Lead (Metal)

Today we’re looking at the words for lead (metal) and related things in Celtic languages.

Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Wales.
Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Ceredigion, Cymru

Proto-Celtic *ɸloudom = lead (metal)
Gaulish *laudon = lead (metal)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lúaide = lead (metal)
Irish (Gaeilge) luaidhe [ˈl̪ˠuːiː] = lead (metal), (sounding-) lead, plummet, (fishing) sinker
luaidhiúil = lead-like, leaden
luaidhnimh = lead-poisoning
peann luaidhe = pencil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luaidhe [l̪ˠuəjə] = lead (metal), leaden
luaidheach = leaden
peann-luaidhe = pencil
Manx (Gaelg) leoaie = lead (metal), leaden, sounding lead
penn leoaie = pencil

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plewd- (to fly, flow, run), from *plew- (to fly, flow, run), from the Proto-West Germanic *laud [source].

Some words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood and pneumonia in English, vlieten (to flow) in Dutch, fließen (to flow) in German, flyte (to float, flow) in Swedish [source].

The English word lead comes from the Middle English le(e)d (lead) from the Old English lēad (lead) from the Proto-West-Germanic *laud (lead), from the Gaulish *laudon (lead) [source], and words for lead in other Germanic language languages come from the same root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *plum = lead (metal)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pluum, plwm = lead (metal)
Welsh (Cymraeg) plwm [plʊm] = lead (metal); mass or ball of lead, plumb, plummet, straight(ness), vertical(ness)
plymaidd = leaden, lead-like, heavy, oppressive, worthless
plymen = lead weight, plummet, sheet, of lead
plymio = to sound (for depth), fathom, dive, plunge, plummet; to cover or solder with lead, line (pottery) with lead, glaze
plymwr = plumber, dealer/worker in lead, plunger, diver
plymliw = lead-coloured, blackish-blue, greyish blue, pale blue
Cornish (Kernewek) plomm, plobm = lead (metal)
plommer = plumber
plommwedhek = vertical
pyncel plomm = pencil
Breton (Brezhoneg) plom = lead (metal)
plomek = lead(en)
plomer = plumber
plomerezh = plumbing

Etymology: from the Latin plumbum (lead, pencil), may be borrowed from Etruscan, Iberian or some other pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate language [source].

Some words from the same Latin root include plumb (truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line) in English, piombo (lead, grey, bullet) in Italian, plomb (lead, fuse, sinker) in French, and Plombe (seal, filling) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Copper

Today we’re looking at the words for copper and related things in Celtic languages.

copper pots

Proto-Celtic *omiyom = copper, bronze
Old Irish (Goídelc) umae, humae [ˈu.ṽe] = copper, bronze, brass
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) uma = copper, bronze, brass
Irish (Gaeilge) umha = copper, copper alloy, bronze
umhadhaite = bronze-coloured, bronzed
umhaí = worker in copper or bronze
cré-umha = bronze
cré-umhaigh = to bronze
salachar-umha = verdigris
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umha [ũ.ə] = bronze, copper, brass
umhach = coppery, brassy
umha-dhathte = copper-coloured, bronze-coloured
ceàrd-umha = coppersmith
Linn an Umha = the Bronze Age
meirg-umha = verdigris
Manx (Gaelg) ooha = bronze
cur ooha er = to bronze, bronzing
Yn Eash Ooha = the Bronze Age
Proto-Brythonic *öβ̃ɨð = bronze, copper
Old Welsh emid, emed = bronze, copper
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) euyð, euyd = bronze, copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) efydd [ˈɛvɨ̞ð / ˈeːvɪð] = bronze, brass, copper; made of bronze brass or copper; brazen; bronze colour, coppery
efyddaf, efyddu = to cover or adorn with brass or copper, to braze
efyddaid = made of bronze or brass; brazen, brazed
efyddog = brassy, coppery
efyddwr = brass-smith, copper-smith
medal efydd = bronze medal
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
Oes yr Efydd = Bronze Age

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *omos (raw), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour) [source].

Some words from the same PIE root, via the Latin amārus (bitter, harsh, sour, dire), include amaro (bitter) in Italian, amer (bitter, sour) in French, amarillo (yellow, golden coloured) in Spanish [source], and marulă (lettuce) in Romanian [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) copar [ˈkopˠəɾˠ] = copper
gabha copair = coppersmith
coparás = copperas, copper sulphate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) copar [kɔhbər] = copper
coparach = cuperous, like copper, coppery
copar-dubhaidh = copperas, green vitriol (iron(II) sylphate)
Manx (Gaelg) cobbyr, copuir = copper
cobbyragh = copperish, cupric
gaaue cobbyr = coppersmith
plait cobbyr = copperplate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) copyr, copr, kopyr = copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) copr, copor, coper = copper; something of little value; red hair
gof copr = copper-smith
gwaith copr = copper-works, vessels made of copper
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
Cornish (Kernewek) kober [stɛːn / steːn] = copper
kobrek = copper (colour)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouevr = copper
kouevrek = cupric (relating to or containing copper)
kouevrus = cuprous (relating to or containing copper)

Etymology: from the Middle English coper (copper, bronze), from the Old English copor (copper), from the Proto-Germanic *kuprą (copper), from the Latin Latin cuprum (copper) from the Ancient Greek Κύπρος (Cyprus – where large reserves of copper can be found). The Breton word kouevr was borrowed from the French cuivre (copper, brass), from the same Latin root [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wood Intelligence

Today we’re looking at the words for chess and related things in Celtic languages.

Chess

According to legend, the ancient Irish game of fidchell was invented by Lugh (god of light and inspiration) in the 9th century. It played an important role in the celebrations at the Festival of Lughnasa (in August), and was played by kings, druids, warriors – more details. See also: https://totallyirishgifts.com/fidchell-the-ancient-celtic-chess-game/.

The old Welsh game of gwyddbwyll is mentioned in medieval Welsh literature, however there are no surviving examples of the game.

Chess is thought to have originated in India in the 6th century AD, and was brought to Britian by the Normans in the 12th century.

See also: https://lornasmithers.wordpress.com/2017/06/16/gwyddbwyll-why-the-war-games/.

Old Irish (Goídelc) fidchell [ˈfɪðʲçɛlː] = an old Irish board game similar to chess
Irish (Gaeilge) ficheall [ˈfʲɪhəl̪ˠ / ˈfʲɪhəl̪ˠ / ˈfʲɪçəl̪ˠ] = chess, chessboard
flcheallacht = chess-playing
flcheallaí = chess-player
clár fichille = chessboard
fear fichille = chessman
fíann/forieann fichille = set of chessmen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fidhcheall = Celtic chess
Manx (Gaelg) feeal = chess
feealee = chess player
fer feeal, babban feeal = chess piece
claare feeal = chessboard
Proto-Brythonic *gwɨðbuɨll = a board-game similar to chess
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvytbuill, gvydbvll, gvydbvyll = one of the twenty-four feats of skill or prowess performed in Wales in medieval times; a board-game similar to chess
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyddbwyll [ˈɡwɨ̞ðbʊɨ̯ɬ] / ˈɡʊi̯ðbʊi̯ɬ] = chess; knowledge, learning, science; reason, sense, discretion
gwyddbwyllwr = chess player, chess piece, chess man
Cornish (Kernewek) gwydhbol = chess
Old Breton guidpoill, guidpull = chess
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwezboell = (Celtic) chess
gwezboellet = chequered

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *widukʷēslā [source], *widu (wood), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁widʰ(h₁)-u-s [source]; and *kʷēslā (mind, sense, wisdom, intelligence, meaning), from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

The English word wood also comes from the PIE root *h₁widʰ(h₁)-u-s, via the Middle English wode (wood), the Old English widu, wudu (wood) the Proto-West-Germanic *widu (forest, tree, wood), and the Proto-Germanic *widuz (wood) [source].

See also the post about Trees, Wood(s) & Forests

In Welsh, chess is also sies or ses, which were borrowed from the Middle English ches(se) (chess, chess set, chessboard, chess pieces) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) táiplis, táibhleis = tables, backgammon, backgammon-board
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàileasg [taːl̪ˠəsg] = chess, backgammon, draughts / checkers
Manx (Gaelg) tawlish = draughts / checkers
tawlish beg = draughts / checkers
tawlish mooar = backgammon
Welsh (Cymraeg) tawlfwrdd, towlfwrdd, tolfwrdd = a board game similar to chess, game-board; chess; chessboard, draughtboard

Etymology: from the Old Norse tafl (chess-like game, chess, backgammon), from the Latin tabula (tablet; board, plank) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Druids

Today we’re looking at the words for druids in Celtic languages.

Druids

Proto-Celtic *druwits = druid
Gaulish *druwits / *druwides = druid
Old Irish (Goídelc) druí [ˈdruːi̯] = druid, sorcerer, magician
Irish (Gaeilge) draoi = druid, wizard, magician, augur, diviner, trickster
draíocht = druidic art, druidism, witchcraft, magic, charm, enchantment
draíochtach = magicial, bewitching, entrancing
draíodóir = magician
draíodóireacht = magic, sly, cunning, hypocrisy, trickery, secretiveness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) draoidh [drɯj] = druid, sorcerer, magician, wizard
draoidheachd [drɯjəxg] = magic, sorcery, druidism
draoidheil [drɤjal] = druidic(al), magic(al)
ceò-draoidh = magic mist
eun-draoidh = augur
Manx (Gaelg) druaight = charm, druid
druaightagh = smithcraft, smithery, smithywork
druaightys = charming, druid, druidism, magic
Proto-Brythonic *drüw [ˈdryu̯] = druid, seer
Welsh (Cymraeg) dryw [drɨu̯/drɪu̯] = druid, seer
derwydd [ˈdɛrwɨ̞ð / ˈdɛrwɪð] = prophet, wise man, druid
derwyddaidd = druidical
derwyddiaeth = druidism, the druid cult
derwyddol = druidic, druidical
archderwydd = archdruid
Old Cornish druw = druid
Cornish (Kernewek) drewydh = druid
Breton (Brezhoneg) drouiz [ˈdruː.is] = druid
drouizek / drouizel = druidic
drouizelezh / drouiziezh = druidism

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *dóru (tree) and *weyd- (to see, to know) [source].

The Gaulish words for druid were borrowed by Ancient Greek, as δρυΐδαι (druḯdai), and Latin, as Druidēs. The Latin word was borrowed into French as druide, which was borrowed into English as druid [source].

The Proto-Brythonic word *drüw was borrowed into Old English as drȳ (sorcerer, magician), which became drī(mann)/driʒ(mann) (sorcerer, magician) in Middle English [source]. A few modern druids use the word drymann, or something similiar, to refer to themselves.

Here’s a traditional Welsh tune called Y Derwydd (The Druid):

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Forks

Today we’re looking at words for fork, and related words, in Celtic languages.

A Fork In The Road

Proto-Celtic *gablā = fork
Gaulish gab(a)los = fork
Old Irish (Goídelc) gabul [ˈɡavul] = fork, branch, gallows, gibbet
Irish (Gaeilge) gabhal [ɡoːəl̪ˠ] = bifurcation, fork, crotch, junction
gabahlán = martin, fork
gabahlóg = fork, forked stick, forked implement
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gobahl [ɡoːəl̪ˠ] = bifurcation, fork, crotch, junction
gobahl-gleusaidh = tuning fork
gobahl-roinn = pair of compasses
gobahl-rathaid = road junction
Manx (Gaelg) goal = fork, branch, crotch, crutch, junction, perineum
goal twoaie = rainbow
Proto-Brythonic *gaβl [ˈɡaβl] =fork
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gafl, gauyl = fork
Welsh (Cymraeg) gafl [gafl] = fork, stride, lap, inner part of the thigh, groin, angle, nook
gaflach arrow, dart, lance, spear, javelin, sickle; fork, stride, hind-legs, groin
gaflachaf, gaflachu = to straddle, walk with the feet wide apart
gaflachog = armed with javelins or spears; astride, bandy-legged, furcated, forked
gaflaw = split open, cleft, forked, in two
gafliaf, gaflio = to straddle, place/sit with the legs wide apart
Cornish (Kernewek) gowl = crotch, fork
gowlek = forked
Old Breton gabl = fork
Breton (Brezhoneg) gaol = fork
gaoliek = forkful
gaoliañ = to mount, bestride, ride (a horse or bicycle)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʰeh₁bʰ- (to grab, take) [source]. The English word gable comes from the Gaulish wood gab(a)los (fork), via the Old French gable [source].

Proto-Celtic *awsetlo- = (flesh-)fork
Old Irish (Goídelc) áel [ɯːl] = trident, meatfork, flesh-fork
Irish (Gaeilge) adhal = fork, trident
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) adhal [ɤ.əl̪ˠ] = flesh-hook, flesh fork
Manx (Gaelg) aall = table fork, fleshhook

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ólos (awl) or *ēl- (awl, prong) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) forc [fork] = fork, pronged spear
Irish (Gaeilge) forc [fˠoɾˠk] = fork
forc éisc = fish fork
forc féir = hay-fork
forcáil = to fork
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) forca [ˈfɔr̪ˠxgə] = fork, cramp
forca-fheòir = hayfork
forca-spòlaidh = carving fork
Welsh (Cymraeg) fforc, fforch [fɔrk/fɔrχ]= (table) fork
fforc gig = carving-fork
fforc diwnio = tuning-fork
Cornish (Kernewek) forgh = fork
yn forgh = in fork (in good order = dry and work well – uesd in mining)
forghyes = forked
Breton (Brezhoneg) forc’h = fork
forc’had = gap, spread, distance
forc’hek = forked, bifurcated

Etymology: from the English fork, from the Middle English forke (fork, gallows), from the Old English forca (fork), from the Proto-West-Germanic *furkō (fork), from the Latin furca (fork). The Breton word comes directly from Latin [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ladles and Spoons

Ladles and Jellyspoons, or if you prefer, Ladies and Gentlemen, today we are look at words for spoon, ladle and related words in Celtic languages.

Welsh Love Spoon

Proto-Celtic *lēgā = spoon
Old Irish (Goídelc) líach [l͈ʲiːa̯x] = spoon, laddle
Irish (Gaeilge) liach [l̠ʲiəx] = laddle, ladleful, measure
liachlán = ladleful
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) liogh [l̪ʲɤɣ] = blade (of an oar, helicopter), vane (of a mill), ladle, hero
liogh ràimh = oar blade
Manx (Gaelg) lheegh = ladle
lheegh awree = soup ladle
Proto-Brythonic *lluɨɣ = spoon, scoop, ladle, trowel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llwy = spoon, ladle, trowel
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwy [ɬuːɨ̯] = spoon, ladle, scoop, trowel, spatula, bucket, float, paddle (of a water-wheel)
llwy de = teaspoon
llwy fwrdd = tablespoon
llwy gawl = soup spoon
llwy grochan, llwy droetir = ladle
llwy bren = wooden spoon
llwy serch = love-spoon
llwyaid = spoonful, shovelful
llwyar(n) = trowel, fire-shovel, slive, scoop, corer, spatula
llwyar(n)u = to spread and smooth with a trowel or shovel
llwyo = to spoon or ladle (out)
llwywr = spoon-maker
Old Cornish loe = spoon
Cornish (Kernewek) lo = spoon
lo balas = trowel
lo de = teaspoon
lo ledan = ladle
lo vras = tablespoon
Old Breton loi = spoon
Middle Breton loa = spoon
Breton (Brezhoneg) loa = spoon, striker, gouge, trowel, pliers
loa-dizourañ = slotted spoon
loa goad = wooden spoon
loa-gafe = teaspoon
loa-voued = soup spoon

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *leyǵʰ- (lick) [source]. The English word lick comes from the same PIE root via the Middle English likken (to lick), the Old English liccian (to lick), the Proto-West Germanic *likkōn (to lick), and the Proto-Germanic *likkōną (to lick) [source]

Irish (Gaeilge) spúnóg [sˠpˠuːˈn̪ˠoːɡ / ˈsˠpˠuːnˠaɡ] = spoon, spoonful
spúnóg tae / spúnóg bheag / taespúnóg = teaspoon
spúnóg mhór / spúnóg bhoird = tablespoon
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) spàin [sbaːn̪ʲ] = spoon, blade (of an oar)
spàin-bhùird = tablespoon
spàin-fhiodha = wooden spoon
spàin-teatha, spàin-tì = teaspoon
spàinach = like or pertaining to spoons
spàineag = small spoon, small spoonful
Manx (Gaelg) spein = spoon
spein ambee = dessert spoon
spein ooh = egg spoon

Etymology (Irish): from the English spoon, from the Middle English spo(u)ne/spo(o)n (spoon, chip of wood), from the Old English spōn (sliver, chip of wood, shaving), from the Proto-West Germanic *spānu (chip, shaving, spoon), from the Proto-Germanic *spēnuz (chip, flake, shaving), from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)peh₂- (chip, shaving, log, length of wood) [source].

Etymology (Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse spánn/spónn (chip, shaving, spoon), from the Proto-Germanic *spēnuz [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Kisses

Words for kisses and related words in Celtic languages.

I love Ewe! # 2

Old Irish (Goídelc) póc [poːɡ] = kiss
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) póc = kiss
Irish (Gaeilge) póg [pˠoːɡ / pˠɔːɡ] = (to) kiss
pógagh = kissing
pógaire = kisser
flaspóg smacking kiss
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) pòg [pɔːg] = (to) kiss
pògach = pertaining to or abounding in kisses, given to kissing
pògag = little kiss
pògan, pòigean = little kiss, smack
pòg Sgalpach = French kiss
Manx (Gaelg) paag [ɡiː] = (to) kiss
paagag = peck (kiss)
paagagh = osculant, osculatory
paagey = kissing, kiss, truss, osculate, osculation
paageyr = kisser
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pocyn, poccyn = kiss
Welsh (Cymraeg) pocyn = kiss, loud kissing noise
impoc, impogpacs
Old Cornish poccuil = kiss
Breton (Brezhoneg) pok = kiss
pokat = to kiss

Etymology: from the Latin phrases (dare) pācem (to give peace) – originally a kiss as a sign of peace during a mass, or from ōsculum pācis (kiss of peace) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cussan, kussan, kusan = kiss
Welsh (Cymraeg) cusan [ˈkɨ̞san/ˈkɪsan] = kiss
cusanu = to kiss, touch lightly
cusan bwbach = sore/scab on lip or cheek (“goblin’s kiss”)
Cornish (Kernewek) kussyn = kiss

Etymology: from the Old English cyssan (to kiss) – from the Proto-Germanic *kussijaną (to kiss), probably of onomatopoeic origin [source].

Other words for kiss include sẁs [sʊs] in Welsh, amm / abm and bay in Cornish, and bouch in Breton. Sẁs is onomatopoeic, and the origin of the other words is not known.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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