Words for hard and related things in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *kaletos = hard, strong, cruel
Gaulish Caleti (ethnonym)
Old Irish (Goídelc) calad = hard, stingy, hardship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) calad, calath, caladh = hard, stingy
Irish (Gaeilge) caladh [ˈkɑl̪ˠə/ˈkalˠə/ˈkalˠu] = hard
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) caled, kalet, calett = hard, rough, cruel
caledi, kaledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
kaledwch, cledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
Welsh (Cymraeg) caled = hard, rough, cruel, unfeeling, sore, severe, strict, thrifty, obstinate, abstruse, difficult, hardy, tough
caledaf, caledu, caledo, cledo = to harden, dry, grow unfeeling or stubborn
calededd = hardness, severity
caleden = callus
caledfyd = hardship, distress, adversity
caled-galon = hard-hearted, callous
caledi = hardness, hardship, adversity
caledwch = hardness, severity, cruelty, callousness
caledwedd = (computer) hardware
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cales, calas, calys = hard, difficult
caletter, calatter = hardness, difficulty
calessa, calassa = hardest
Cornish (Kernewek) kales = difficult, hard, severe, tough
kalesweyth = hardware
kaletter = difficulty, hardness
penn kales = obstinate, stubborn
Middle Breton (Brezonec) calet, kalet = hard, deep (sleep)
caletaat, kaletaat = to harden, toughen up
caleded = hardness, toughness
caleder, calletter, caleder = hardness, toughness, difficulty
Breton (Brezhoneg) kalet = hard, raw, crude
kaleted = hardness, toughness
kaleter = endurance
kaledenn = hard, callus

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱlH-eto- (cold), related to *kal- (hard) [source]. Words from the same roots include callus and callous in English, калити [kǎːliti] (to harden, temper) in Serbian, and callo (callus, corn, tripe) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kroudis/*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crúaid = hard, harsh, stern
crúadach = cruel, harsh
crúaide = hardness
crúadaigid = to harden, stiffen
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crúaid, cruaidh = hard(y), harsh, stern, strict
crúadach, cruadach = hard, cruel, harsh
crúadagid, cruadhaigh = hardens, stiffens
crúadáil, cruadhál = hardship, cruelty
crúadóc, crúadhóg = hardship, strait, difficulty
crúaide, cruaide = hardness, harshness
Irish (Gaeilge) crua [kɾˠuə/kɾˠuəɟ/kɾˠuəj] = hard, firm, difficult, severe
cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachan = hardening
cruachás = predicament, difficulty, distress
cruachásach = in a difficulty, distressed
cruacht = hardness, hardiness, stinginess
cruara = hardware
cruas = hardness, stinginess
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
cruaidh-chàs = danger, peril, difficulty, hardship
cruaidh-fhortan = misfortune
cruaidhead [kruəjəd] = degree of hardness
cruaidheadh [kruəjəɣ] = solidifying, hardening, drying
Manx (Gaelg) creoi = adamant, difficult, hardy, heartless, hard, solid, tough, bitter (frost), blistering (language)
creoghey = to harden, forbear, set against
creoighey = to harden, stiffen; hardening
creoidys = hardihood, hardness
creoighys = callosity, hardness, obduracy

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *krū- (blood), from Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂- (blood outside the body) [source]. Words from the same roots include crude, cruel and raw in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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