Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cauldrons and Kettles

Words for cauldron, kettle, pot and related things in Celtic languages.

Cauldron

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷaryos = cauldron
Gaulish *parios = cauldron
Old Irish (Goídelc) coire [ˈkorʲe] = cauldron
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) coire [ˈkorʲə] = cauldron, pot, whirlpool
coirén = little pot
Irish (Gaeilge) coire [ˈkɛɾʲə] = large pot, cauldron, boiler, corrie, cirque, amphitheatre, deep mountain hollow, pit, whirlpool
coire bolcáin = volcanic crater
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = kettle, corrie, cauldron
coireag [kɔrʲag] = small kettle, small corrie, small cauldron
Manx (Gaelg) coirrey = cauldron, boiler, pothole, hollow in hills, corrie, maelstrom, vent of volcano
Proto-Brythonic *pėr = cauldron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyr, peir, pair = cauldron
peireit, peried = cauldron(ful)
Welsh (Cymraeg) pair [ˈpai̯r] = cauldron, large pot, boiler, melting-pot
peiran = corrie, cwm, cirque (in geology)
peir(i)aid = cauldron(ful)
Old Cornish per = cauldron
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) per = cauldron, kettle, boiler, furnace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) per = cauldron
Breton (Brezhoneg) per [ˈpeːr] = cauldron

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- (to do, make, build). Words from the same roots include Britain, Brittany and karma in English, and words for time and shape in Celtic languages [source].

The city of Paris in France gets it name from Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parīsiī), a Gallo–Roman town that was established on the Left Bank of the Seine after the Romans conquered the local Gaulish tribe, the Parisioi, or Parīsiī in Latin, in 52 BC. The Gaulish name *Parisioi comes from Gaulish *parios (cauldron) [source].

Old Welsh calaur = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kallaur, kallawr, callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Welsh (Cymraeg) callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
calloriad = the fill or contents of a cauldron
calloryn = a small cauldron, skillet, kettle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) caltor = kettle
Cornish (Kernewek) kalter = kettle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cauter = boiler, cauldron, cooking pot
Breton (Brezhoneg) kaoter [ˈko.tɛr] = boiler, cooking pot
kaoteriad [kɔ.ˈtɛ.rjat] = contents of a pot, Cotriade /Brittany Fish Stew, fish that fishermen bring home for meals
primgaoter [prim.ˈɡo.tɛr] = pressure cooker

Etymology: from Latin caldāria (warm bath, kettle, cooking pot, cauldron, from caldārius (hot water), from cal(i)dus (warm, hot) [source]. The English word cauldron comes from the same roots, as do chowder, caldera and nonchalant [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Modestly Humble

Words for modest and related things in Celtic languages.

Modestly Humble

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *wēlos = modest
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíal [fʲiːa̯l] = becoming, generous, genteel, seemly, well-bred
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fíal = decorous becoming, seemly (of conduct or behavious), modest, chaste, well-bred, honourable, noble
fíalmar = noble-natured, generous
Irish (Gaeilge) fial [fʲiəlˠ] = seemly, proper, noble, generous, hospitable
fialmhaireacht = open-handedness, generosity
fialmhaitheas = goodness of heart, generosity
fialmhar = open-handed, generous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fial [fiəl̪ˠ] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fial-chridheachd = altruism
fial-inntinneach = open-minded, liberal-minded
fialach [fiəl̪ˠəx] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fialachd [fiəl̪ˠəxg] = generosity, liberality
fialaiche = provider of hospitality
Manx (Gaelg) feoilt = benevolent, bountiful, generous, munificent
feoiltagh = benevolent, bounteous, free, lavish, liberal, unselfish
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guiled = shame
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guyl, gwyl, gŵyl = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive
guilat, gwylat = merry, glad, lively
gwylder = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gvilet, gwylet, gwyled = modesty, humility, gentleness, shame
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl = [ɡuːɨ̯l/ɡʊi̯l] = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive, mild, tender, gentle, gracious, joyous, glad, generous, kind
gwylad = merry, glad, lively
gwyldeb = modesty, bashfulness
gwylader, gwyldra = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gwyledd = modesty, humility, gentleness, meekness, courtesy, graciousness, joy, shame

Etymology: possibly from the PIE *wey- (turn) or *wāg- (to be bent), which is related to vagus (wandering, roaming) in Latin, from which we get the English words vague and vagabond [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) umal [ˈuṽal] = humble, obedient
umaldóit = humility
umlaigid = to humble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) umal = humble, obedient, submissive
umaldóit, omaldóit, umallóit = humility
uimligid, huimligte, umlaigid = to humble
Irish (Gaeilge) umhal [uəl̪ˠ/uːlˠ] = humble, submissive, lithe, supple, plant
umhlaigh = to humble, bow, submit, obey, stoop
umhlaíocht = humility, submission, obedience, dutifulness, respect
umhlóid = humility, submission, lowly service, attendence, ministration, suppleness, pliancy
umhlú = genuflection, curtsey, obesiance, submission
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umhal [ũ.əl̪ˠ] = submissive, obedient, humble, lowly, meek
Manx (Gaelg) imlee = humble, lowly, menial, simple
imlagh = humble, humbling
imlaghey = humble, stoop
Old Welsh (Kembraec) humil = humble
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) huvyll, uvell = merry, glad, lively
uỽyl, vffil = humble, meek, submissive
ufullder, uvyllder = humility
uỽyltaỽd, uvylldaỽt, vuildaud, vffyldaud = humility
Welsh (Cymraeg) ufyl = humble, meek, submissive
ufyllter, ufullter = humility
ufylltod, ufulltod, ufelltod, hufylltod = humility
hyful = humble
Old Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Cornish (Kernewek) uvel = humble, lowly, modest
uvelder = humility
Middle Breton vuel, uuel = humble, meek, lowly
uffuelhat = to humiliate (oneself)
vuelaff, uvelañ = to humble oneself
vueldet, vuheltet = humility, humbleness, meekness
vulder, vuelder, uffuelter = humility, humbleness
Breton (Brezhoneg) uvel [ˈyː.vɛl] = humble, meek, lowly
uvelded, uvelder = humility, humbleness, meekness
uvelaat = to humiliate

Etymology: from the Latin humilis (low, lowly, small, slight, shallow), which is also the root of the English word humility, the French humilité (humility), and the humildad (humility, humbleness) [source].

The Cornish word klor means meek, mild, moderate, modest and klorder means modesty. Their origins are not known

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Barnacles & Limpets

Words for barnacle, limpet and related things in Celtic languages.

Limpet Family at Sunny Cove

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *barinākos = barnacle, limpet
Gaulish *barinākā = barnacle, limpet
Old Irish (Goídelc) *bairnech = limpet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) bairnech, báirnech = limpet(s)
Irish (Gaeilge) bairneach [ˈbˠɑːɾˠn̠ʲəx] = limpet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàirneach [baːr̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = barnacle, limpet
Manx (Gaelg) baarnagh, barnagh, bayrnagh = barnacle
guiy bayrnag = barnacle goose
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brennik = limpets
Welsh (Cymraeg) brennig = limpets
brenigen = limpet
Middle Cornish brennic = limpets
brennigen = limpet
Cornish (Kernewek) brennik = limpets
brenigen, bernigen = limpet
Middle Breton brennik = limpet
Breton (Brezhoneg) brennig [ˈbrɛ.nːik] = barnacles, limpets
brennigenn = barnacle, limpet
brennika = to fish for limpets
brennikaer = limpet fisherman

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *barinā (rocky ground), and *-ākos (involved with, belonging to) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the Gaulish *barinākā and the Latin barnēca (barnacle goose, barnacle, limpet), include bernache (barnacle) in French, barnacle in English, barnacla (brent/brant goose – Branta bernicla) in Spanish [source].

Barnacle Geese

Old Irish (Goídelc) gigrann = barnacle goose
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) gigrann, giugrann = wild goose, barnacle goose
Irish (Gaeilge) giúrann = barnacle, shipworm, barnacle (goose)
giúrannach = encrusted with barnacles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) giùran [gʲuːran] = barnacle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Old Breton (Brethonoc) goirann = barnacle goose, barnacles

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *gezdā (goose) – probably of imitative origin [source]. For more details of words for goose in Celtic languages, this post.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Order

Words for order and related words in Celtic languages.

Cystadleuaeth Athletau TYG 2015

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = order, sequence
ordaigidir = to order, ordain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ord, ordd, ort, órd = order, sequence, arrangement, state, way, course, procedure, degree, rank, dignity, ritual, office
ord(d)ad = ordering, arranging
ord(d)aigecht = dignity, nobility
ord(d)aigid(ir) = to order, ordain, institue, appoint
ord(d)aigthe = ordered, ordained, arranged
ord(d)an = dignity, honour, pre-eminence
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = order, sequence, arrangement
ordaigh = to order, command, prescribe, ordain, recommend
ordaiteach = imperative
ordaithe = ordered, stipulated
ordan = honour, dignity, rank, pre-eminence
ordanáilte = neat, ordered
ordú = to order, command
ordúil = orderly, neat, ordered
ordúilacht = orderliness, neatness, tidiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [or̪ˠd] = order
òrdach [or̪ˠdəx] = orderly, regular
òrdachadh [or̪ˠdəxəɣ] = commanding, ordering
òrdachail [or̪ˠdəxal] = prescriptive
òrdan [or̪ˠdan] = order, statute
òrdugh [or̪ˠdu] = order, prescription, command
Manx (Gaelg) oardyr, ordyr = order
oardagh = arrangement, array, commission, decree, directive, order, rite, ritual, sequence
oardee = to bid, command, order
oarderit = ordained, ordered, regulated
oardit = appointed, authorized, decreed, ordained, ordered
oardoil = orderly, oridinal
oardreilys = order, system
Proto-Brythonic *ʉrð = order
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) urd, urdd = holy orders, order
urdav, vrdav = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office
urdein, urtyein, urtdein, urtein, vrddain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urtas, vrdas, urdas = dignity, honour, nobility
vrddassav, urddasu, vrddassv = to dignify, honour, venerate
vrdasseyd, urdasseid, vrdasseid = dignified, honourable
urtassaỼc, urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Welsh (Cymraeg) urdd [ɨ̞rð / ɪrð] = holy orders, (religious, military, chivalric, taxonomic) order, dignity, honour, discipline, rule, control, manner
urddaf, urddo = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office, ordain, crown, dub (knight), honour, elevate, dignify, dedicate
urdd(i)ain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urddas = dignity, honour, nobility, (high) rank, reputation, status
urddasaf, urddasu = to dignify, honour, venerate, revere, elevate, ennoble
urddasaidd = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble, orderly
urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Cornish (Kernewek) urdh = order
urdhas = hierarchy
urdhya = to initiate
urdhyans = initiation
Middle Breton (Brezonec) eurz, urz, vrz = order, arrangement, command
Breton (Brezhoneg) urzh [yrs] = order, right, authorisation
urzhad [ˈyrzat] = (biological) order
urzhaz = hierarchy
urzhiadur = prescription, order, arrangment, ordination
urzhiañ [ˈyrzjã] = to order, arrange, organise
urzhiataer [yr.zja.ˈtɛːr] = computer

Etymology: from Latin ōrdō (order, row, series, class, condition, group), from Proto-Italic *ordō (row, order), probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂or-d-, from *h₂er- (to fit, fix, put together). Words from the same roots include arm, art, harmony, order, ordinary, ornate and reason in English, orden (order) in Spanish and Ordnung (arrangement, regulation) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Hiding & Concealment

Words for hide, conceal and related words in Celtic languages.

hiding

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kelo- = to hide
*keleti = to hide, conceal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ceilid = to hide, conceal
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ceilid = to hide, conceal, admit, allow, concede, withhold, hoard, suppress, destroy
ceilt = act of hiding, concealing, suppressing
cel = concealment, dissolution, extinction, death
celt = covering, garment, clothing
celtair = concealment, covering, garment, cloak
Irish (Gaeilge) ceil [kɛlʲ] = to conceal, suppress, withhold
ceileantas = concealment, secrecy
ceileatram = disguise, veneer
ceilt = concealment, withholding, denial
ceilteanas = concealment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceil [kʲel] = concealment, death (archaic)
ceileadh [kʲeləɣ] =(act of) concealing, hiding
ceilear [kʲelər] = concealer, someone who hides, screener
ceilt [kʲeldʲ] = concealment
ceilte [kʲeldʲə] = concealed, hidden
ceilteach [kʲeldʲəx] = concealing, reserved
Manx (Gaelg) keill = to hide
keiltyn = to coneal, cover (up), disguies, hide, shelter; concealment, dissimulation, suppression
keiltynys = camouflage, furtiveness, hiding
Proto-Brythonic *kelɨd =
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cêl, cel = hiding, concealment, shelter
kelv, kelu, kely = to hide, conceal
celadwy, keladwy = hidden, concealed, private, secret
keledic = hidden, concealed, secret
Welsh (Cymraeg) cêl [kɛːl/keːl] = hiding, concealment, shelter, bower, hidden, secret
celaf, celu [ˈkɛlɨ̞/ˈkeːli/ˈkɛli] = to hide, conceal, keep secret
celadwy = hidden, concealed, private, secret
celdy = bower, arbour
celedig = hidden, concealed, secret, dissembled
celedigaeth = concealment, secrecy
celedd = secretiveness, caution
datgelaf, datgelu = to reveal, detect, blab, solve
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) celes, celys, kelys = to conceal, hide
Cornish (Kernewek) kel = hidden, secret
keles = to conceal, hide
keles ha kavos = hide-and-seek

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱéleti (to be covering, hiding), from *ḱel- (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for cell and church in Celtic languages, cell, cellar, clandestine, conceal, hall, hell, helmet and occult in English, and the name William [source].

Words such as Celt and Celtic, and their equivalents in other languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the French celtique (Celtic), Latin Celtae (the Celts) and the Greek Κελτοί (Keltoí) / Κέλται (Kéltai), which is what Herodotus called the Gauls. They might have originally meant something like ‘descendents of the hidden one (the underworld deity)’, and according to Julius Caesar, the Gauls claimed descent from an underworld god [source].

In Breton, kuzh means secret and confidential, and kuzhat means to hide. They are cognate with the Welsh words cudd (concealment, secrecy) and cuddio (to hide, conceal), and the Cornish words kudh (concealed, hidden, secret) and kudha (to conceal, hide). See the Celtiadur post Mysterious Secrets for more details.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Sure, Certainly

Words for sure, certain and related words in Celtic languages.

Sure, Certainly

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *derwos = firm (as an oak), oak
Old Irish (Goídelc) derb = sure, certain, fixed, certainty
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove
derbda = certain, fixed
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derb = sure, certain, fixed, determinate, reliable, genuine
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove, attest
derbda(e) = certain, fixed
Irish (Gaeilge) dearbh [ˈdʲaɾˠəvˠ] = sure, certain
dearbhaigh = to declare, affirm, confirm, attest, prove
dearbháil = to test, check
dearbhú = declaration, affirmation, attestation, confirmation
dearfa = attested, proved, sure, certain
dearfach = affrimative, positive
dearfacht = positiveness, certainty
deartháir = brother (“certain brother” from derb & bráthair [brother])
deirfiúr = sister (“certain sister” from derb & siur [sister])
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearbh [dʲɛrɛv] = ceratin, sure, positive
dearbh-aithne = identity, indentification
dearbhaich [dʲɛrɛvɪç] = prove, attest, verify, demonstrate
dearbhadh [dʲɛrɛvəɣ] = proving, attesting, verifying
dearbhachd [dʲɛrɛvəxg] = proof, experience, assurance
dearbhair [dʲɛrɛvɛrʲ] = affirmer, checker
dearbhte [dʲɛrɛvdʲə] = ascertained, confirmed, proved
dearbhach [dʲɛrɛvəx] = sure, affirmative, positive
dearbhachail [dʲɛrɛvəxal] = conclusive, decisive
Manx (Gaelg) jarroo = absolute, actual, even, explicit, express, identical, indubitable
jarrooagh = affirmative, categorical, confirmative, definitive, positive
jarrooid = positiveness
dy jarroo = actually
Old Welsh ceintiru = first cousin (male)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keuynderv, keuyndyru, keuynderw = first cousin (male)
cyfnitherw, kefnithderw, cyvnither = first cousin (female)
Welsh (Cymraeg) derw = sure, true (only appears in words below)
cefnder(w) = first cousin (male)
cyfnither(w) = first cousin (female)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) handeru = first cousin
Cornish (Kernewek) kenderow, keniterow = cousin
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quenderu = cousin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kenderv = cousin (male)
keniterv = cousin (female)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *drewh₂- (steady, firm), from *dóru (tree), which possibly related to *deru-/*drew- (hard, firm, strong, solid) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for oak trees in Celtic languages, and tar, tree, trough and trim in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *kengeti =to step
Old Irish (Goídelc) cingid [ˈkʲiŋʲɡʲiðʲ] = to step, proceed
do·cing = to advance, step forward
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cingid, cinnid, cinnit = to step, pace, proceed, go, overcome, surpass, excel, exceed
do-cing, to-cing = to step, stride forward, advance, come
Irish (Gaeilge) cinn [cəiɲ / ciːnʲ] = to fix, determine, decree, decide
cinnte = certain, definite, mean, stingy, constant
cinnteach = fixed, definite, definitive
cinnteachaí = determinist
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteacht = certainty, stinginess, limitation
cinntigh = to make certain, confirm, assure
cinntiú = confirmation, determination
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cinnt [kʲĩːn̪ʲdʲ] = certainty
cinnteach = certain, definite, sure, accurate
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteachd = certainty, actuality, assurance
cinnteachadh = checking, confirming, determining
cinntich = (to) check, confirm, determine, ascertain
Manx (Gaelg) kinjagh = constant, continual, continuous, definite

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)keng- (limp) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for step in Celtic languages, shank in English, hinken (to limp, hobble) in Dutch and German [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyogel, diogel = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelu = to make save, secure
diogelhay = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd, diogelrỼyd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr = defender, protector
Welsh (Cymraeg) diogel [dɪˈɔɡɛl/dɪˈoːɡɛl] = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelaf, diogelu = to make save, secure, assure, confirm
diogeldeb, diolgelder = safety, security
diogelfa = safe place, fortress, stronghold, place of refuge
diogelhaf, diogelhau = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr, diogelydd = defender, protector
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diogel, dyowgel, dyogel, diûgel, diougel = unexposed, secure, safe, certain
Cornish (Kernewek) diogel = certain, reliable, secure, sure
diogeldeh = security
diogeli = to safeguard, secure
Middle Breton (Brezonec) diouguel, dioguel, dyougel = certain, sure, surely, security, safety
diouguelhat = to defend, guard, protect
diouguelroez, dyouguelroez = security, protection
Breton (Brezhoneg) diogel [diˈoːɡɛl] = size, dimension, measure, format
diougelaat = to defend, guard, protect
diougeladur = affirmation, assertion
diougeler = protecter
diogeliñ = to assert
diogelroez = security, protection
diogelus = affirmative

Etymology: from di- (intensifying prefix) and gogel (to guard), from Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (sub-, under) and *kelo (to hide), from PIE *ḱel (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include Celt(ic), heel and occult in English [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sicir [ʃiçgʲɪrʲ] = shrewd, acute, accurate, sure
sicireachd [ʃiçgʲɪrʲəxg] = shrewdness, acuteness, accurateness, sureness
Manx (Gaelg) shickyr = certain, confident, definite, firm
shickyraghey = to ensure, ratify, verify, affirmation
shickyrys = assurance, certainty, security, stability
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) sicr, sikr = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
sickrwydd, sicrwydd, siccrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siwr, sywr = sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
Welsh (Cymraeg) sicr [ˈsɪkɪr] = sure, certain, inevitable, secure, safe
sicrhau = to ensure, make certain, fasten, secure
sicrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siŵr, siwr [ʃuːr]= sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
siwr(i)af, siwr(i)o = to assure, ensure
siwrans, siwrens = certainity, assurance
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) secer = secure
secerder = security
Cornish (Kernewek) sur = certain(ly), sure(ly)
surhe = to assure, ensure, insure
surheans = insurance
surneth = certainity
surredi = certainly, surely
Middle Breton (Brezonec) sigur = sure, certain, assured
Breton (Brezhoneg) sygur, sigur [ˈsiːɡyr] = sure, certain, assured
siguriñ = to generalize, pretext

Etymology: from Middle English siker (safe, secure), from Old English sicor (secure, safe, sure), from Proto-West Germanic *sikur (secure, safe, sure, certain), from Latin sēcūrus (worryless; carefree; secure), from sē- (without) and cūra (care); [source].

Note: the Welsh word sikr comes from Middle English siker, while siŵr/siwr comes from modern English sure. They both come from the same ultimate roots. Similarly, the Middle Cornish secer comes from Middle English, while sur in modern Cornish comes from modern English. I’m not sure if the Breton words are related, or what their etymology is.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Impeccable Peccadillos

Words for sin, fault, crime and related things in Celtic languages.

Somebody looks guilty.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kariyā = mistake, sin
Old Irish (Goídelc) caire [ˈkarʲe] = crime, fault, sin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) caire, cair, coire = crime, fault, sin
cairech = criminal, guilty, sinful
cairigid = rebukes, accuses, blames
cairthech = criminal, guilty
Irish (Gaeilge) coir [kɛɾʲ/kɪɾʲ] = crime, offence; fault, transgression
coireach = offender, transgressor; wicked, sinful, guilty
coireacht = wickedness, guiltiness
coiriú = censure
coireolaí = criminologist
coiritheoir = accuser, incriminator
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = blame, fault, offence, wrong
coireach [kɤrʲəx] = culprit; guilty, to blame, faulty, responsible
coireachd [kɔrʲəxg] = culpability
Proto-Brythonic *kareð [kaˈrɛːð] = mistake, sin
Old Welsh cared = transgression, sin, crime
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cared, karet = transgression, sin, crime
karedus = sinful, evil
Welsh (Cymraeg) caredd [ˈkarɛð] = transgression, sin, crime, lust, love
careddus = sinful, evil
careddwr = accuser, evil-doer
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cara = to correct, chastise
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carez, garé = blame, reprimand
carez = to blame, accuse
Breton (Brezhoneg) karez = blame, incrimination
kareziñ = to blame, accuse

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂er- (blame, abuse). Words from the same PIE root include cārinō (I revile, blame, insult) in Latin, корить [kɐˈrʲitʲ] (to reproach, upbraid) in Russian, and коря [koˈrʲɤ̟] (to accuse, blame) in Bulgarian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) peccad = sin
pecthaigid = to sin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) pec(c)ad = sin
pecthach = sinful, committing sin, sinner
pecthaigid, pec(c)aigid = sins. commits sin
Irish (Gaeilge) peaca [ˈpʲakə/ˈpʲaku] = sin
peacadh = offender, transgressor; wicked, sinful, guilty
peacach = sinner, sinful
peacaigh = to sin
peacúil = sinful
peacúlacht = sinfulness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) peaca [pɛxgə] = sin
peacadh, peacachadh [pɛxgəxəɣ] = sinning, sin, transgressing
peacail [pɛxgal] = sinful
peacach [pɛxgəx] = sinner
Manx (Gaelg) peccah = human being, sinner, sin, wickedness
peccagh = human, person, transgressor, sinner
peccoil = erring, sinful, unregenerate
Proto-Brythonic *pexọd [peˈxɔːd] = sin
*pexadʉr = sinner
*pexad [peˈxɔːd] = to sin, offend
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pechawt = sin
pechadur = sinner
pechu =to sin, offend
Welsh (Cymraeg) pechod [ˈpɛχɔd/ˈpeːχɔd] = sin
pechadur [pɛˈχadɨ̞r/pɛˈχaːdɪr] = sinner, offender
pechu [ˈpɛχɨ/ˈpeːχi] =to sin, offend
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pech, pêch, pechad, pechas = sin, offence, transgression
pecha, peché = to sin, transgress, offend
pechadur, pechadures = sinner, transgressor
Cornish (Kernewek) pegh = guilt, sin
pegha = to sin, offend
peghador, peghadores = sinner
peghes = sin
peghus = sinful
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pechet = blame
pechiff =to sin, offend
pechezr = sinner
Breton (Brezhoneg) pec’hed = sin
pec’hiñ = to sin, offend
pec’her = sinner

Etymology: from Latin peccātum (sin), from peccō (I sin, offend), from Proto-Italic *petkāō (I sin), from Proto-Indo-European verbal root *ped- (“to walk, fall, stumble”) [source].

Words from the same roots include peccadillo, impeccable, foot, pedal, pedestrian, and pew in English, pécher (to sin) in French, pecar (to sin) in Spanish [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic