)
traoñienn [ˈtrãw.jɛn] = valley

Etymology: unknown [Source].

Another Welsh word for valley is dyffryn [ˈdəfrɨ̞n / ˈdəfrɪn], which comes from dwfr (water) and hynt (course, way). There are no cognates in other Celtic languages, as far as I can discover [Source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bodies

Words for body and related things in Celtic languages.

Body

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) corp [korp] = (human) body, coprse, Eucharist, Communion, bulk, mass, main part, body (of text)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) corp = (human) body, corpse, Eucharist, Communion, bulk, mass, main part, body (of text)
corpḟine = kin, family
Irish (Gaeilge) corp [kɔɾˠpˠ/kʌɾˠpˠ] = body, corpse, bodily frame, main part, trunk, hulk
corpanta = big-bodied, corpulent, total, out and out
corpeolaíocht = physiology
corplach = body, torso
corplár = centre, core
corpoideachas = physical education
corprach = corporeal
corpaigh = to incorporate
corprú = incorporation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corp [kɔrb] = body, corpse
corp-eòlas = anatomy
corpach = pertaining to the body, bodied, corpulent
corpachadh = incorporating, incorporation
corpaichte = incorporated
corpas = corpus
corporachd = corporation
Manx (Gaelg) corp = (human) body, corpse, trunk (of tree), physique, hull (of ship), solid
corpagh = bodily, corporal, incarnate, physical
cocorp = corporation, burgh
cochorpaghey = embodiment, incorporation; to embody, incorporate
Proto-Brythonic *korf = body
*korfor = body, corpse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) corff, corph = the whole, mass, bulk, main portion, gathering, assembly, society, substance, heavenly body, body, trunk, bodice, corpse
corphi = to taste, starve, embody
corffawc, corphol = corpulent, portly, stout, bulky
corfor, corffor = body, corpse
corforavl, korfforawl, corfforaỽl = bodily, corporeal, physical, corpulent, incoporated
Welsh (Cymraeg) corff [kɔrf] = the whole, mass, bulk, main portion, gathering, assembly, society, substance, heavenly body, body, trunk, bodice, corpse
corff(i)af, coffi(o) = to taste, take food, starve (with cold, die, be(come) a corpse, embody, incorporate
corffog, corffol = corpulent, portly, stout, bulky, bodily, physical, incorporated, corporate
corffor = body, corpse, constitution
corfforol = bodily, corporeal, physical, corpulent, incoporated
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) corf = (the/a) body, human body
Cornish (Kernewek) korf = body, person
korflan = cemetry, graveyard
korfliw = tattoo
korforeth = corporation
korforethel = corporate
korfwithyas = bodyguard
Middle Breton (Brezonec) corff, corf, corph = body
Breton (Brezhoneg) korf [ˈkɔrf] = body, corpse, constitution, trunk
korfadur = constitution
korfadurezh = anatomy
korfan, korfañ = to have/gain body, to be constituted
korfeg, korfek = corpulent
korfenn [ˈkɔr.fɛn] = bodice, corset
korfus = bodily

Etymology: from Latin corpus (body, person, substance, material) from Proto-Italic *korpos (body), from PIE *krep- (body) [source].

Words from the same roots include corps (an organized group of people united by a common purpose), corpus (a collection of writings) and corpse (a dead body) and midriff (the middle section of the human torso) in English, corps (body) in French and cryf (strong) in Welsh [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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