Words for wheel and related words in Celtic languages.

Laxey Wheel

Proto-Celtic *rotos = wheel, chariot
Gaulish *Rotomagos = placename [see below]
Old Irish (Goídelc) roth = disc, sphere, wheel
rothmol = gyration
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) roth, routh = wheel, something circular or wheel-shaped, disc, sphere, circular brooch, wheel brooch, loop, noose
roithled = the act of rotating or twirling
roithlén = wheel
roithreim = the rolling, rushing of wheels
rothán = small wheel
rothmol = wheel of a water mill, gyration, scrimmage
Irish (Gaeilge) roth [ɾˠɔ(h)/ɾˠɞh] = wheel, bicycle
rothach = wheeled, cyclic(al)
rothadóir = wheelwright
rothaí = cyclist
rothaigh = to cycle
rothaíocht = cycling
rothán = small wheel, loop, ring, hank
rothar = bicycle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) roth [r̪ˠɔh] = wheel, halo, crown (in a mill)
roth-fiaclach = cog
roth-gaoithe = ventilator
roth-uisge = water wheel
roth-mór = millwheel, ferris wheel
rothag = small wheel, small circle
rothaiche = wheel, cyclist
rothair = bicycle, bike, cycle, roller, cylinder
rothaireachd = cycling
rothair-motair = motorbike, motorcycle
rothalan [r̪ˠɔhəl̪ˠan] = person or animal running in circles
Manx (Gaelg) roar = bicycle, bike
roaragh = cyclist
roaraght = cycling
roar-bree = motorcycle
roar-slieau = mountain bike
Proto-Brythonic *rrod = wheel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rot, rod, rhôd = wheel
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhod [r̥oːd] = wheel, spinning wheel, waterwheel, cogwheel, (round) shield), sphere, circle, orbit, firmament, heaven, (wheel of) fortune, fate, course, circuit, round, district, world
rhod ddŵr waterwheel
rhod wynt = windmill
rhodellaf, rhoedellu = to whirl, twirl
rhodig = small wheel, rowel (of spur)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ros, rôs = circle, wheel
Cornish (Kernewek) ros [ˈɹoːz] = wheel
ros lovan = winch
ros melin = mill wheel
ros parys = spare wheel
ros velin = millwheel
ros-lewya = steering wheel
rosella = to rotate, spin
rosellans = rotation
rosik = castor
roskesya = roller skating
roskis = rollerskates
Middle Breton (Brezonec) rod, rot = wheel, spinning wheel
rot melin, rod milin = millwheel
Breton (Brezhoneg) rod [ˈroːt] = wheel
rod-avel = wind turbine
rod-vilin = millwheel
rodal = to do a cartwheel
rodeg = cycle
rodell = loop
rodellig = small curl, bouclette

Etymology: from PIE *Hret- (to run) [source].

The city of Rouen, the capital of Normandy in northern France, gets its name from the Latin Rōtomagus, which was the chief city of the Veliocasses in Gallia Lugdunensis (where Rouen is now), and was borrowed from Gaulish, from the Proto-Celtic *rotos (wheel) and *magos (field) [source].

Other words from the same roots include words for to run in Celtic languages, the Welsh name Rhys, and rota, rotor and rotate in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *drokos = wheel
Old Irish (Goídelc) droch [drox] = wheel, circlet
drochet [ˈdrox(ʲ)ed] = bridge – from droch (wheel) and sét (path, way)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) droch = wheel, circlet
drochet, drochat, droget = bridge, causeway
Irish (Gaeilge) droichead = bridge
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) droch [drɔx] = coach wheel (obselete)
drochaid = bridge
Manx (Gaelg) droghad = bridge, arch, gantry

Etymology: from PIE *dʰregʰ- (to run, drag, pull) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include drag, draw (to pull, drag) and retract in English, and դուրգ (durg – potter’s wheel) in Armenian [source].

Proto-Celtic *olēnā = wheel
Old Welsh olun, olin = wheel, circular, to rotate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) olwyn, olvyn, ōlwyn = wheel
olwynnyawc, olŵynog, olwŷnog = wheeled, turning, revolving
Welsh (Cymraeg) olwyn [ˈɔlʊɨ̯n/ˈoːlʊi̯n] = wheel, shaft
olwyn gocos cog wheel
olwyn ddŵr = waterwheel
olwyn lywio = streering wheel
olwyndro = cartwheel
olwyndroi = to cartwheel, spin
olwyn(i)af, olwyn(i)o = to wheel, turn, revolve, roll
olwyn(i)og = wheeled, turning, revolving
olwynol = wheel-shaped, circular, revolving
olwynwr = wheelwright, cyclist

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *Heh₃l- (to bow, bend, elbow) [source].

Words from elbow in Celtic languages come from the same PIE root via the Proto-Celtic *olīnā (elbow, angle) [more details], as do the English words elbow and ulna (one of the bones in the forearm, a.k.a. elbow bone) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cuidhil [kiːlʲ/kiəlʲ] = spinning wheel (in Antrim)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuidheall [kujəl̪ˠ] = wheel, coil
cuidheall-shnìomha = spinning wheel
cuibheall-iteachain = bobbin wheel
saor-chuidhleachan = wheelwright
Manx (Gaelg) queeyl(l) = wheel
queeyl chairt = cartwheel
queeylit = wheeled
queeyllagh = cartwheel, rotary, wheeled, wheeling
queelylley = rolling, wheeling whirling

Etymology: from Scots quhe(i)l (wheel), from Middle English whel (wheel), etc [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuibhle [kuilə] = wheel, coil
cathair-cuibhle = wheelchair
cuibhle-shnìomha = ship’s wheel, steering wheel
cuibhlearachd = wheeling, rolling, coiling
cuibhle = millwheel, ferris wheel
cuibhleas = wheelhouse
cuibhleag = small coil, small eddy
Welsh (Cymraeg) whil, wil = wheel
w(h)ilaf, w(h)ilo = to wheel, roll
w(h)ilber = wheelbarrow
w(h)ilberaid = wheelbarrowful
w(h)ilber(i)o = to carry in a wheelbarrow
whilbws = wheelhouse
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) wheyl, wheal, whél = work, wheel

Etymology: from English wheel, from Middle English whel (wheel), from Old English hwēol (wheel), from Proto-Germanic *hweulō (wheels), from PIE *kʷékʷlom (wheel) from *kʷel- (to turn) [source].

According to MacBain’s An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, the Gaelic cuibhle was borrowed from English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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