Buying and Purchasing

Words for to buy, purchase and related words in Celtic languages.

image illustrating words for to buy in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *kʷrinati = to buy
Old Irish (Goídelc) crenaid [ˈkʲrʲeniðʲθ] = to buy, purchase, sell
do·aithchren = to redeem, ransom
fo·cren [foˈkren] = to buy, purchase, hire
in·cren = to buy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crenaid = buys, obtains, sells, dispenses
do-cren = purchases
do-aithchren = buys back, redeems
fo-cren = buys, purchases, pays, hires, recompenses
Irish (Gaeilge) crean [cɾʲanˠ] = to obtain, purchase, bestow, spend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crean = to consume, remove, purchase, marketplace (obsolete)
Proto-Brythonic *prɨnad = to buy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prinit, prynnu = to buy
Welsh (Cymraeg) prynu [ˈprənɨ / ˈprəni] = to buy, purchase, exchange, redeem, ransom
prynu cath mewn cwd = to buy a pig in a poke
prynedig = bought, purchased, redeemed
prynedigaeth = redemption, buying, purchase
prynedigol = redeeming, redemptive, redeemed
prynwr, prynydd = buyer, purchaser, customer, redeemer
prynwriaeth = comsumerism, redemption
prynwriaethol = comsumerist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) prenne = to take, buy, purchase, redeem, expiate, pay for
Cornish (Kernewek) prena = to acquire, buy, purchase
prena kath yn sagh = to buy a pig in a poke
prenas = purchase
prenassa = to go shopping, to shop
prenasser, penassores = shopper
prener = buyer, customer, purchaser
Old Breton prenaff = to buy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prenaff = to buy
prener, prenouréss = buyer
Breton (Brezhoneg) prenañ = to buy
dasprenañ = to redeem
rakprenañ = to pre-purchase
prener, prenerez = buyer
prenadenn = acquisition
prener = buyer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷrinéh₂ti, from *kʷreyh₂- (to buy) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include क्रीत (krīt – bought, purchased) and क्रेता (kretā – buyer, purchaser) in Hindi [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cennach = bargin, purchase, transaction
cennaigid = to buy, purchase
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cennach = bargin, transaction, compact
cennaigid = buys, purchases, redeems, saves
cennaigtheóir = redeemer
Irish (Gaeilge) ceannaigh [ˈcan̪ˠəɟ/ˈcan̪ˠə/ˈcan̪ˠiː] = to buy, purchase, redeem, suborn, bribe
ceannach = purchase
ceannachán = purchase, purchased article
ceannaí = buyer, purchaser, dealer, merchant
ceannaíocht = buying, purchasing, dealing, trading
ceannaitheoir = buyer, purchaser, redeemer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceannaich [kʲan̪ʲɪç] = buy, purchase
ceannach = buying, purchasing, purchase, trading, commerce, trade, reward, bribe
Manx (Gaelg) chionnys = to buy. compel
chionnaghey = to buy, purchase
kionnee = to buy
kionnaghey = to buy, buy in, buying, purchase, purchasing, redeem
kionneeaght = buy, merchandise, purchase, traffic, redemption

Etymology: from the Old Irish cenn (head) and -aigid (suffix that turns a noun into a verb) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blood

Words for blood and related things in Celtic languages.

Blood

Proto-Celtic *wolis, *weli- = blood
Old Irish (Goídelc) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) fuil [fˠɪlʲ / fˠɨ̞lʲ] = blood
fuilaistriú = blood transfusion
fuilbheartach = sanguinary, bloody-minded
fuilchill = blood cell
fuilchíocrach = bloodthirsty
fuilchoirpín = blood corpuscle
fuildoirteadh = bloodshed
fuiligh, cuir fola = to bleed
cú fola = bloodhound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuil [ful] = blood, family, tribe, kindred
fuileachdach = bloody, bloodthirsty
fuil-mìos = menstruation, period
brùthadh-fala = blood pressure
cion-fala = anæmia
iomlaid fala = blood transfusion
marag-fhala = black pudding
ruith-fala = haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, piles
Manx (Gaelg) fuill [fuɪlʲ] = blood, breeding, kindred
fuill-vreck = bloodstained
coo folley = bloodhound
lhiggey fuill, roie folley = to bleed
mooinjer folley = blood relation
ym-roie folley = hemophilia
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gweli, gwely, gueli = wound, cut, gash
Welsh (Cymraeg) gweli [ˈɡwɛli] = (bleeding) wound, cut, gash, ulcer, sore
gweli angheuol mortal wound
gwelïaf, gwelïo = to wound, injure, hurt, exulcerate; to fester
gwelïog = fulls of wounds, sores, ulcers, wounded, bruised
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goly = wound, mark, hurt
guli = wound
Cornish (Kernewek) goli = injury, wound
goli bew/byw = ulcer
golia = to wound
goliesiges = casualty
Middle Breton gouli, goulyow = wound, injury
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouli = wound, injury

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to wound, strike) [source]. Words from the same root include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla [source].

Proto-Celtic *krū- = blood
*krowos = blood
*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crú = gore, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) cró [kɾˠoː / kɾˠɔː] = blood, gore
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crò [krɔː] = blood, gore, blood oath
crò-dhearg = crimson
Proto-Brythonic *krow = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crev, creu = blood
Welsh (Cymraeg) crau [kraɨ̯ /krai̯] = blood, gore, carnage, bloody
creulon = bloody, cruel, fierce, brutal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crow = gore, blood, death
Cornish (Kernewek) krow = bloodshed, gore

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kréwh₂s (blood) [source]. English words from the same root include crude and raw [source].

Proto-Celtic *wayos = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guayt, guaed, gwaet = blood. gore, juice, sap
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwaed [ˈɡwaːɨ̯d /ˈɡwai̯d] = blood. gore, juice, sap
gwaedlyf haemorrhage
gwaedlyd = bloody, sanguinary
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedogen = black pudding
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedu = to bleed
Old Cornish guit = blood
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gois, goys, goos, gos = blood
gosys = bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) goos [ˈɡuːz] = blood, bloodline
devera goos = to bleed, lose blood
gwaskedh goos = blood pressure
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwad [ˈɡwaːt] = blood, essence
gwadañ = to bleed
gwadegenn = black pudding, blood sausage
gwadgi = bloodhound
gwadorged = incest

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Waves

Words for wave and related things in Celtic languages.

Newquay

Proto-Celtic *tundā = wave, billow
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn [ton͈] = wave, outpouring, sea, abundance, bog, swamp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tonn = wave, outpouring, sea, abundance, bog, swamp
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ/t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ/t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = wave
tonn tuile = tidal wave
tonn teasa = heat-wave
tonn turrainge = shock wave
tonnach = wavy, billowy
tonnadh = to wave, surge
tonnáil = waving, rippling, undulation
tonná = wavelet, ripple
tonnúil = wavy, undulating
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = wave, tilde, quantity of liquid, pile, heap
tonn-fuaime = soundwave
tonn-taomaidh, tonn-tuile = tidal wave
tonn-crithe = shockwave
tonnadh = undulating, undulation, vomiting
tonnan, tonnag = small wave
tonnach = waved, wavy
tonnachd = waviness
Manx (Gaelg) tonn = wave, billow
tonn hiass = heat-wave
tonn hidee = tidal wave
tonn inçhyn = brainwave
tonnagh = undulating, billowy, wavy
tonnaghey to undulate, surge, bilow, undulation
tonnaght = undulation, waviness
Proto-Brythonic *tonn = wave
Old Welsh tonnou = wave
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton = wave
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = wave, the sea; wavelength
ton lanw = tidal wave
ton radio = radio wave
tonfedd = wavelength
tonffurf = waveform
toniad = undulation, oscillation, frequency, modulation, intonation
tonial = surge or swell (of waves)
tonniant = fluctuation
tonni = to undulate, ripple, oscillate, surge
tonnog = wavy, billowy, rough, choppy, roling, undulating
tonyddol = melodious, intoning, tonic, intonational
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) ton = wave
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = wave
tonnek = wavy
tonnhes, tonnhys = wavelength
Middle Breton) tonn = wave
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = wave

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat), or from the Proto-Celtic *tondā (surface, skin), or from the PIE *temh₁- (to cut) [source].

The PIE root *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat) is the origin of the Irish tit (to fall, collapse, descend), the Scottish Gaelic tuit (to fall, happen, slip), and the Manx tuitt (to fall, happen, slip) [source]. English words from the same root include study, studio, student and obtuse [source].

The the Proto-Celtic *tondā (surface, skin) is the root of the Gaulish *tondā, from which we get tonn (surface, skin) in Irish, tonn (skin, hide) in Scottish Gaelic, ton (turf, sod, sward, surface) in Welsh, ton (unploughed land, meadow) in Cornish, and tonn (rind, dermis, surface) in Breton.

It was borrowed into Latin as tunna / tonna (tun [a large cask], box), which became tonne (tonne, ton) in French, which was borrowed into English as tonne (a unit of mass equal to 1000kg; a score of 100 in darts) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sailing

Words for sail and related things in Celtic languages.

sailing ship

Proto-Celtic *siglom = sail, course, run
Old Irish (Goídelc) séol [sʲeːu̯l] = sail
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) séol = sail
séolaid = to sail
Irish (Gaeilge) seol [ʃoːl̪ˠ/ʃɔːlˠ] = sail; covering, canopy; drift, tend, course, direction, flow, motion
seoladh = to sail, sailing; course, direction, guidance, dispatch
seoladóir = shipper
seoladóireacht = shipping
seolchrann = mast
seoltóir = sailor, sender, remitter, drover, (electrical) conductor
seoltóireacht = sailing
long seol = sailing ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seòl [ʃɔːl̪ˠ] = sail; navigate, direct, guide, govern, regulate
seòlaid = shipping route, passage, sway(ing), nervous movement
seòl-mara = tide
seòladair = sailor
seòladaireach = nautical
Manx (Gaelg) shiauill = sail, navigate,
shiauilley = to sail, navigate, sailing
shiauilteyr = ferryman, sailor, seafarer, seaman
shiaulteyragh = nautical
Proto-Brythonic *hɨɣl = sail, course, run
Old Welsh huil = sail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwyl, hvyl, huyl = sail
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwyl [huːɨ̯l/hʊi̯l] = sail, sheet, covering, pall; journey, progress, revolution, orbit, course, route, career, rush, assault; hilarity, jollity, mirth, amusement, fun, humour
hwylbawl, hwylbolyn = boom, bowspirt
hwylbren = mast, flagstaff
hwyldroaf, hwyldroi = to tack, change course, veer
hwylfa = way, narrow road or street, lane, path, alley, voyage
hwylfwrdd = sailboard, windsurfer
hwylfyrddio = to sailboard, windsurf
hwylio = to sail, embark, set out on a voyage or journey, navigate
hwyliwr = navigator, mariner, sailor, leader, organizer
Old Cornish guio = sail
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) gol, goyl, guil = sail (of a ship)
gwelan gôl = sail yard
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = sail
golya = to sail
skath-wolya = sailing boat
gorhel golyow = sailing ship
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = sail
gouelier = to sail
gouelierezh = sailmaker

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly from the Old English seġ(e)l (sail), from the Proto-Germanic *segl (sail), from *seglą (sheet, sail), the origins of which are uncertain. Possibly cognate with the Latin sagum (coarse woolen coat), from the Gaulish *sagos (wool cloak). Related words include sail in English, zeil (sail, tarpaulin) in Dutch, Segel (sail) in German, and sejl (sail) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s Leis an Lurgainn, a song in Scottish Gaelic about sailing:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Trembing

Words for trembling, fever and related words in Celtic languages. I chose these words because I have a bit of a fever at the moment.

Thermometer

Proto-Celtic *kritos = fever, trembling, shaking
Old Irish (Goídelc) crith [ˈkʲr͈ʲiθ] = shaking, trembling
crithnaigid = to shake, tremble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crith = shaking, trembling, a shake, tremble
crothaid = shakes, causes to tremble, brandishes
Irish (Gaeilge) crith [crʲɪ(h) / crʲɪç] = tremble, shiver, tremor, shudder, vibration, quiver; to tremble, shake
critheagla = quaking fear, terror, timorousness
crithloinnir = shimmer
crithlonraigh = to shimmer
creathán = to tremble, quiver
creathánach = trembling, quivering, vibratory
creathánaí = trembler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crith [krʲih] = quake, shudder, shock, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate; quaking, shuddering, shocking, shaking, trembling, shivering
critheanaich = trembling
crith-cheòl = warbling, quavering, trills (in music)
crith-thalmhainn = earthquake
crithnich = quake, shudder, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate
Manx (Gaelg) crie = to shake
craa = to shake
Old Welsh crit = shivering, trembling, fever
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crid, cryt, kryt = shivering, trembling, fever
crynei, krynu, krennit = to tremble, quake, shiver, shake
Welsh (Cymraeg) cryd [krɨːd / kriːd] = shivering, trembling, dread, fear, ague, fever, disease
crydu, crydio = to shake, tremble, quake
crynu = to tremble, quake, shiver, shake, brandish, vibrate, quaver, gnash, twinkle
echryd = dread, terror, fright, fear, trembling, shivering, tremor; fearful, dreadful, frightful
ysgryd = shiver, trembling, shudder, fright, horror, agony
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crenne, cranna = to tremble, quake
Cornish (Kernewek) kren = shake
krena, kerna = to shake, shiver, tremble
krenans = vibration
Krener, Krenores = Quaker
dorgrys = earthquake
Old Breton crit = shivering, trembling
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kren, crezn, creen, crein = trembling
crenaff = to tremble
crezn doüar, crein doüar = earthquake
Breton (Brezhoneg) kren = trembling
krenañ = to tremble
kren-douar = earthquake
krendourarel = seismic

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krit-, from *(s)kreyt-, from *(s)ker- (twist, turn, bend) [source].

The English word scree (loose stony debris on a slope), comes from the same PIE root, via the Old Norse skriða (landscape, landslip) and the Proto-Germanic *skrīþaną (to crawl, glide, walk) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lamentation

Words for lamentation and related things in Celtic languages:

Lament

Proto-Celtic *kiyeti = to fall, cry
Old Irish (Goídelc) caí = weeping, lamentation
ciïd [ˈkʲi.ɨðʲ] = to lament, weep
caínid [ˈkoːi̯nʲiðʲ] = to lament, mourn, keen, regret, deplore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) caí = weeping, wailing, lamentation
ciïd = to cry, weep, lament, mourn
caínid = lament
Irish (Gaeilge) caí = lament, lamentation
caoin [kiːnʲ] = to keen, lament, cry, weep
caoineadh = to keen, lament, crying weeping, elegy
caoineachán = crying, mewling, lamentation
caointeach = plaintive, mournful
caointeachán = whimperer, crier
caointeoir = mourner, crier
caointeoireacht = lamenting, crying, lamentation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoidh [kɤj] = lamenting, bewailing, lamentation, mourning, grieving
caoin [kɯːn̪ʲ] = to weep, wail, deplore, howl, regret
caoineach = mournful, mourning
caoineadh = weeping for, mourning, crying, lamenting, wailing
caoineag, caointeach = wailing women (foretells death)
caoineadh cù Chaluim = crocodile tears
Manx (Gaelg) coe = weep, mourn, weeping, woe
keayney = weep. weeping, cry, crying, greet, keening, lament, lamentation, mourn, mourning, wail, wailing, deplore
keaynoil = lamentable, mournful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kwyn, cwyn, cŵyn = complaint, greivance, lament
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn [kuːɨ̯n/kʊi̯n] = complaint, greivance, lament, grief; sympathy, commiseration
cwyno [ˈkʊɨ̯nɔ / ˈkʊi̯nɔ] = to complain, lament, bemoan, mourn, condole with, pity, take legal action
cwynfannu = to complain, lament, moan, groan, mourn for; lamentation, groan, moan, mourning
cwynfanllyd = moanful, querulous, grumbling, peevish
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cyny, kyny = to mourn, lament, weep
Cornish (Kernewek) kyni = to lament, moan, mourn, wail
kynvan = lament, lamentation, moan, mourning
Middle Breton (Brezonec) keinal, keinat, keiniñ = to complain
Breton (Brezoneg) keuziañ = to deplore, bemoan
keuziadenn = lament

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷey- (to lament, complain) [source]. Words from the same root include ween (to weep, wail) in Scots, wenen (to cry, weep) in Dutch, weinen (to weep, cry) in German, and kveina (to wail, cry, lament) in Icelandic, via the Proto-Germanic *kwainōną (to lament) [source].

The English word keen (to mourn, utter with a loud wailing voice or wordless cry) was borrowed from the Irish caoin [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rawness

Today we’re looking at the words for raw and related things in Celtic languages.

Raw

Proto-Celtic *omos = raw
Old Irish (Goídelc) om [oṽ] = raw, uncooked
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) om = raw, uncooked; crude, undigested, immature; rude, unrefined, barbarous
Irish (Gaeilge) amh [ˈavˠ / ˈaw] = raw, uncooked
amhábhar = raw material, staple
aimhe = rawness, crudeness
amhainse = sharpness, astuteness
amhainseach = sharp, astute
amhchaoin = rough, uncouth
amhola = crude oil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amh [af] = raw, uncooked; extra rare, blue (meat); uncouth, crude
amhachd [avəxg] = rawness
Manx (Gaelg) aw = crude, raw, uncooked, undressed
awid = crudeness, rawness, rareness
awaneagh = moron, oaf; oafish, raw, rude, uncivilsed, vain
feill aw = raw meat
ooill aw = crude oil
Proto-Brythonic *oβ̃ = raw
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) of = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) of [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = crude, untreated, uncooked, raw, bitter, sharp, nauseating, sickly
ofaf, ofi = to decompose, crumble, analyse

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour), probably from *h₂eh₃- (to be hot, burn) [source].

Words for copper and bronze in Celtic languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the word *omiyom [source].

The Greek word ὠμός [oˈmos] (raw, uncooked, crude, brutal) comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cri = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) cri [kriː] = raw, fresh, new, crude, coarse, unfulled (cloth), unleavened
bara cri = unleavened bread
defnyddiau cri = raw materials
teisen gri = griddle cake, Welsh cake
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) criv = rude, raw, green, newly made, unripe
Cornish (Kernewek) kriv = crude, fresh, raw, uncooked, unripe
krivder = rawness
gossen griv = raw umber
Middle Breton criz, cry = raw, crude, cruel, rough
Breton (Brezhoneg) kriz = raw, crude, cruel, rough
gopr kriz = gross salary
hollad kriz = gross total
obar kriz = act of barbarism

Etymology: possibly from the Latin crūdus (raw, bloody), from the Proto-Italic *krūros (bloody), from the Proto-Indo-European *kruh₂rós (bloody), from *krewh₂- (raw meat, fresh blood). The English words crude and cruel come from the same Latin root, and raw comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrwt = raw, uncooked
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrwd [ˈamrʊd] = raw, uncooked, unprocessed, undigested, crude, untreated, unrefined, rough, approximate

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *an (un-) and *brutus (boiling heat), from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to boil, brew) [source].

Other words from the Proto-Celtic root *brutus include brwd (eager, keen, passionate, zealous) and brwdfrydedd (enthusiasm) in Welsh, and bruth (heat, rash, eruption, nap, pile, surf) in Irish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sieving Riddles

Today we’re looking at the words for sieve and related things in Celtic languages.

Woman hands sieving flour

Proto-Celtic *krētros = sieve
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve, riddle
críatharach = marsh, morass, boggy wasteland
críathrad = act of winnowing, sifting, riddling
críathraid = sifts, riddles, spreads
Irish (Gaeilge) criathar [ˈcɾʲiəhəɾˠ / ˈcɾʲiːhəɾˠ] = sieve, riddle
criathach = pitted, perforated, swampy
criathrú = winnowing, sifting, honeycombing
criathradóir = winnower, sifter, maker of sieves
criathraigh = to sieve, winnow, riddle, sift, honeycomb
criathróir = animal surefooted on boggy ground
criathar meala = honeycomb
criathar mín = fine sieve
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criathar [krʲiə.ər] = riddle, sieve
criathar-tomhais = bushel (measure and implement)
criathar-garbh = riddle (implement)
criatharair [krʲiəhərɛrʲ] = sieve-maker
criathradh [krʲiarəɣ] = (act of) filtering
Manx (Gaelg) creear = sieve, riddle
creearey = sieve, pan, sift, riddle
creear meein = fine sieve
creear garroo = rough sieve
jannoo creear = to honeycomb
Proto-Brythonic *kruɨdr = wandering, sieve
Old Welsh cruitr = winnowing shovel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cruidir, crwydr = sieve
Welsh (Cymraeg) crwydr [ˈkrʰʊɨ̯dr̩ / ˈkrʰʊi̯dr̩] = a wandering, a roaming; misfortune, trouble, confusion, rout, dispersion; a straying, aberration, error; winnowing-fan, winnowing-shovel, sieve
crwydro = to wander, roam, stroll, gad about, stray, go astray, deviate, digress
crwydredig = wandering, vagrant, roving, stray
crwydro = barn, granary, farm building
crwydrwr = wanderer, vagrant, vagabond, rover, nomad
Old Cornish croider = sieve, riddle
Middle Cornish croider, crodar = sieve, riddle
Cornish (Kernewek) kroder = coarse sieve, strainer, riddle
kroder kroghen = bodhrán, hold-all
Old Breton croitir = sieve, riddle
Middle Breton croezr = sieve, riddle
Breton (Brezhoneg) krouer = sieve, riddle, screen
krouerañ = to sift, riddle, sieve
krouer liammoù = link generator
rakkroueriañ = pre-screening

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krey-trom (sieve) from *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include crime, crisis, riddle and secret in English, ceart (right, correct, true) in Irish, and crynu (to tremble, shake) and ergryn (horror, dread) in Welsh [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ferns and Bracken

Today we’re looking at the words for fern, bracken and related things in Celtic languages.

Maidenhair Spleenwort

Proto-Celtic *ɸratis, *frati- = fern, bracken
Gaulish ratis = fern, bracken
Old Irish (Goídelc) raithnech [ˈr͈aθʲnʲex] = fern, bracken
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) raith = fern, bracken
Irish (Gaeilge) raithneach = fern, bracken
raithneachán = ferny place
raithneachúil = ferny
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raineach [r̪ˠan̪ʲəx] = fern, bracken; hashish, weed
raith [r̪ˠɛ] = fern, bracken
raineachail = abounding in fern, ferny, like fern
Manx (Gaelg) renniagh = fern, bracken
renniaghoil = ferny
Proto-Brythonic *rrėdɨn = ferns, bracken
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rhedyn = ferns, bracken
retinoc, redinauc, rhydynog = ferny
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhedyn [ˈr̥ɛdɨ̞n / ˈr̥eːdɪn] = ferns, bracken
rhedynen = fern
rhedyn eryraidd = bracken
rhedyna = to gather ferms
rhedynaidd = ferny
rhedyneg = ferny ground
rhedynog = ferny (land), abounding with ferns, fern-like, made of fern
Old Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen, redanen = fern
Cornish (Kernewek) reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Breton reden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern
Breton (Brezhoneg) raden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *p(t)erH- (fern) [source].

The English word fern comes from the same PIE root, via the Old English fearn and the Proto-West-Germanic *farn [source].

Other words from the same PIE root include paparde (fern) in Latvian, paproć (fern) in Polish, and папрат (fern) in Bulgarian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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