Sticks and Rods

Today we’re looking at words for sticks, rods and related things in Celtic languages.

Plaster lath

Proto-Celtic *slattā = staff, stalk
Old Irish (Goídelc) slat = rod, lath, twig; ceremonial rod, staff; branch of a tree; scion, youth, stripling; yard (measure of length)
Irish (Gaeilge) slat [sˠl̪ˠɑt̪ˠ/sˠlˠat̪ˠ] = rod, slender stick, cane, switch, wand, yard, outskirts
slatach = rodlike, made of rods, wickered
slatáil = beat with a switch or birch
slataire = slip (of a person), sapling, tall supple youth
slatamáil = (act of) birching
slatfhear = slender supple man
slatóg = small rod, twig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slat [sl̪ˠahd] = long stick, rod, yard (measure), penis
slatag = small branch, twig
slat Ghàidhealach = Highland yard (8′)
slat-tomhais = standard, yardstick
slatan-draoidheachd = magic wand, fairy wand
Manx (Gaelg) slat(t) = batten, birch, cane, mace, rail, rod, slat, stem, switch, verge, wand
slat hendreil = lightning-rod
slat hows(h)e = criterion, yardstick
slat hummee = dipper, dipstick
slattag = perch, small rod, small stick, stripe, swizzle stick, twig
Proto-Brythonic *llaθ = rod, staff, stick, spear, beam, rafter, pole
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lath = rod, staff, wand, stick
Welsh (Cymraeg) llath [ɬaːθ] = rod, staff, wand, stick, lath, spear, lance, spar, rafter, beam, offshoot, descendant
llath Gymreig = Welsh yard (about 40 inches)
llathaid = yard’s length, yardstick, length of rod, pole or perch, square yard
lathen = rod, wand, staff, stick, lath
llathennaf, llathennu = to measure, be critical (of)
hudlath = magic wand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lath = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) lath = stick, staff, yard
Old Breton lath = pole, rod
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lazh, laz, lah = pole, rod
Breton (Brezhoneg) lazh = slat (of a plough), board, batten

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a substrate language of northwestern Europe [source].

Words that may be related include lath (a thin, narrow strip, fastened to the rafters) in English, Latte (batten, lath, slat) in German, lat (slate, lath, ruler, yardstick) in Dutch, and lata (can, tin, plate) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hooks and Crooks

Today we’re looking at hooks, crooks and related words in Celtic languages.

Hook

Proto-Celtic *bakkos = hook, (curved) stick
Old Irish (Goídelc) bacc = angle, bill-hook, corner, hindrance, mattock
Irish (Gaeilge) bac = balk, hindrance, barrier, mattock, bend (in a river), (door) step
bacadh = to balk, hindrance
bacainn = barrier, obstruction, obstacle, blocking
bacainneach = barring, obstructing, blocking
bacán = hinge-hook, crook, peg
bacánach = crooke, hinged
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bac [baxg] = hindering, impeding, obstructing, restraining, restricting, hindrance
bacadh = to hinder, impede, obstruct, restain, restrict, ban
Manx (Gaelg) bac = balk, disability, disqualification, drawback, handicap, moratorium, objection, obstacle, pull back, snag, trap
Old Welsh bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Welsh (Cymraeg) bach [baːχ] = hook, grapple, mattock, hoe, fish hook, shepherd’s crook; hinge, pivot; nook, angle, corner, bend
bachiad = a hooking, turning, curving, winding, bending
bachog = hooked, barded, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachogrwydd = hookedness, crookedness, incisiveness
bachol = hooking, grappling, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachu = to hook, anchor, connect, attach, fasten
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bah = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) bagh = hook
bagha = to trap
Old Breton bah = hook
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bach, bac’h = hook for uprooting potatoes or seaweed, big hook
bac’hig = little fang, hook, staple
Breton (Brezhoneg) bac’h = (fish) hook

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bachall (crook, crozier) in Irish, bagl (crook, crozier) in Welsh, pail in English, and possibly bok (side, flank, hip) in Czech, Polish and Slovak [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Up Above

Today we’re looking at up, over, above and related words in Celtic languages.

The Crowded Summit of Snowdon
A quiet day on the summit of Snowden / Dydd tawel ar gopa’r Wyddfa

Proto-Celtic *ouxsos = above
*ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high, elevated
Old Irish (Goídelc) úas [uːa̯s] = above, over
anúas [aˈn͈uːa̯s] = from above
súas = up, upwards, back (in time), forward on (in time),
túas = up, above, of heaven, above (mentioned)
úasal = high, lofty, noble, high-born, gallant, genteel, honourable
Irish (Gaeilge) suas [ˈɡaɾʲəmʲ/ˈɡɪɾʲəmʲ] = up, to higher place or station, at, towards, a high level, to the south, onwards, backwards, on high, risen
anuas = down (from above)
thuas = up, in higher place, in the south, put up, on top, successful, profiting
uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born, aristocratic, gentle, gallant, genteel, lofty, precious, fine, hallowed, enchanted, inhabited by fairies
na huaisle the good people, the fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) suas [suəs] = up, upwards, upright, standing
shuas [huəs] = above, aloft up (location), upper
a-nuas [əˈn̪ˠuəs] = down(wards) / up(wards) – towards the speaker
uasal [uəsəl̪ˠ] = noble, nobleman, nobility, high-minded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) seose = heavenwards, up, upward, upwards
heose = above, aloft, up, upper
neose = down, downward, downwards
ooasle = aristocratic, classy, creditable, dignified, esteemed, gentlemanly, goodly, highborn, honourable, illustrious, lofty, lordly, magnificent, noble, respected
Brythonic *ʉx [ˈʉːx] = above, on top of, over
*ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːlˑ] = high, elevated
Old Welsh uuc = above, on top of, over
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uch = above, on top of, over
uchel = shigh, tall, exalted
Welsh (Cymraeg) uwch [ɨ̞u̯χ/ɪu̯χ] = above, on top of, over, on, beyond, in front of
uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl/ˈiːχɛl] = high, tall, exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable
uchelder = high place, height, highness, nobility
uchelaf, uchelu = to raise, heighten, exalt, increase
uchelwr = landed, proprietor, freeholder, landlord, gentleman, nobelman, aristocrat, a superior
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) uhel = high, lofty, elevated
uhelder = height, highness
uhelle = to raise up on high, to exalt
Cornish (Kernewek) a-ugh = above
a-ugh dhe = over
ughel = high, grand, loud, tall
ughelder = height, loudness
Old Breton uh = on high
uchel = high
Middle Breton (Brezonec) uc’h = on high
uhel = high, noble, generous
uhelaat = to increase, rise in the sky, raise
uheladur = to shrug, enhancement
uhelañ = the highest point
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel [ˈy.ɛl] = high, uphill, upstream
uhelaat = to promote
uc’hek = maximal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewpso- (above) from *h₃ewps- (high, elevated) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hosts of Folks

Today we’re gathering some people, folk, crew and related word in Celtic languages.

Le tambours de Briec

Proto-Celtic *worīnā = band, troop, a group of warriors who have sworn allegiance (to each other)
Old Irish (Goídelc) foirenn = band, troop, group of people
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) foirenn = an indefinite number of people, set, group, category, band, troop, company, crew (of a ship)
Irish (Gaeilge) foireann [ˈfˠɪɾʲən̪ˠ] = number, group of people, band, troop, company, crew, team, personnel, staff, set
foireann loinge = crew of a ship
foireann spéirbhean = bevy of beauties
foireann dráma = cast of a play
foireann uirlisí = set of tools
foireann dinnéir = dinner-service
foireann fichille = set of chessmen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foireann [furʲən̪ˠ] = excess, abundance, crowd, multitude (ship’s) crew, ballast, furniture
Manx (Gaelg) fwirran = staff, team
fwirran bluckan-coshey = football team
fwirran buird = dinner service
fwirran meihaaghyn = set of weights
fwirran skynnaghyn = canteen (of cutlery)
Proto-Brythonic *gwörin = group of people
Old Welsh guerin = host, group of people
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwerin = people, populace, peasantry, folk
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwerin [ˈɡwɛrɪn] = people, populace, peasantry, folk, democracy, proletariat, liegemen; mob, rabble, troop, throng, host, multitude, rank and file of army, nation, ship’s crew
gwerinaf, gwerino = to render plebeian or common, to popularize, civilize, tame, arrange for battle, marshal
gwerinaidd = plebeian, lowly, humble, common, vulgar (speech), dialect, home-spun, democratic, proletarian
gwerindod = civilization, domestication
gwerinwr = commoner, peasant, democrate, republican
gweriniaeth = democracy, republic(anism), community
Cornish (Kernewek) gwerin = common people, folk, proletariat
gwerinek = proletarian
gwerinel = democratic
gwerinieth = democracy
gweriniether / gweriniethores = democrat
gwerinor(es) = peasant
lien gwerin = folklore
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gwerin, gueryn = people
gwerinad = plebeian
gwerinel = democratic
gwerinelaat = to become more democratic
gwerinelañ = to democraticize
gwerineler, gwerinelour = democrat
gwerinelezh, gweriniezh = democracy
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwerin = pleb, pawn
gwerinad, gwerinel = plebeian

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *wori-no- (flock, troop) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Heels

Words for heel and related words in Celtic languages.

Sock heels

Proto-Celtic *stātlā / *stādlā = heel
Old Irish (Goídelc) sál [saːl] = heel
Irish (Gaeilge) sáil [sˠɑːlʲ/sˠæːlʲ] = heel
sáilchaite = down at heel
sála arda = high heels
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sàil [saːl] = heel, boot, trunk (of car)
sàileach [saːləx] = heel-like, having heels, heeled
sàil bhiorach = high heel
gu mo shàil = (come to) heel! (dog command)
Manx (Gaelg) saayl = heel, tree, tip, sale, skid
saayltrey = to heel in, trampling, treading
saayltraghey = to tread on with heel
saayl-cheaut = down at heel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) saudel = heel
oet = time, period
Welsh (Cymraeg) sawdl [sau̯dl/ˈsau̯dʊl] = heel
soldlaf, sodli, sodlu, sodlo = to heel (a shoe or sock), trip (sb) up, take to one’s heels, run (away), go
sodliad = a kick with the heel, tripping
sodlog = (high-)heeled
sodlwr, sawdlwr = heeler (of shoes), shadower, one who follows at the heels
sodlau uchel = high heels
disodli = to displace, supplant
Cornish (Kernewek) seudhel [ˈsœðɛl / ˈzɛðɐl] = heel
seudhelyow ughel = high heels
Middle Breton (Brezonec) seuzl = heel
Breton (Brezhoneg) seul = heel
seulad = substrate
seulañ = to heel
seulenn = heel pad
seuler = hooker
seul an dorn = heel of the hand
seul pik = stiletto heel
seulioù uhel = high heels

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *stéh₂tleh₂ / *stéh₂dʰleh₂ (that which is used for standing), from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bundos = foot, hoof, sole
Old Irish (Goídelc) bonn = foot, hoof, sole
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bonn = sole of the foot, foot, hoof
Irish (Gaeilge) bonn [bˠoun̪ˠ/bˠuːn̪ˠ/bˠʌn̪ˠ] = sole (of foot), footing, foothold, base, foundation, footmark, spoor, tyre, backing
bonnaigh = to walk, trot
bonnaire = walker, trotter, footman, foot messenger
bonnaireacht = walking, trotting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bonn [bɔun̪ˠ] = base, bottom, foundation, lowest, part, sole (of a shore), foot (of a hill)
bonntachadh [bɔun̪ˠdəxəɣ] = (act of) basing, establishing, consolidating, base, foundation, farmstead, homestead
bonntaichte [bɔun̪ˠdɪçdʲə] = based, established, consolidated
Manx (Gaelg) boyn = heel, walker, foot of sail, tread of shoe, basement, medal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰmḗn (bottom), from *dʰewbʰ-/*dʰubʰ- (deep) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include fund in English; fondo (bottom, fund, background); and fond (back, bottom, fund, foundation) in French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Peace and Fairies

Today we are giving peace a chance in Celtic languages, and visiting some fairy mounds.

Eisteddfod 2018: A oes heddwch?
A oes heddwch? (Is there peace?)

Proto-Celtic *sedom = tumulus, peace
*sīdos = tumulus, peace, mound (inhabited by fairies)
Old Irish (Goídelc) síd = fairy mound, fairy, wondrous, enchanting, charming, delightful
síde = fairy people, fairies
sídach = of a fairy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) side = fairy mound
Irish (Gaeilge) [ʃiː] = fairy mound
síth = peace, peace-offering, appeasment, pardon, forgiveness
síthe = fairy, bewitching, enchanting, deceptive, delusive
síofrach = elfin, fairy-like
síog = fairy
sián = fairy mound
bean sí = banshee, fairy woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìth [ʃiː] = fairy, peace, (fairy) hill, (fairy) mound
sìoth [ʃiəh] = peace
sìothshaimh [ʃiːhəv] = peacefulness, tranquillity
Manx (Gaelg) shee = peace; fairy, fairylike, fairy spirt, sprite
sheean = fairy hill, knoll, charm, fortune
sheeaghan = fairy spirt
sheeoil = composed, peaceable, peaceful, peace-loving
ben shee = banshee, fairy woman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) het, hed = peace, tranquillity, calm
Welsh (Cymraeg) hedd [heːð] = peace, tranquillity, calm, serenity, quiet, dwelling, residence
heddgar = peace-loving, peaceable, peaceful
heddlu = police (force)
heddwas = police officer
heddwch = peace, concord, public order and security
heddychu = to make or restore peace, be reconciled, become pacified or appeased
heddychwr = peacemaker, appeaser, conciliator, pacifist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hedh = tranquillity, peace
hedhwch = peace, quietness, tranquillity
hedhy = to peace make, cause quite, tranquillize, rest, cease, stop
Cornish (Kernewek) hedh = halt, pause, respite
Old Breton hed = peace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hezañ, heziñ, hezek = to cease, stop, remain, delay
Breton (Brezhoneg) hez = peace (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sed- (to sit) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include possibly words for to sit in Celtic languages, and chair, nest, seat and sit in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flour

In this post we’re looking into words for flour and related things in Celtic languages.

Skiing slope of flour

Proto-Celtic *mlātos = flour
Gaulish *blatos = flour
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blawd, blaỼt = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) blawd = flour, meal, powder
blawdaidd = mealy, floury, friable
blodiaf, blawdiaf, blawdio = to grind into meal, produce flour, become powdery, turn to dust, sprinkle (with) flour
blodiwr, blawdiwr = flour or meal merchant
Old Cornish blot = flour, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blot, blês = flour, meal
Cornish (Kernewek) bleus = flour
bleus hesken = sawdust
bleus leun = wholemeal
bleusa = to flour
Old Breton blot = flour
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleud = flour, powder
bleudañ = to flour
bleudek = floury
bleud brazed = wholemeal flour
bleud goellet = self-raising flour
bleud gwinizh = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ml̥h₂-tó-s, from *melh₂- (to crush, grind) [source]. Words from the same root include melancholy and melanin in English, and μελανός (melanós – black, dark, blue, bruised) in Greek [source].

Old Irish (Góidelc) men = flour
Irish (Gaeilge) min [ˈmʲɪnʲ/ˈmʲɨ̞nʲ] = meal; powedered matter
min choirce = oatmeal
min chruithneachta = wheatmeal
min sáibh = sawdust
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) min [min] = flour, meal, grounds, filings
min-fhlùir = flour
min-eòrna = barley flour/meal
min-sheagail = rye flour
min-chruithneachd = wheat flour
muileann-mine = flour mill
Manx (Gaelg) meinn = meal
meinn chorkey = oatmeal
meinn churnaght = wheatmeal flour
meinn hoggyl = rye meal
meinn oarn = barley meal
meinn saaue = sawdust

Etymology: unknown

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyllyeyt, peillit = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) paill = pollen, flour
peill(i)aid = flour, fine flour, wheat flour, white flour, powder
peilliaid gwenith = (fine) wheat flour
peilliaid haidd = barley flour
peilliaid rhyg = rye flour

Etymology: from the Latin pollen (fine flower, powder, dust), from the Proto-Indo-European *pel- (flour, dust) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Latin pulvis (dust, powder, ashes), include polve (dust, ashes) in Italian, polvo (dust, powder) in Spanish, poussière (dust) in French, and pulverise (to render into dust or powder) in English [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) plúr [pˠlˠuːɾˠ] = flour, flower
plúr geal = white flour
plúr cruithneachta = wheaten flour
plúrach = floury, farinaceous; flower-like, pretty
plúraigh = to effloresce
plúróg = pretty girl
plúrscoth = choicest flower, pick, choice
plúrú = efflorescence
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flùr [fl̪ˠuːr] = flour
flùr lom = plain flour
flùr-éirigh = self-raising flour
Manx (Gaelg) flooyr = flour
flooyr churnaght = wheaten flour
grine-flooyr = cornflour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) fflwr = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) fflŵr [fluːr], fflowr = flour (in South Wales)
fflŵr can = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman flur (flower), from the Old French flor (flower), from the Latin flōrem (flower), from flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Italic *flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (flower, blossom) [source].

The English words flour, flower, flora, blossom and bloom come from the same roots, as does the French word fleur (flower) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Foundations

Words for foundation and related words in Celtic languages.

Foundations

Proto-Celtic *bonus = foundation, base, butt
Gaulish *bona = foundation, base
Old Irish (Goídelc) bun [bun] = base, bottom, butt, end
Irish (Gaeilge) bun [bˠʊnˠ/bˠʌnˠ] = base, bottom; stock, stump; lower end; extremity; basis origin; basic provision; settled state; source, direction; trace
bunábhar = raw material; substance, main outlines
bunachar = base, foundation
bunadh = origin; stock, kind; native inhabitants; fundamental, basic
bunaigh = to found, establish
bunoscionn = upside down
bunú = foundation, establishment
bunús = origin, basis, foundation, settlement, substance, essence
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bun [bun] = base, basis, bottom, foot; derivation, origin, source; butt, stub, stump; mouth (of a river)
bunach = squat/sturdy person, stumps, stubble
bunachar = base, foundation, root
bunasach = original, basic, fundamental
bunachas = base, foundation, root
buntach = stocky, stout, truncated, broken off
Manx (Gaelg) bun = author, basis, details, origin, original, prime, principle, raw material, stem, stool
bunneydagh = authoritative, basic, elemental, firsthand, fundamental, fundamentalist, original, primitive
bunneydys = basis, foundation, groundwork, origin, root
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bon = bottom, base
Welsh (Cymraeg) bôn [boːn] = base, bottom, tree trunk, stump, stem, root
bondew = thick-based, fat-bottomed, broad-hipped, short and fat, fat-legged
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ben = stem, base, trunk, butt, end
Cornish (Kernewek) ben = trunk, base, foot
Breton (Brezhoneg) ben = mouth of a river

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European **bʰuH- (to be, become) [source]. English words from the same PIE root include to be, moribund and possibly bunny [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flowers

Words for flower, blossom and related words in Celtic languages.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *blātus = flower, blossom
Old Irish (Goídelc) bláth = flower, blossom, bloom
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth [bˠl̪ˠɑː/bˠl̪ˠaː] = blossom, flower; bloom, beauty, prime; prosperity, abundance
bláthach = floral, flowering
bláthadóir = florist
bláthadóireacht = cultivation of flowers
bláthaigh = to blossom, bloom
bláthóg = floret
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) blàth [bl̪ˠaː] = bloom, blossom, flower; consequence, effect; heyday
blàthaich = (to) flower, flourish
blàthach = flowery
Manx (Gaelg) blaa [bleː] = bloom, blossom, flower; heyday, pride
blaaghey = to bloom, blossom, bud, flourish, flower
blaagheyder = florist
blaaoil = floral, florid, flowery
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flower
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blodeuyn, blodeun, blodeuoed = flower
blodeu, blodev, bloden, blawt, blawd = flowers
Welsh (Cymraeg) blodyn [ˈblɔdɨ̞n / ˈbloːdɪn] = flower, bloom, blossoms, florets, flowering plant, petal
blodau = flowers, blooms, blossom, florets; flowering plant
blodeuad = flowering, blooming, blossoming
blodeua(f), blodeuo = to flower, bloom, blossom, bud; flourish, thrive, prosper; mature, gather flowers; to menstruate
blodeuaidd = floral, flower-like, flowering, floriform
blodeuas = bouquet
blodeuddwyn = floriferous, flower-bearing
Old Cornish blodon = flower, blossom
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blodon, bledzhian, bledzhan = flower, blossom
Cornish (Kernewek) bleujen [ˈblɛdʒən] = blossom, flower
bleujyowa = to blossom, flower
bleujyowek = flower bed
Old Breton bloduu = blossom, flower
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bleuzff = blossom, flower
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleuñv [blœ̃w] = flowers, flowering; apogee; menstruation
bleuã‘venn = flower
bleuñveg = flowerbed
bleuñvell = jewel, floret
bleuñvellek = flowery
bleuñvin = to flower, blossom, flourish

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (bloom, flower) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include bloom, blossom, blade, flower, flour and flourish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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