Region and Country

Words for region, country and related things in Celtic languages.

Marches 040519 884

Proto-Celtic *mrogis = border(land), march, mark; region, country, territory, province
Gaulish *brogis = border(land) (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) mruig [mruɣʲ] = cultivated land; march, borderland, country, territory
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bruig = land, cultivated land, holding, region, district, border, (farm)house, abode, hall, mansion, castle
Irish (Gaeilge) brugh = dwelling, mansion
brughaidh = landowner, hosteler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brugh [bruh] = broch, fortified tower, large house, mansion, fairy mound, underground house
brughadair [bru.ədɪrʲ] = broch dweller, fairy mound dweller, elf
brughaire [bru.ɪrʲə] = inhabitant of a fairy mound
Manx (Gaelg) brogh = broch
Proto-Brythonic *broɣ [ˈbroːɣ] = country, region, territory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bro = region, country, land
Welsh (Cymraeg) bro [broː] = region, country, land, neighbourhood, native haunt; border, limit, boundary, march; vale, lowland
broaidd = pleasant like a vale
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bro = country, region, land, territory, coast
Cornish (Kernewek) bro = country, land
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bro = country, nation, region
broa = to return to the country
broad = inhabitants, compatriots
broadel = national
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Gernev = Cornwall
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland
Breton (Brezhoneg) bro = counry(-side)
broadadur = naturalization
broadeladur = nationalisation
broadelañ = to naturalize (a person)
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *morǵ- (frontier, border). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish and Latin, include brolo (vegetable garden, orchard, grove) in Italian, and breuil (wood, copse, coppice) in French [source].

Words from the same PIE root include margin, mark (boundary, border, frontier) and march (a border region) in English, and marge (margin, markup) in French, margine (margin, border, edge) in Italian, and margen (margin, edge, leeway) in Spanish [source], Mark (a fortified border area, marches) in German, mark (field) in Danish, and marg (march, boundary) in Irish (via Old Norse) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Scotland

Words for Scotland and related things in Celtic languages.

Views from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *albiyū = luminous world, upper world, world; high mountain, alp; alpine pasture, Britain
Gaulish Albiorix = place name
Albiorica = place name
Old Irish (Goídelc) Albu [ˈalbu] = Scotland, Britain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealgcausecause) Albu = Scotland, Britain
Albanach = an inhabitant of Albu, Scottish
Irish (Gaeilge) Alba [ˈalˠəbˠə] = Scotland (dated)
Albain [ˈaləbˠənʲ] = Scotland
Gaeilge na hAlban = Scottish Gaelic
Albainis = Scots (language)
Albanach = Scotsman, Scot, Scottish
Albain Nua = Nova Scotia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Alba [ˈal̪ˠabə] = Scotland
Albannach = Scot, Scotsman, Scottish
Albinish = Scots (language)
Gàidhlig (na hAlba) = Scottish Gaelic
Alba Nuadh = Nova Scotia
Manx (Gaelg) Nalbin, Albin, Albey = Scotland
Albinagh = Scots, Scotch, Scottish
Albinee = Scottish people
Albinish = Scots (language)
Gaelg Albinagh, Gaelg ny Halbey = Scottish Gaelic
(Yn) Albin Noa, Nalbin Noa = Nova Scotia
Proto-Brythonic *ėlβɨð [e̝lˈβɨːð] = world
Old Welsh elbid [ˈelvɨð] = (upper) world, earth, land, country, district
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eluit, eluyt, eluyd = world. earth, land, country, district
eluyten, eluyden, elvydenn = earth, land, country, region
Albbu = Scotland
Albanyeit = Scot
Welsh (Cymraeg) elfydd = world. earth, land, country, district, neighbourhood; element
elfydden = earth, land, country, region
elfyddiaeth = chemistry
elfyddol  = material
(yr) Alban [ˈalban] = Scotland
Albanaidd = Scottish
Albaneg = Scots (language), Scottish Gaelic, Pictish
Albanes = Scottish woman or girl
Albanwr = Scot (m)
Cornish (Kernewek) Alban = Scotland, Scot (m)
albanek = Scottish
Albanes = Scot (f)
Middle Breton (Brezonec) albaneg = Scots (language)
Breton (Brezhoneg) Albanad, albanat = Scottish
albaneg, albanek = Scots (language)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂elbʰós (white). Alban in Welsh and Cornish was borrowed from Irish or Scottish Gaelic [Source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include Albion (England – poetic) and Alps in English, Albiōn (Britain) in Gallo-Latin, Albānia (Caucasian Albania, Albania, Scotland) in Latin, and words for the Alps in many other languages [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include albino and elf in English, albus (white, clear, bright) in Latin, and alb (white, clean, pure) in Romanian [Source].

The country of Albania got its English name from the Byzantine Greek Ἀλβανία (Albanía), which referred to an ancient region and kingdom south of Caucasus mountains, east of Armenia and west of the Caspian Sea, also known as Caucasian Albania. The Greek name came from the Latin Albānus (Albania), which refers to Albania, Caucasian Albania or Scotland, and probably came from Proto-Celtic [Source].

Scotland in Breton is Bro Skos. Bro means country or region, and comes from the Proto-Brythonic *broɣ (country, region, territory), from the Proto-Celtic *mrogis (border, march, region, country, territory, province), from the PIE *morǵ- (frontier, border). Cognates in other Celtic languages include bro (region, country, land, border, limit) in Welsh, and bro (country, land) in Cornish [Source]. Skos was probably borrowed from the French Ecosse (Scotland).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Taking Hold

Words for to take, hold and related things in Celtic languages.

Breton Dancers

Proto-Celtic *gabyeti = to grab, seize, take, hold
*gabaglā = taking
Gaulish gabi
Old Irish (Goídelc) gaibid [ˈɡavʲiðʲ] = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabál = taking
argaib [arˈɡavʲ] = to seize, capture
congaibid [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
conocaibid [konˈhoɡəvʲ] = to raise, rise, uplift, exalt, extol
fogaibid [foˈɡavʲ] = to find, discover, get, gain, obtain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gaibid = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabáil = taking
aurgaibid = to seize, capture
congmaid = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Irish (Gaeilge) gabh [ɡavʲ/ɡo(ː)] = to take, arrest, go, come
gabháil = taking
aisghabh = to retake, recover possession of
gabh mo leithscéal = excuse me
urghabh = to seize, capture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gabh [gav] = take, go, recite, break (in)
ath-ghabh = retake, recover, regain, impound
gabh mo lethsgeul = excuse me, pardon
gabhail [gahal] = taking, lease, tenure, conquest
Manx (Gaelg) gow = to take
gow my leshtal = excuse me, sorry, I beg your pardon
goaill = acceptance, affect, apprehend, apprehension, arrest, capture, catch, contraction, engage, seizure, receive, take
aaghoaill = to recapture, reconquer, re-engage, retake
Proto-Brythonic *gabal- = breadth, side
*gavaɣl = to hold, grasp
Old Welsh gabael = to hold, grasp, grip
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) gauayleu, gauael = to hold, grasp, grip
gauaelant, gauaelu, gavailio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch
Welsh (Cymraeg) gafael [ˈɡavaɨ̯l/ˈɡaːvai̯l] = to hold, grasp, grip
gafaeladwy = available
gafaelaf, gafaelio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch, grip, arrest, grapple, snatch, seize
gafaeliad = a holding, hold, grasp, capture, attachment, comprehension, adherence, spasm
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gaval = to hold, lay hold of, grasp, have
gavel = a hold, a grasp
Cornish (Kernewek) gavel = capacity, grasp
Old Breton gabael = to hold (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʰeh₁bʰ- (to grab, take) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include able, debt, debit, doubt and habit in English, avere (to have) in Italian, avoir (to have) in French, and haber (to hold, possess) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Halves and Sides

Words for half, side and related things in Celtic languages.

half moon....

Proto-Celtic *letos = side
*ɸletos = breadth, side
Primitive Irish *ᚂᚓᚈᚐᚄ / *letas = half, direction, side
Old Irish (Goídelc) leth [l͈ʲeθ] = half, direction, side
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) leth = half, side
Irish (Gaeilge) leath [lʲah/lʲæx/l̠ʲæ] = side, part, direction; half, part, portion
leathach = divided in two, two-part
leithead = breadth, width
leathadh = spreading, spread, diffusion, scattering, broadcasting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leth [l̪ʲeh] = half, side, share
leth-ghlic = half-witted
leth-leanabh = twin
leth-oireachas = separation, partiality, isolationism, favouritism
leisgeul = excuse, apology, pretext (from leth and sgeul [story])
Manx (Gaelg) lieh = part, half, behalf, makeshift
lieh fuinnit = half-baked
lieh henn = middle aged
Proto-Brythonic *lled = breadth, side
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) let, llet, led = year (of age)
Welsh (Cymraeg) lled [ɬeːd] = breadth, width, beam (of boat), latitude, amplitude, extent, diameter, thickness; half, part(ly), fairly, moderately
lleda(e)naf, lleda(e)nu = to spread out, scatter abroad, disseminate
lladaf, lledu = to became broad(er) / wide(r), broaden, open out, expand, become widespread
lleden = flat-fish, flat or sprawling (person/thing), flattish mass, blade, fluke
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) les = breadth, width, latitude
Cornish (Kernewek) les = breadth, width
lesa = to expand, spread
lesans = expansion, spread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) led = width, wideness, breadth; horizontally
ledan = wide, large, broad, vast, big
ledañ, lediñ, ledek = to stretch out, extend, spread (out)
ledanaat = to widen, broaden, stretch
Breton (Brezhoneg) led = wide, large, broad, spreading
a-led = horizontal
ledan = vast, wide
ledañ = to spread, generalize
ledanded = width, breadth

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *pléth₂-os (breadth), from *pleth₂- (broad, flat) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include field, flan, flat and fold (a pen for animals) in English, flat in English, and πλατεία (plateía – town square) in Greek [source].

Proto-Celtic *santeros = middle, half
Proto-Brythonic *hanter = half
Old Welsh hanther = half
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) hanner, hanher = half, middle
Welsh (Cymraeg) hanner [ˈhanɛr/ˈhanar] = half, middle, midday, midnight, side, part
hanner-cylchynol = semicircular
hanner dydd = midday, noon
hanner nos = midnight
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hanter = half, a moiety
hanter dŷdh = midday
hanter nôs = midnight
Cornish (Kernewek) hanter = half
hantera = to halve
hanterdydh = midday, noon
hantergylgh = hemisphere
hanterkans = fifty
hanter-mis = fortnight, two weeks
hanter-nos = midnight
hanter-our = half-hour
hanter-pennwari = semi-final
hanter termyn = half time
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hanter = half
hanterañ, hanteriñ = to halve, cut in half
hanter-kant = fifty
hanter-war-hanter = neck and neck, tied
Breton (Brezhoneg) hanter [ˈhɑ̃n.tɛʁ] = half
hanter dro = u-turn
hanterad = mediator
hanterenn = half time
hanternoz = midnight

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sm̥teros (one of the two), from *sem- (one) and *-teros (contrastive suffix) [source]. Other words from the PIE root *sem- (one) include: same, seem, semi, similar and single in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Magic and Spells

Today we’re looking at words for magic, spells and related things in Celtic languages.

Witch

Proto-Celtic *brixtā = spell, magical formula, incantation
Celtiberian *bruxtia
Gaulish brixtia
Old Irish (Goídelc) bricht = charm, spell, incantation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bricht = incanation, charm, magic spell
Irish (Gaeilge) briocht = charm, spell, amulet
briocht sí = fairy charm
briocht a chanadh = to chant a spell
briocht draíochta = magic spell
Proto-Brythonic *briθ [ˈbriːθ] = charm, incantation
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleturith, lledrith, ledryth = magic, spell, charm, enchantment
llethrithawc, lledrithyawc, lleturithawc = magic, magical, enchanted
Welsh (Cymraeg) lledrith, lledfrith = magic, spell, charm, enchantment; apparition, spectre, phantom; illusion, delusion, fantasy, imagination
lledrithaid = pretence, dissembling, deception
lledrithiaf, lledrithio = to counterfeit, fake, pretend, simulate
lledrithiog = magic, magical, enchanted
Old Breton brith = charm, incantation (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰerHǵ- (enlighten). Words that probably come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Celtiberian *bruxtia, include bruja (witch, crone, hag, owl) in Spanish, bruxa (witch, hex) in Galician, bruxa (witch) in Portuguese, and bruixa (witch) in Catalan [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) dríocht [ˈd̪ˠɾˠihaxt̪ˠə] = druidic art, druidism, witchcraft, magic, charm, enchantment
draíochtach = magical, bewitching, entrancing
draíochtúil = magic, magical
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) draoidheachd [drɯjəxg] = magic, socery, druidism
eun-draoidheachd = augury
slat-draoidheachd = magic wand/td>
Manx (Gaelg) druaight = charm, druid
druaightagh = charmer, charming, druid, magician, occult
druaightys = charming, druid, druidism, magic
fo druaight = charmed
Welsh (Cymraeg) derwyddiaeth [dɛrˈwəðjaɨ̯θ/dɛrˈwəðjai̯θ] = druidism, the druid cult
Cornish (Kerneweg) drewydhieth = druidism
Breton (Brezhoneg) drouizelezh / drouiziezh = druidism

Etymology: these words come from the same roots as words for druid.

Proto-Celtic *soitos. *soyto- = magic
Proto-Brythonic *hʉd = magic, charm
hʉdol = charming, illusory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hut, hud = magic, wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft
hûdadwy, hydadwy = persuasive, enticing, seducible
Welsh (Cymraeg) hud [hɨːd/hiːd] = magic, wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft, spell, enchantment, charm, fascination, allurement, persuasion
hudadwy = persuasive, enticing, seducible
hudaf, hudo = to fashion or produce by magic, conjure, cast a spell upon, enchant, charm, entice, allure, persuade, seduce, beguile
hudaidd = alluring, charming, seductive
hudol = charming, enchanting, enticing, alluring, illusory, deceptive, deceitful
Old Cornish hudol = charming, illusory
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huder = a deceiver, hypocritic, juggler, sorcerer
hudol = sorcerer
Cornish (Kerneweg) hus = charm, enchantment, illusion, magic, sorcery, spell
husa = to charm, create an illusion, enchant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hud = magic
hudek, hudel = magic, magical
hudiñ = to charm, enchant, bewitch, delight
hudour = magician, wizard
hudouriezh = magic
Breton (Brezhoneg) hud = magic
hudek = magic, magical
hudour = magician, wizard

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-Etymology *sh₂oy-tó-s (magic), from *sh₂ey (to bind, fetter) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include seiður (magic, witchcraft, sorcery) in Icelandic, sejd (sorcery, witchcraft, magic potion) in Swedish, and seid (magic) in Norwegian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Speckled and Spotted

Today we’re looking at words for speckled, spotted and related things in Celtic languages.

Speckled

Proto-Celtic *brikkos = speckled, spotted
Gaulish *brikkos
Old Irish (Goídelc) brecc = checkered, flecked, speckled, spotted, variegated
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brecc = speckled, spotted, variegated, patterned, ornamented, dappled
Irish (Gaeilge) breac [bʲɾʲak] = speckled, dappled, indifferent
breacachan = variegation
breachadh = speckling, dappling; variegation, scribbling writing, lightening (of colour)
breacaimsir = middling, fair but unsettled weather
breacaire = carver, engraver, engraving tool, scribbler
breacaireacht = variegation, chequering, carving, engraving, scribbling, doodling
breacán = tartan, plaid
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breac [brʲɛxg] = speckled, spotted, spotty, dappled, variegated
breacadh = speckling, spotting, chequering, sprinkling, scattering
breacanach = pertaining to tartan, plaided
breacaichte = spotted, stippled
breac-seun = freckle
Breac a’ Mhuilinn = The Milky Way
Manx (Gaelg) breck = brindle, dapple-grey, medley, piebald, pied, speckle, spot, spotty, tartan, chequered, spotted, variegated
breck greiney = freckle
breck kiark = chickenpox
breckag = fleck of colour
breckan = brindle, medley, colour, plaid, tartan
breckanagh = tartan
breckey = brindle, chequering, dapple, freckle, mottle
Proto-Brythonic *brɨx = speckled, spotted
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brych, brech = mottled, spotted, speckled
Welsh (Cymraeg) brych [brɨːχ/briːχ] = mottled, spotted, speckled, brindled, variegated, stained, defiled, freckled; spot, mark, blemish, stain; afterbirth, placenta
brychaf, brychu = to dapple with spots or blotches, mottle, mark, stain, sully, defile, spoil, freckle
brychiad = spotted or freckled person; sewin, sea trout
brych(i)og = mottled, brindled, spotted, pock-marked, freckled; placental
brychyn = (small) spot, mark, blemish, stain, flaw, freckle
Cornish (Kerneweg) brygh = pox, smallpox
Breton (Brezhoneg) brec’h [ˈbreːx] = smallpox, vaccine

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *perḱ- (motley, coloured, spotted) source]. Words for trout in Celtic languages are probably related.

Words from the same PIE root include perch (a type of freshwater fish) in English; forel (trout) and voorn (roach – a type of fish) in Dutch; Forelle (trout) in German, and possibly pulcro (tidy, neat) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *ɸerkos, *ferko- = perch, speckled
Old Irish (Goídelc) erc = speckled, spotted, cow, salmon
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) erc = speckled, dark red, trout, salmon, a spotted or red-eared cow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) earc [ɛr̪ˠxg] = speckled, spotted, striped, dark/blood red
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) erch = mottled, speckled, dappled, dun, bay, dusky, dark
Welsh (Cymraeg) erch [ɛrχ] = mottled, speckled, dappled, dun, bay, dusky, dark
erchlas = dapple-grey (of horse), dark blue colour
erchyll = horrible, hideous, ghastly, dire, terrible, dreadful, awful, frightful

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *perḱ- (motley, coloured, spotted) source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Coracles

Today we’re looking at words for coracles and related things in Celtic languages.

coracle race

A coracle is a small, rounded, lightweight boat traditionally used in Wales; in parts of the West Country of England; in Ireland, particularly the River Boyne,and in Scotland, particularly the River Spey. A coracle is made of a framework of split and interwoven willow rods, tied with willow bark and traditionally covered with an animal skin such as horse or bullock hide, with a thin layer of tar to waterproof it. These days calico, canvas or fibreglass are used instead of animal hide. They are also known as curraghs in Scotland, and currachs in Ireland [source].

Proto-Celtic *korukos = leather boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) curach = coracle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) curach = coracle, skiff, boat
curchán = little coracle, boat, skiff
Irish (Gaeilge) curach [kəˈɾˠax/ˈkʊɾˠəx/ˈkɤɾˠax] = currach, coracle
curachán = small currach, small vehicle, (boat-shape) work-basket
curachóir = currachman
curachóireacht = rowing or paddling a currach
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) curach [kurəx] = coracle, curragh, frame (of a coracle or an animal), a boat made of wicker and covered with skins or hids
curach Innseanach = canoe
curach-àile = balloon (airship)
Manx (Gaelg) curragh = coracle, canoe
Proto-Brythonic *korug = coracle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) corwc, corwgl, korwgyl, kwrwgyl = coracle
Welsh (Cymraeg) corwg(l) [ˈkɔrʊɡ/ˈkoːrʊɡ] = coracle, skiff; vessel, drinking vessel
cwrwgl = coracle
Cornish (Kerneweg) koroug = coracle
Breton (Brezhoneg) korac’h = coracle

Etymology: probably from the PIE *(s)koro- (leather), from *(s)ker- (to cut off) [source]. The English word coracle was borrowed from Welsh [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include cuir (leather) in French, cuero (leather, animal skin, hide) in Spanish and couro (leather, hide) in Portuguese [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Prison

Today we’re looking at words for prisions and related things in Celtic languages.

Carchar Lisbon / Lisbon Prison

Old Irish (Goídelc) carcar [ˈkarkar] = prison, captivity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carcar = prison, captivity, bondage, strong-room
Irish (Gaeilge) carcair [ˈkaɾˠkəɾʲ] = prison, place of confinement; stall, pen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carcair [karxgɛrʲ] = prison, coffer, sink, sewer, hermit’s cell
Manx (Gaelg) carchyr = imprisonment, jail
carchyragh = gaolbird, prisoner
Proto-Brythonic *karxar = prison, jail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) karchar, carchar, carcar = prison, gaol
karcharaur, carcharawr = prisoner
Welsh (Cymraeg) carchar [ˈkarχar] = prison, gaol, pen, stable, bond, fetter, band, chain, hobble, restriction, obstruction, impediment, constipation
carcharbwll = dungeon, prison-pit
carchardy = prison house, gaol
carchardig = imprisoned, incarcerated, confined
carchardigaeth = imprisonment, confinement
carchargell = prison cell
carchariad = imprisonment, confinement
carchariad, carcharor = prisoner
carcharu = to imprison, impound, confine, shackle, fetter, hobble, restrict, obstruct
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carhar = jail, prison
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carchar, charc’har, karc’har = prison, jail
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment
Breton (Brezhoneg) karc’har = dungeon
karc’harel = prison
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment

Etymology: from Latin carcer (prison, jail, jailbird, beginning, starting gate), from Proto-Italic *karkos (enclosure, barrier), from PIE *kr̥-kr̥- (circular), a reduplication of *(s)ker- (to turn, bend) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include incarcerate in English, carcere (jail, prison, imprisonment) in Italian, cárcere (jail, prison) in Portuguese, kerker (dungeon) in Dutch, and карцер (lockup, punishment cell, sweatbox) in Russian [source].

English words from the same PIE roots include circle, circus, corona, crisp, cross, crown and ring [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) prísún, brísún = prison
prísúntacht = imprisonment
Irish (Gaeilge) príosún [ˈpʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ] = prison, imprisonment
príosúnach = prisoner
príosúnacht = imprisonment
príosúnaigh = to imprison
príosúnú = imprisonment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) prìosan [prʲiːsən] = prison, jail
prìosanach = prisoner
prìosanachadh = imprisoning, incarcerating
Manx (Gaelg) pryssoon = brig, gaol, glasshouse, jail, lock-up, penitentiary, prison, clink
pryssoonagh = captive, detainee, internee, prisoner
pryssoonaght = detention, imprisonment, incarceration
pryssooneyder = gaoler imprisoner
Cornish (Kernewek) prison = gaol, jail, prison
prisonya = to imprison, incarcerate
prisonyans = imprisonment
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniadur, prizonierezh = imprisonment
prizon(i)añ = to imprison
prizon(i)er = prisoner
Breton (Brezhoneg) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniañ = to imprison

Etymology: from the Middle English prisoun (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Anglo-Norman pris(o)un (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Old French prison (prison) from the Latin prehensiō (seizing, apprehending, arresting, capturing), from prehendō (to seize). The Breton probably comes directly from Old French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Boots and Shoes

Today we’re looking at words for boots, shoes and related things in Celtic languages.

John Baker's Brogue Ankle Boot / Schnürstiefelette Kalbsleder braun (brown) (1)

Old Irish (Goídelc) bróc(c) [broːɡ] = shoe, sandal, greave; (in plural) greaces, leggings, hose, breeches
Irish (Gaeilge) bróg [bˠɾˠoːɡ/bˠɾˠɔːɡ] = boot, shoe
bróg ard = boot
bróg iseal = shoe
bróg adhmaid/mhaide = clog
brógchrann = boot-tree
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bròg [brɔːg] = shoe, boot, hoof
brògair [brɔːgɪrʲ] = shoemaker, cobbler
brògach [brɔxgəx] = abounding in shoes, shod, strong-hoofed, animal with “socks”
bròg-fhiodha = clog, wooden shoe
brògan put = football boots
bròg-eich = horseshoe
bròg-spéilidh = ice skate
bròg na cuthaige = bluebell, wild hyacinth (“shoe of the cuckoo”)
cho sona ri bròg = as happy as Larry (“as happy as a shoe”)
Manx (Gaelg) braag = brogue, shoe
braagit = shod
braag lheiltys = gym shoe
braag shliawin = ice skate
braag vaidjagh = clog
Welsh (Cymraeg) brog = brogue
brog Gwyddelig = Irish brogue

Etymology: from the Old Norse brók (trousers, breeches) or the Old English brōc (underpants), both of which come from the Proto-Germanic *brōks (rear end, rump, leggings, pants, trousers), from the PIE *bʰreg- (to break, crack, split) [source].

The English word brogue was borrowed from Irish and refers to a type of shoe, or a strong accent, particularly a strong Irish accent when speaking English, although it originally referred to Irish spoken with a strong English accent, or a heavy shoe of untanned leather.

Brogue in the sense of accent might come from the Irish word barróg (hug, wrestling grip, brogue, impediment of speech) [source], which comes from the Old Irish barróc (fast hold, tight grip, embrace, gripe, stitch) [source],

Proto-Celtic *fesskūtā = (leather) boot, shoe
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eskyd, eskit, escid = boot, buskin, shoe
Welsh (Cymraeg) esgid [ˈɛskɪd] = boot, buskin, shoe
esgidiaf, esgidio = to put on one’s boots or shoes, to shoe
esgidiedig / esgidiog = shod
esgidiwr = shoemaker, bootmaker
esgidiau blewog = fur-lined boots
esgidau byclau = buckled shoes
esgidiau eira = show boots/shoes
esgidiau nos = slippers
esgid(iau) Gwyddel(od) = brogue(s)
esgid goed, esgidiau coed = wooden-soled shoes, clogs
esgidiau’r gog/gwcw = Bluebell, Wild Hyacinth
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) escid, esgis, eskas = shoe
Cornish (Kernewek) eskis = shoe
eskis sport = trainer, sports shoe
eskisyow kron = slingbacks

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ped-skuHto-, from *ped- (to walk, step) and *skuH-t- (skin, hide) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cúarán = shoe, sock
Irish (Gaeilge) cuarán = sandal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuaran [kuəran] = sandal, bangage, toecap, sock
Manx (Gaelg) carrane = hide sandal, sandal, slipper
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cuaran, kuaran, curan = boot, buskin
Welsh (Cymraeg) cu(a)ran, cwaran = boot, buskin
curanog = buskined

Etymology: the Welsh words were borrowed from Irish. The words in the other languages possibly come from the Middle Irish cúar (curved, bent, crooked) from the Proto-Celtic *kukro- (curved), from the Proto-Indo-European *kewk- (to elevate, height) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòtann [bɔːhdən̪ˠ] = boot (esp. rubber boot, wellington)
bòtais [bɔːhdɪʃ] = boot
bùtais [buːhdɪʃ] = boot
Manx (Gaelg) bootys = boot
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) botys, botes, botas, bottas = greave(s), shackle, boot, wader
Welsh (Cymraeg) bot(i)as, bwtias = greave(s), shackle, boot, wader
botasbren = bootjack, boot-tree
botasog = wearing boots or greaves
botaswr = bootmaker, shoemaker
Cornish (Kernewek) botas = boot
botas palvek = flippers
botas stanch = wellies
Middle Breton (Brezonec) botez, botes, botés = shoe
Breton (Brezhoneg) botez = shoe, clog
botour = shoemaker, cobbler
botaouiñ = to shoe
botez-prenn = clog, wooden shoe
botezioù = hoof, sole

Etymology: (via English) from the Old French bote (boot), from the Frankish *butt, from Proto-Germanic *but(t)az (cut off, short, numb, blunt), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰewt-/*bʰewd- (to strike, push, shock”) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Foreheads

Today we’re looking at words for foreheads, brows and related things in Celtic languages.

Big forehead!

Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, forehead, flat surface, facet, end
éadanán = headstall
éadanchlár = fascia
in éadan = against, opposed to
as éadan = one by one, in (rapid) succession, indiscriminately
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial
aodannan = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-fuadain = mask
dà-aodannach = two-faced, double-skinned (in architecture)
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = apron (of a dam), rockface, countenance, dial, disc, facade, face, facet, facial, fascia, front, frontage
far-eddin = mask
eddin harroo = sour-faced

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (forehead) [source].

Words from the same root include end, answer and antimony in English, and ante (before, earlier, instead of) in Italian [source].

Proto-Celtic *talu = front, forehead
Gaulish *talu = ?
Celtiberian talukokum = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) tul, taul, tel, til = protruberance, projecting part, swelling, boss of a shield
Irish (Gaeilge) tul = protuberance, prominence, front, forehead
tulach = low hill, hillock, mound
tulán = protuberance, mound, knoll, hummock
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tul [tul̪ˠ] = face
Manx (Gaelg) tool = ?
tool-vuilley = forehand stroke
Proto-Brythonic *tal
Old Welsh tal = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tal = end
Welsh (Cymraeg) tâl [taːl] = end (of an object), gable end, extremity, top, side, edge, rampart, front, face (of shield), forehead, brow, head
tâl bainc, talbainc = end of bench, place of honour, best kind, first class
ar dâl = at the top, end, by the side, near
talaith = state, province, district, area, principality
talar = headland (of ploughed field), boundary
talaraf, talaru = to reach the headland, set a boundary
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tal = the front, forehead, end, top
Cornish (Kernewek) tal = brow, forehead, front, temple
talar = headland
talgamma = to frown
plegya tal = to frown, knit one’s brows
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tal = forehead
taleg = sb with a big forehead
Breton (Brezhoneg) tal = face, forehead

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *telh₂- (ground, bottom), or from *teHlu- [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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