Halloween

Words for Halloween, November and related things in Celtic languages.

Happy Halloween Season Flickr!

Proto-Celtic *samonios, *samoni- = assembly, (feast of the) first month of the year
Gaulish samoni- = assembly, (feast of the) first month of the year
Old Irish (Goídelc) samain [ˈsaṽinʲ] = Halloween, November, All Saint’s Day, All Hallows, Samhain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) samain, samḟuin = first November, the festival held on that date, All Saints’ Day, All Hallows
idchi samna = the eve of samain
Irish (Gaeilge) Samhain [sˠaunʲ/sˠəunʲ/ˈsˠãuwənʲ] = Halloween, November, All Saint’s Day, All Hallows, Samhain
Mí na Samhna = (month of) November
Oíche Shamhna = Halloween
Lá Samhna = first November, All Hallows
Lá Sean-Samhna = 12th November
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Samhain [ˈsãũ.ɪn̪ʲ] = All Saints’ Day, All Souls’ Day
An t-Samhain [ən̪ tãũ.ɪn̪ʲ] = November
Oidhche Shamhna = Halloween
bó-Shamhna = Halloween cow (cow killed at Halloween for a winter supply of beef)
samhnag [sãũnag] = Halloween bonfire
samhnair [sãũnɛrʲ] = Halloween guiser/mummer
Manx (Gaelg) Sauin [ˈsoːɪnʲ] = November, Hollantide
Souney = All Hallow’s Day, Hollantide Day
Laa Souney = November
Mee Houney = November
Oie Houney = All Hallow’s Eve, Hallowe’en, Hollandtide Eve, Hop tu Naa
veih Sauin gys Boaldyn = long-winded (from Samhain to Beltane)
cro souney = horse chestnut

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sem- (together, one), or from the Proto-Celtic *samo- (summer) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) callan = calends
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) callann = calends, first day of the month
Irish (Gaeilge) caileann = calends
Lá Caille = New Year’s Day
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cailindha = calends (of a month)
Manx (Gaelg) Caillyn = calends
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kalan = first day of the year, New Year’s day, first day of each month, calends
Kalan Gayaf = All hallows’ day, All Saints’ day, first of November
Welsh (Cymraeg) calan [ˈkalan/ˈkaːlan] = first day of the year, New Year’s day, first day of each month, calends
Calan Gaeaf = All hallows’ day, All Saints’ day, first of November
nos Galan Gaeaf = Halloween
calannig [kaˈlɛnɪɡ/ˈklɛnɪɡ] = gift given at New Year, (Christmas) present
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) calan = the calends, first day of the month
Calan gauav = first November
Deu halan gûav = All Saints’ Day, the calends of winter
Dydh Calan = New Year’s Day
Cornish (Kernewek) kalan = calends, first of the month
Kalan Genver = New Year’s Day
Kalan Gwav = All Hallows
Dy’ Halan Gwav = Saint Allan’s Day, Feast of Saint Allan (day of the first day of winter)
Nos Kalan Gwav = Allantide (eve of the first day of winter)
Middle Breton kaland = calends
kal, kala = first day of the month
kala-bloaz = first day of the year
kala-goañv = first November
kal-ar-goañv, Kalar goan, kal ar goañ = All Saints’ Day, first November
Breton (Brezhoneg) kala = calends, first day of the month
kala-bloaz = first day of the year
kala-goañv, Kalan Goañv = first November

Etymology: from the Vulgar Latin calandae (calends, the first day of the month) from the Latin kalendae (calends, the first day of the month), from calō (I call, announce solemnly, call out) from the Proto-Italic *kalēō from the Proto-Indo-European *kelh₁- (to call, summon) [source].

Words from calendar many languages, including English, come from the same roots, via the Latin calendārium (account book, debt book) [source].

Details of Celtic traditions associated with this time of year:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samhain
https://ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lá_Samhna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-tu-Naa
https://gv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-tu-Naa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halloween
https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gŵyl Calan Gaeaf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allantide

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flour

In this post we’re looking into words for flour and related things in Celtic languages.

Skiing slope of flour

Proto-Celtic *mlātos = flour
Gaulish *blatos = flour
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blawd, blaỼt = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) blawd = flour, meal, powder
blawdaidd = mealy, floury, friable
blodiaf, blawdiaf, blawdio = to grind into meal, produce flour, become powdery, turn to dust, sprinkle (with) flour
blodiwr, blawdiwr = flour or meal merchant
Old Cornish blot = flour, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blot, blês = flour, meal
Cornish (Kernewek) bleus = flour
bleus hesken = sawdust
bleus leun = wholemeal
bleusa = to flour
Old Breton blot = flour
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleud = flour, powder
bleudañ = to flour
bleudek = floury
bleud brazed = wholemeal flour
bleud goellet = self-raising flour
bleud gwinizh = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ml̥h₂-tó-s, from *melh₂- (to crush, grind) [source]. Words from the same root include melancholy and melanin in English, and μελανός (melanós – black, dark, blue, bruised) in Greek [source].

Old Irish (Góidelc) men = flour
Irish (Gaeilge) min [ˈmʲɪnʲ/ˈmʲɨ̞nʲ] = meal; powedered matter
min choirce = oatmeal
min chruithneachta = wheatmeal
min sáibh = sawdust
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) min [min] = flour, meal, grounds, filings
min-fhlùir = flour
min-eòrna = barley flour/meal
min-sheagail = rye flour
min-chruithneachd = wheat flour
muileann-mine = flour mill
Manx (Gaelg) meinn = meal
meinn chorkey = oatmeal
meinn churnaght = wheatmeal flour
meinn hoggyl = rye meal
meinn oarn = barley meal
meinn saaue = sawdust

Etymology: unknown

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyllyeyt, peillit = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) paill = pollen, flour
peill(i)aid = flour, fine flour, wheat flour, white flour, powder
peilliaid gwenith = (fine) wheat flour
peilliaid haidd = barley flour
peilliaid rhyg = rye flour

Etymology: from the Latin pollen (fine flower, powder, dust), from the Proto-Indo-European *pel- (flour, dust) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Latin pulvis (dust, powder, ashes), include polve (dust, ashes) in Italian, polvo (dust, powder) in Spanish, poussière (dust) in French, and pulverise (to render into dust or powder) in English [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) plúr [pˠlˠuːɾˠ] = flour, flower
plúr geal = white flour
plúr cruithneachta = wheaten flour
plúrach = floury, farinaceous; flower-like, pretty
plúraigh = to effloresce
plúróg = pretty girl
plúrscoth = choicest flower, pick, choice
plúrú = efflorescence
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flùr [fl̪ˠuːr] = flour
flùr lom = plain flour
flùr-éirigh = self-raising flour
Manx (Gaelg) flooyr = flour
flooyr churnaght = wheaten flour
grine-flooyr = cornflour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) fflwr = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) fflŵr [fluːr], fflowr = flour (in South Wales)
fflŵr can = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman flur (flower), from the Old French flor (flower), from the Latin flōrem (flower), from flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Italic *flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (flower, blossom) [source].

The English words flour, flower, flora, blossom and bloom come from the same roots, as does the French word fleur (flower) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hammers

Words for hammer and related things in Celtic languages:

Hammer

Proto-Celtic *ordos = hammer
Gaulish Ordo-vices = placename, tribal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = hammer
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = sledgehammer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [ɔːr̪ˠd] = hammer; cock, hammer (of a fireman): rounded but steep mountain
òrd-fiodha = mallet
òrd-ladhrach = claw hammer
òrd-mòr = sledgehammer
Manx (Gaelg) oard = hammer, sledgehammer
oard inginagh = claw hammer
gaal-oard = steam hammer
Proto-Brythonic *orð = hammer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ord, orth, yrd, orð = hammer
Welsh (Cymraeg) gordd [ɡɔrð] = hammer, mallet, sledgehammer
gorddio = to hammer with a mallet, drive with a sledgehammer
gordd haearn = sledgehammer
gordd bren = wooden mallet
Old Breton ord = mallet, hammer,
Middle Breton orz, horz = mallet, hammer,
Breton (Brezhoneg) horzh = mallet, gavel, hammer, pestle
horzhig = sledgehammer
horzh-fuzuilh = rifle butt

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃erg-dʰh₁o-, from *h₃erg- (to perish) and *dʰeh₁- (to do) [source].

Ordovīcēs is the Latin name for a Celtic tribe who lived in what is now North Wales (where I live) and nearby parts of England. In Common Brittonic there were known as *Ordowīcī. The Ordovician geological period (c. 485 – 443 million years ago) is named after them as rocks associated with that period were first found in their former territory by Charles Lapworth in 1879 [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) casúr [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = hammer
casúr ladhrach = claw hammer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) casar [kasər] = small hammer, gavel, knocker
Manx (Gaelg) casoor = hammer (of a gun)

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman cassur, from the Latin quassō (I shake, quake, wave, flourish), from quatiō (I shake, agitate), from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeh₁t- (to shake) [source].

Words from the same Latin roots include quash (to suppress, crush) in English, casser (to break) in French, and cascar (to crack, split, hit) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Brythonic *morθul = hammer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) morthol, morthwl, morthuyl, mwrthol, myrthwyl = hammer
Welsh (Cymraeg) morthwyl [ˈmɔrθuɨ̯l / ˈmɔrθui̯l] = hammer, mallet
morthwylio = to hammer, beat with a hammer, forge
morthwylwr = hammerer
morthwylfa = forge, smithy
morthwyl drws = door knocker
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) morthol = hammer
Cornish (Kernewek) morthol = hammer, beetle, maul
mortholya = to hammer
Middle Breton morzol = hammer
morzol dor = door knocker
Breton (Brezhoneg) morzhol = hammer
morzholad = hammer blow
morzholat = to hammer
morzholer = hammerer, horthumper
morzholig = hammer
morzhol-dor, morzhol an nor = door knocker

Etymology: from the British Latin *mortulus, from the Latin martulus (hammer), from marculus (small hammer), possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *melh₂tlo-, from *melh₂- (to grind) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Swans on Llyn Padarn / Elyrch ar Lyn Padarn

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Servants

Words for servants, ploughmen and related people in Celtic languages.

Tour Scotland March Horse Ploughing

Proto-Celtic *ambaxtos = servant
Gaulish *ambaxtos = vassal, high-ranking servant
Old Irish (Goídelc) amus = servant
amsach = mercenary
Irish (Gaeilge) amhas = hireling, servant, mercenary, hooligan
amhsach = wild, unruly
amhasóireacht = hooliganism
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amhas [au.əs] = savage, wild person, madman
amhsach = wild, uncontrollable, stupid, dull
Proto-Brythonic *ammaɨθ [amˈmaɨ̯θ] = servant, worker, labourer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amaeth = ploughman, husbandman, farmer, agriculture
Welsh (Cymraeg) amaeth [ˈameɨ̯θ / ˈamei̯θ] = ploughman, husbandman, farmer, agriculture, ploughmanship, tillage
amaethadwy = farmable, cultivable
amaetha(f), amaethu = to farm, husband, plough, cultivate
amaethdir = arable land, land suitable for cultivation, farm land
amaethdy = farmhouse
amaethddyn = agriculturalist, farmer
amaethedig = farmed, cultivated, cultured
amaethyddiaeth = agriculture, farming
Cornish (Kernewek) ammeth = agriculture, farming
Old Breton ambaith = agriculture, farming

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ambi- (around),‎ *ageti (to drive) and‎ *-os, from the Proto-Indo-European word *h₂m̥bʰi-h₂eǵ- (drive around) [source].

The English word amassador comes from the same root, via the Middle English ambassadore from the Anglo-Norman ambassadeur (ambassador), from the Old Italian ambassadore, from the Old Occitan ambaisador (ambassador), from ambaissa (service, mission, errand), from the Medieval Latin ambasiator (ambassador), from the Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌱𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌹 (andbahti – service, function), from the Proto-Germanic *ambahtaz (servant), from the Gaulish *ambaxtos [source]. The word embassy comes from the same Gaulish word [source].

Proto-Celtic *wastos = servant
Gaulish *wassos = young man, squire
Old Irish (Goídelc) foss = attendant, man-servant, servant
Proto-Brythonic *gwass = boy, servant
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guas, gwas = boy, lad, servant
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwas [ɡwaːs] = boy, lad, stripling, youngster, young man; servant, attendant, employee, officer, vassal, slave
gwasanaeth = service, attendance, a ministering, office, duty, employment
gwasanaethu = to serve, be a servant, attend, wait upon, minister
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guas = servant
gwas = a youth, servant, one of the common people, a mean person, a fellow, rogue, rascal
gwasanaeth = attendance, service, bondage, slavery
Cornish (Kernewek) gwas = chap, fellow, guy, servant
gwas hwel = workman
gwas ti = housemaker
Old Breton guos = vassal, man, husband, farmer
Middle Breton goas = vassal, man, husband, farmer (who rents a farm)
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwaz [ˈɡwaːs] = (young) man, vassal, valet, servant, husband, mermaid

Etymology: possibly comes from the Proto-Indo-European word *upo-sth₂-o-s (standing beneath) [source].

The English word vassal comes from the same Celtic roots, via the Old French vassal, the Medieval Latin vassallus (manservant, domestic, retainer), from the Latin vassus (servant) from the Gaulish *wassos [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) seirbísech = auxiliary, ancillary, servant, agent
Irish (Gaeilge) seirbhíseach = servant
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seirbheiseach [ʃerʲevɪʃəx] = servant, servitor
seirbheisiche = servant
Manx (Gaelg) shirveishagh = attendant, clergyman, minister, servant, server, vassal

Etymology: from the Old French servise (service, servitude, vasselage), from the Latin servitium (slavery, servitude, service), from servus (servant, serf, slave) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Waves

Words for wave and related things in Celtic languages.

Newquay

Proto-Celtic *tundā = wave, billow
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn [ton͈] = wave, outpouring, sea, abundance, bog, swamp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tonn = wave, outpouring, sea, abundance, bog, swamp
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ/t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ/t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = wave
tonn tuile = tidal wave
tonn teasa = heat-wave
tonn turrainge = shock wave
tonnach = wavy, billowy
tonnadh = to wave, surge
tonnáil = waving, rippling, undulation
tonná = wavelet, ripple
tonnúil = wavy, undulating
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = wave, tilde, quantity of liquid, pile, heap
tonn-fuaime = soundwave
tonn-taomaidh, tonn-tuile = tidal wave
tonn-crithe = shockwave
tonnadh = undulating, undulation, vomiting
tonnan, tonnag = small wave
tonnach = waved, wavy
tonnachd = waviness
Manx (Gaelg) tonn = wave, billow
tonn hiass = heat-wave
tonn hidee = tidal wave
tonn inçhyn = brainwave
tonnagh = undulating, billowy, wavy
tonnaghey to undulate, surge, bilow, undulation
tonnaght = undulation, waviness
Proto-Brythonic *tonn = wave
Old Welsh tonnou = wave
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton = wave
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = wave, the sea; wavelength
ton lanw = tidal wave
ton radio = radio wave
tonfedd = wavelength
tonffurf = waveform
toniad = undulation, oscillation, frequency, modulation, intonation
tonial = surge or swell (of waves)
tonniant = fluctuation
tonni = to undulate, ripple, oscillate, surge
tonnog = wavy, billowy, rough, choppy, roling, undulating
tonyddol = melodious, intoning, tonic, intonational
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) ton = wave
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = wave
tonnek = wavy
tonnhes, tonnhys = wavelength
Middle Breton) tonn = wave
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = wave

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat), or from the Proto-Celtic *tondā (surface, skin), or from the PIE *temh₁- (to cut) [source].

The PIE root *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat) is the origin of the Irish tit (to fall, collapse, descend), the Scottish Gaelic tuit (to fall, happen, slip), and the Manx tuitt (to fall, happen, slip) [source]. English words from the same root include study, studio, student and obtuse [source].

The the Proto-Celtic *tondā (surface, skin) is the root of the Gaulish *tondā, from which we get tonn (surface, skin) in Irish, tonn (skin, hide) in Scottish Gaelic, ton (turf, sod, sward, surface) in Welsh, ton (unploughed land, meadow) in Cornish, and tonn (rind, dermis, surface) in Breton.

It was borrowed into Latin as tunna / tonna (tun [a large cask], box), which became tonne (tonne, ton) in French, which was borrowed into English as tonne (a unit of mass equal to 1000kg; a score of 100 in darts) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sailing

Words for sail and related things in Celtic languages.

sailing ship

Proto-Celtic *siglom = sail, course, run
Old Irish (Goídelc) séol [sʲeːu̯l] = sail
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) séol = sail
séolaid = to sail
Irish (Gaeilge) seol [ʃoːl̪ˠ/ʃɔːlˠ] = sail; covering, canopy; drift, tend, course, direction, flow, motion
seoladh = to sail, sailing; course, direction, guidance, dispatch
seoladóir = shipper
seoladóireacht = shipping
seolchrann = mast
seoltóir = sailor, sender, remitter, drover, (electrical) conductor
seoltóireacht = sailing
long seol = sailing ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seòl [ʃɔːl̪ˠ] = sail; navigate, direct, guide, govern, regulate
seòlaid = shipping route, passage, sway(ing), nervous movement
seòl-mara = tide
seòladair = sailor
seòladaireach = nautical
Manx (Gaelg) shiauill = sail, navigate,
shiauilley = to sail, navigate, sailing
shiauilteyr = ferryman, sailor, seafarer, seaman
shiaulteyragh = nautical
Proto-Brythonic *hɨɣl = sail, course, run
Old Welsh huil = sail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwyl, hvyl, huyl = sail
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwyl [huːɨ̯l/hʊi̯l] = sail, sheet, covering, pall; journey, progress, revolution, orbit, course, route, career, rush, assault; hilarity, jollity, mirth, amusement, fun, humour
hwylbawl, hwylbolyn = boom, bowspirt
hwylbren = mast, flagstaff
hwyldroaf, hwyldroi = to tack, change course, veer
hwylfa = way, narrow road or street, lane, path, alley, voyage
hwylfwrdd = sailboard, windsurfer
hwylfyrddio = to sailboard, windsurf
hwylio = to sail, embark, set out on a voyage or journey, navigate
hwyliwr = navigator, mariner, sailor, leader, organizer
Old Cornish guio = sail
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) gol, goyl, guil = sail (of a ship)
gwelan gôl = sail yard
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = sail
golya = to sail
skath-wolya = sailing boat
gorhel golyow = sailing ship
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = sail
gouelier = to sail
gouelierezh = sailmaker

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly from the Old English seġ(e)l (sail), from the Proto-Germanic *segl (sail), from *seglą (sheet, sail), the origins of which are uncertain. Possibly cognate with the Latin sagum (coarse woolen coat), from the Gaulish *sagos (wool cloak). Related words include sail in English, zeil (sail, tarpaulin) in Dutch, Segel (sail) in German, and sejl (sail) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s Leis an Lurgainn, a song in Scottish Gaelic about sailing:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rawness

Today we’re looking at the words for raw and related things in Celtic languages.

Raw

Proto-Celtic *omos = raw
Old Irish (Goídelc) om [oṽ] = raw, uncooked
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) om = raw, uncooked; crude, undigested, immature; rude, unrefined, barbarous
Irish (Gaeilge) amh [ˈavˠ / ˈaw] = raw, uncooked
amhábhar = raw material, staple
aimhe = rawness, crudeness
amhainse = sharpness, astuteness
amhainseach = sharp, astute
amhchaoin = rough, uncouth
amhola = crude oil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amh [af] = raw, uncooked; extra rare, blue (meat); uncouth, crude
amhachd [avəxg] = rawness
Manx (Gaelg) aw = crude, raw, uncooked, undressed
awid = crudeness, rawness, rareness
awaneagh = moron, oaf; oafish, raw, rude, uncivilsed, vain
feill aw = raw meat
ooill aw = crude oil
Proto-Brythonic *oβ̃ = raw
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) of = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) of [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = crude, untreated, uncooked, raw, bitter, sharp, nauseating, sickly
ofaf, ofi = to decompose, crumble, analyse

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour), probably from *h₂eh₃- (to be hot, burn) [source].

Words for copper and bronze in Celtic languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the word *omiyom [source].

The Greek word ὠμός [oˈmos] (raw, uncooked, crude, brutal) comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cri = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) cri [kriː] = raw, fresh, new, crude, coarse, unfulled (cloth), unleavened
bara cri = unleavened bread
defnyddiau cri = raw materials
teisen gri = griddle cake, Welsh cake
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) criv = rude, raw, green, newly made, unripe
Cornish (Kernewek) kriv = crude, fresh, raw, uncooked, unripe
krivder = rawness
gossen griv = raw umber
Middle Breton criz, cry = raw, crude, cruel, rough
Breton (Brezhoneg) kriz = raw, crude, cruel, rough
gopr kriz = gross salary
hollad kriz = gross total
obar kriz = act of barbarism

Etymology: possibly from the Latin crūdus (raw, bloody), from the Proto-Italic *krūros (bloody), from the Proto-Indo-European *kruh₂rós (bloody), from *krewh₂- (raw meat, fresh blood). The English words crude and cruel come from the same Latin root, and raw comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrwt = raw, uncooked
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrwd [ˈamrʊd] = raw, uncooked, unprocessed, undigested, crude, untreated, unrefined, rough, approximate

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *an (un-) and *brutus (boiling heat), from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to boil, brew) [source].

Other words from the Proto-Celtic root *brutus include brwd (eager, keen, passionate, zealous) and brwdfrydedd (enthusiasm) in Welsh, and bruth (heat, rash, eruption, nap, pile, surf) in Irish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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