Hooks and Crooks

Today we’re looking at hooks, crooks and related words in Celtic languages.

Hook

Proto-Celtic *bakkos = hook, (curved) stick
Old Irish (Goídelc) bacc = angle, bill-hook, corner, hindrance, mattock
Irish (Gaeilge) bac = balk, hindrance, barrier, mattock, bend (in a river), (door) step
bacadh = to balk, hindrance
bacainn = barrier, obstruction, obstacle, blocking
bacainneach = barring, obstructing, blocking
bacán = hinge-hook, crook, peg
bacánach = crooke, hinged
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bac [baxg] = hindering, impeding, obstructing, restraining, restricting, hindrance
bacadh = to hinder, impede, obstruct, restain, restrict, ban
Manx (Gaelg) bac = balk, disability, disqualification, drawback, handicap, moratorium, objection, obstacle, pull back, snag, trap
Old Welsh bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Welsh (Cymraeg) bach [baːχ] = hook, grapple, mattock, hoe, fish hook, shepherd’s crook; hinge, pivot; nook, angle, corner, bend
bachiad = a hooking, turning, curving, winding, bending
bachog = hooked, barded, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachogrwydd = hookedness, crookedness, incisiveness
bachol = hooking, grappling, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachu = to hook, anchor, connect, attach, fasten
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bah = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) bagh = hook
bagha = to trap
Old Breton bah = hook
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bach, bac’h = hook for uprooting potatoes or seaweed, big hook
bac’hig = little fang, hook, staple
Breton (Brezhoneg) bac’h = (fish) hook

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bachall (crook, crozier) in Irish, bagl (crook, crozier) in Welsh, pail in English, and possibly bok (side, flank, hip) in Czech, Polish and Slovak [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Up Above

Today we’re looking at up, over, above and related words in Celtic languages.

The Crowded Summit of Snowdon
A quiet day on the summit of Snowden / Dydd tawel ar gopa’r Wyddfa

Proto-Celtic *ouxsos = above
*ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high, elevated
Old Irish (Goídelc) úas [uːa̯s] = above, over
anúas [aˈn͈uːa̯s] = from above
súas = up, upwards, back (in time), forward on (in time),
túas = up, above, of heaven, above (mentioned)
úasal = high, lofty, noble, high-born, gallant, genteel, honourable
Irish (Gaeilge) suas [ˈɡaɾʲəmʲ/ˈɡɪɾʲəmʲ] = up, to higher place or station, at, towards, a high level, to the south, onwards, backwards, on high, risen
anuas = down (from above)
thuas = up, in higher place, in the south, put up, on top, successful, profiting
uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born, aristocratic, gentle, gallant, genteel, lofty, precious, fine, hallowed, enchanted, inhabited by fairies
na huaisle the good people, the fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) suas [suəs] = up, upwards, upright, standing
shuas [huəs] = above, aloft up (location), upper
a-nuas [əˈn̪ˠuəs] = down(wards) / up(wards) – towards the speaker
uasal [uəsəl̪ˠ] = noble, nobleman, nobility, high-minded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) seose = heavenwards, up, upward, upwards
heose = above, aloft, up, upper
neose = down, downward, downwards
ooasle = aristocratic, classy, creditable, dignified, esteemed, gentlemanly, goodly, highborn, honourable, illustrious, lofty, lordly, magnificent, noble, respected
Brythonic *ʉx [ˈʉːx] = above, on top of, over
*ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːlˑ] = high, elevated
Old Welsh uuc = above, on top of, over
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uch = above, on top of, over
uchel = shigh, tall, exalted
Welsh (Cymraeg) uwch [ɨ̞u̯χ/ɪu̯χ] = above, on top of, over, on, beyond, in front of
uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl/ˈiːχɛl] = high, tall, exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable
uchelder = high place, height, highness, nobility
uchelaf, uchelu = to raise, heighten, exalt, increase
uchelwr = landed, proprietor, freeholder, landlord, gentleman, nobelman, aristocrat, a superior
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) uhel = high, lofty, elevated
uhelder = height, highness
uhelle = to raise up on high, to exalt
Cornish (Kernewek) a-ugh = above
a-ugh dhe = over
ughel = high, grand, loud, tall
ughelder = height, loudness
Old Breton uh = on high
uchel = high
Middle Breton (Brezonec) uc’h = on high
uhel = high, noble, generous
uhelaat = to increase, rise in the sky, raise
uheladur = to shrug, enhancement
uhelañ = the highest point
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel [ˈy.ɛl] = high, uphill, upstream
uhelaat = to promote
uc’hek = maximal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewpso- (above) from *h₃ewps- (high, elevated) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hosts of Folks

Today we’re gathering some people, folk, crew and related word in Celtic languages.

Le tambours de Briec

Proto-Celtic *worīnā = band, troop, a group of warriors who have sworn allegiance (to each other)
Old Irish (Goídelc) foirenn = band, troop, group of people
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) foirenn = an indefinite number of people, set, group, category, band, troop, company, crew (of a ship)
Irish (Gaeilge) foireann [ˈfˠɪɾʲən̪ˠ] = number, group of people, band, troop, company, crew, team, personnel, staff, set
foireann loinge = crew of a ship
foireann spéirbhean = bevy of beauties
foireann dráma = cast of a play
foireann uirlisí = set of tools
foireann dinnéir = dinner-service
foireann fichille = set of chessmen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foireann [furʲən̪ˠ] = excess, abundance, crowd, multitude (ship’s) crew, ballast, furniture
Manx (Gaelg) fwirran = staff, team
fwirran bluckan-coshey = football team
fwirran buird = dinner service
fwirran meihaaghyn = set of weights
fwirran skynnaghyn = canteen (of cutlery)
Proto-Brythonic *gwörin = group of people
Old Welsh guerin = host, group of people
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwerin = people, populace, peasantry, folk
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwerin [ˈɡwɛrɪn] = people, populace, peasantry, folk, democracy, proletariat, liegemen; mob, rabble, troop, throng, host, multitude, rank and file of army, nation, ship’s crew
gwerinaf, gwerino = to render plebeian or common, to popularize, civilize, tame, arrange for battle, marshal
gwerinaidd = plebeian, lowly, humble, common, vulgar (speech), dialect, home-spun, democratic, proletarian
gwerindod = civilization, domestication
gwerinwr = commoner, peasant, democrate, republican
gweriniaeth = democracy, republic(anism), community
Cornish (Kernewek) gwerin = common people, folk, proletariat
gwerinek = proletarian
gwerinel = democratic
gwerinieth = democracy
gweriniether / gweriniethores = democrat
gwerinor(es) = peasant
lien gwerin = folklore
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gwerin, gueryn = people
gwerinad = plebeian
gwerinel = democratic
gwerinelaat = to become more democratic
gwerinelañ = to democraticize
gwerineler, gwerinelour = democrat
gwerinelezh, gweriniezh = democracy
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwerin = pleb, pawn
gwerinad, gwerinel = plebeian

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *wori-no- (flock, troop) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Swans on Llyn Padarn / Elyrch ar Lyn Padarn

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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This & That

Words for this and that in Celtic languages.

That & That

Proto-Celtic *so [so] = this
Gaulish so = this
Old Irish (Goídelc) so, sa, se, sea, seo, siu = this
Irish (Gaeilge) seo [ʃɔ] = this, here
anseo = here, in this place
go dtí seo = up to now
faoi seo = by now
roimhe seo = before this, formerly
seo dhuit = here, take it
seo linn = here we go
seo leat = come on
seo d’am (agat)! = now is your chance!
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seo [ʃɔ] = this, these
seo, seo … = (well) now then, …
an-seo = here
an déidh seo = after this, afterwards, hereupon, later on
chuige seo = hitherto, until now
feadh an-seo = around here, hereabouts
gu seo = up until now
roimhe seo = before, by now
Manx (Gaelg) shoh = this, this here
ad shoh = those, those here
ayns shoh = here
myr shoh = in this manner, thus
roish shoh = previously
(yn chiaghtin) shoh cheet = coming / next (week)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *só (this, that), which is also the root of the English words this, that, the, then, than and there [source].

Proto-Celtic *sindos = this
*sondo- = that
Gaulish sinde, sindas = that
Old Irish (Goídelc) sin [sʲinʲ] = that
in [inʲ] = the
Irish (Gaeilge) sin [ʃɪnʲ / ʃɨ̞nʲ] = that
an [ənˠ / ə.n̠ʲ / ə] = the
ó shin = ago, back, since then, from then
mar sin = like that, thus
mar sin de = in that case, therefore
agus mar sin de = and so on
go dtí sin = up to that point, until then
iar sin = after that, thereupon
roimhe sin = before that
faoi sin = by then
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sin [ʃin] = that, those, there
an, am, a’ = the
an-sin = there, therein, thither, then
sin thu! = well done, bravo!, well done
mar sin dheth = consequently …, so, therefore
uime sin = therefore, thereupon, then
Manx (Gaelg) shen = that
yn = the
ad shen = those
ayns shen = there
myr shen = in that manner, so, therefore, thus
roish shen = before then, prior to that
Old Welsh hinn = this, that
ir = the
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hvnn, hunn, hun, hon, hwnn = this, that
y, yr, ‘r = the
Welsh (Cymraeg) hyn [hɨ̞n /hɪn] = this, these, this time,this place, these, they; such (a), so much, so many
hynny = that, that time, that place, that number/amount, those
hyn a hyn = so much, so many, a certain quantity, such and such
ar hyn o bryd = now, at this (point in) time, at the present moment
hwn [hʊn] = this (one), he (him, she (her), it; that (with masculine nouns)
hwnnw, hwnna = that
hwn a hwn = such a one, such as such a person, so-and-so
hwn/hon/hyn a’r llall = this and that; this, that and the other
hon [hɔn] = that (with feminine nouns)
honno, honna = that
y, yr, ‘r = the
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hen = this
henna = the one there, that one, that
homma = this female here, this one, this
hon = this female, this
an = the
Cornish (Kernewek) henn, hedn = that
henna, honna = that (one)
dres henna = moreover, besides
wosa henna = after that, later, thereafter
an = the
Middle Breton henn, hen = that, after that
an, ar, al = the
Breton (Brezhoneg) an, ar, al = the

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sḗm (one) or *só (this, that) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) siút, sút = that, yon
út = yon, yonder
Irish (Gaeilge) siúd [ʃuːd̪ˠ] = that, yon
ansiúd = yonder, there beyond
úd = yon, yonder, that … over there
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) siud [ʃid] = that (over there), yon (those)
an-siud = there, yonder
Manx (Gaelg) shid = yonder, that
ad shid = those
ayns shid hoal = over yonder

Etymology: uncertain

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Waves

Words for wave and related things in Celtic languages.

Newquay

Proto-Celtic *tundā = wave, billow
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn [ton͈] = wave, outpouring, sea, abundance, bog, swamp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tonn = wave, outpouring, sea, abundance, bog, swamp
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ/t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ/t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = wave
tonn tuile = tidal wave
tonn teasa = heat-wave
tonn turrainge = shock wave
tonnach = wavy, billowy
tonnadh = to wave, surge
tonnáil = waving, rippling, undulation
tonná = wavelet, ripple
tonnúil = wavy, undulating
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = wave, tilde, quantity of liquid, pile, heap
tonn-fuaime = soundwave
tonn-taomaidh, tonn-tuile = tidal wave
tonn-crithe = shockwave
tonnadh = undulating, undulation, vomiting
tonnan, tonnag = small wave
tonnach = waved, wavy
tonnachd = waviness
Manx (Gaelg) tonn = wave, billow
tonn hiass = heat-wave
tonn hidee = tidal wave
tonn inçhyn = brainwave
tonnagh = undulating, billowy, wavy
tonnaghey to undulate, surge, bilow, undulation
tonnaght = undulation, waviness
Proto-Brythonic *tonn = wave
Old Welsh tonnou = wave
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton = wave
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = wave, the sea; wavelength
ton lanw = tidal wave
ton radio = radio wave
tonfedd = wavelength
tonffurf = waveform
toniad = undulation, oscillation, frequency, modulation, intonation
tonial = surge or swell (of waves)
tonniant = fluctuation
tonni = to undulate, ripple, oscillate, surge
tonnog = wavy, billowy, rough, choppy, roling, undulating
tonyddol = melodious, intoning, tonic, intonational
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) ton = wave
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = wave
tonnek = wavy
tonnhes, tonnhys = wavelength
Middle Breton) tonn = wave
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = wave

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat), or from the Proto-Celtic *tondā (surface, skin), or from the PIE *temh₁- (to cut) [source].

The PIE root *(s)tewd- (to hit, beat) is the origin of the Irish tit (to fall, collapse, descend), the Scottish Gaelic tuit (to fall, happen, slip), and the Manx tuitt (to fall, happen, slip) [source]. English words from the same root include study, studio, student and obtuse [source].

The the Proto-Celtic *tondā (surface, skin) is the root of the Gaulish *tondā, from which we get tonn (surface, skin) in Irish, tonn (skin, hide) in Scottish Gaelic, ton (turf, sod, sward, surface) in Welsh, ton (unploughed land, meadow) in Cornish, and tonn (rind, dermis, surface) in Breton.

It was borrowed into Latin as tunna / tonna (tun [a large cask], box), which became tonne (tonne, ton) in French, which was borrowed into English as tonne (a unit of mass equal to 1000kg; a score of 100 in darts) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sailing

Words for sail and related things in Celtic languages.

sailing ship

Proto-Celtic *siglom = sail, course, run
Old Irish (Goídelc) séol [sʲeːu̯l] = sail
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) séol = sail
séolaid = to sail
Irish (Gaeilge) seol [ʃoːl̪ˠ/ʃɔːlˠ] = sail; covering, canopy; drift, tend, course, direction, flow, motion
seoladh = to sail, sailing; course, direction, guidance, dispatch
seoladóir = shipper
seoladóireacht = shipping
seolchrann = mast
seoltóir = sailor, sender, remitter, drover, (electrical) conductor
seoltóireacht = sailing
long seol = sailing ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seòl [ʃɔːl̪ˠ] = sail; navigate, direct, guide, govern, regulate
seòlaid = shipping route, passage, sway(ing), nervous movement
seòl-mara = tide
seòladair = sailor
seòladaireach = nautical
Manx (Gaelg) shiauill = sail, navigate,
shiauilley = to sail, navigate, sailing
shiauilteyr = ferryman, sailor, seafarer, seaman
shiaulteyragh = nautical
Proto-Brythonic *hɨɣl = sail, course, run
Old Welsh huil = sail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwyl, hvyl, huyl = sail
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwyl [huːɨ̯l/hʊi̯l] = sail, sheet, covering, pall; journey, progress, revolution, orbit, course, route, career, rush, assault; hilarity, jollity, mirth, amusement, fun, humour
hwylbawl, hwylbolyn = boom, bowspirt
hwylbren = mast, flagstaff
hwyldroaf, hwyldroi = to tack, change course, veer
hwylfa = way, narrow road or street, lane, path, alley, voyage
hwylfwrdd = sailboard, windsurfer
hwylfyrddio = to sailboard, windsurf
hwylio = to sail, embark, set out on a voyage or journey, navigate
hwyliwr = navigator, mariner, sailor, leader, organizer
Old Cornish guio = sail
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) gol, goyl, guil = sail (of a ship)
gwelan gôl = sail yard
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = sail
golya = to sail
skath-wolya = sailing boat
gorhel golyow = sailing ship
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = sail
gouelier = to sail
gouelierezh = sailmaker

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly from the Old English seġ(e)l (sail), from the Proto-Germanic *segl (sail), from *seglą (sheet, sail), the origins of which are uncertain. Possibly cognate with the Latin sagum (coarse woolen coat), from the Gaulish *sagos (wool cloak). Related words include sail in English, zeil (sail, tarpaulin) in Dutch, Segel (sail) in German, and sejl (sail) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s Leis an Lurgainn, a song in Scottish Gaelic about sailing:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Trembing

Words for trembling, fever and related words in Celtic languages. I chose these words because I have a bit of a fever at the moment.

Thermometer

Proto-Celtic *kritos = fever, trembling, shaking
Old Irish (Goídelc) crith [ˈkʲr͈ʲiθ] = shaking, trembling
crithnaigid = to shake, tremble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crith = shaking, trembling, a shake, tremble
crothaid = shakes, causes to tremble, brandishes
Irish (Gaeilge) crith [crʲɪ(h) / crʲɪç] = tremble, shiver, tremor, shudder, vibration, quiver; to tremble, shake
critheagla = quaking fear, terror, timorousness
crithloinnir = shimmer
crithlonraigh = to shimmer
creathán = to tremble, quiver
creathánach = trembling, quivering, vibratory
creathánaí = trembler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crith [krʲih] = quake, shudder, shock, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate; quaking, shuddering, shocking, shaking, trembling, shivering
critheanaich = trembling
crith-cheòl = warbling, quavering, trills (in music)
crith-thalmhainn = earthquake
crithnich = quake, shudder, shake, tremble, shiver, vibrate
Manx (Gaelg) crie = to shake
craa = to shake
Old Welsh crit = shivering, trembling, fever
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crid, cryt, kryt = shivering, trembling, fever
crynei, krynu, krennit = to tremble, quake, shiver, shake
Welsh (Cymraeg) cryd [krɨːd / kriːd] = shivering, trembling, dread, fear, ague, fever, disease
crydu, crydio = to shake, tremble, quake
crynu = to tremble, quake, shiver, shake, brandish, vibrate, quaver, gnash, twinkle
echryd = dread, terror, fright, fear, trembling, shivering, tremor; fearful, dreadful, frightful
ysgryd = shiver, trembling, shudder, fright, horror, agony
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crenne, cranna = to tremble, quake
Cornish (Kernewek) kren = shake
krena, kerna = to shake, shiver, tremble
krenans = vibration
Krener, Krenores = Quaker
dorgrys = earthquake
Old Breton crit = shivering, trembling
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kren, crezn, creen, crein = trembling
crenaff = to tremble
crezn doüar, crein doüar = earthquake
Breton (Brezhoneg) kren = trembling
krenañ = to tremble
kren-douar = earthquake
krendourarel = seismic

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krit-, from *(s)kreyt-, from *(s)ker- (twist, turn, bend) [source].

The English word scree (loose stony debris on a slope), comes from the same PIE root, via the Old Norse skriða (landscape, landslip) and the Proto-Germanic *skrīþaną (to crawl, glide, walk) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sieving Riddles

Today we’re looking at the words for sieve and related things in Celtic languages.

Woman hands sieving flour

Proto-Celtic *krētros = sieve
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) críathar = sieve, riddle
críatharach = marsh, morass, boggy wasteland
críathrad = act of winnowing, sifting, riddling
críathraid = sifts, riddles, spreads
Irish (Gaeilge) criathar [ˈcɾʲiəhəɾˠ / ˈcɾʲiːhəɾˠ] = sieve, riddle
criathach = pitted, perforated, swampy
criathrú = winnowing, sifting, honeycombing
criathradóir = winnower, sifter, maker of sieves
criathraigh = to sieve, winnow, riddle, sift, honeycomb
criathróir = animal surefooted on boggy ground
criathar meala = honeycomb
criathar mín = fine sieve
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criathar [krʲiə.ər] = riddle, sieve
criathar-tomhais = bushel (measure and implement)
criathar-garbh = riddle (implement)
criatharair [krʲiəhərɛrʲ] = sieve-maker
criathradh [krʲiarəɣ] = (act of) filtering
Manx (Gaelg) creear = sieve, riddle
creearey = sieve, pan, sift, riddle
creear meein = fine sieve
creear garroo = rough sieve
jannoo creear = to honeycomb
Proto-Brythonic *kruɨdr = wandering, sieve
Old Welsh cruitr = winnowing shovel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cruidir, crwydr = sieve
Welsh (Cymraeg) crwydr [ˈkrʰʊɨ̯dr̩ / ˈkrʰʊi̯dr̩] = a wandering, a roaming; misfortune, trouble, confusion, rout, dispersion; a straying, aberration, error; winnowing-fan, winnowing-shovel, sieve
crwydro = to wander, roam, stroll, gad about, stray, go astray, deviate, digress
crwydredig = wandering, vagrant, roving, stray
crwydro = barn, granary, farm building
crwydrwr = wanderer, vagrant, vagabond, rover, nomad
Old Cornish croider = sieve, riddle
Middle Cornish croider, crodar = sieve, riddle
Cornish (Kernewek) kroder = coarse sieve, strainer, riddle
kroder kroghen = bodhrán, hold-all
Old Breton croitir = sieve, riddle
Middle Breton croezr = sieve, riddle
Breton (Brezhoneg) krouer = sieve, riddle, screen
krouerañ = to sift, riddle, sieve
krouer liammoù = link generator
rakkroueriañ = pre-screening

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *krey-trom (sieve) from *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include crime, crisis, riddle and secret in English, ceart (right, correct, true) in Irish, and crynu (to tremble, shake) and ergryn (horror, dread) in Welsh [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Waterfalls

Today we’re looking at the words for waterfall and related things in Celtic languages.

IMGR8167-ed

Proto-Celtic *riyatros = waterfall
Old Irish (Goídelc) ríathor = torrent
Irish (Gaeilge) riathar = torrent (literary)
Old Welsh réátir = torrent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) raeadyr, raiader, rhaiadr = cataract, waterfall
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhaeadr [ˈr̥ʰeɨ̯.adr̩ / ˈr̥ʰei̯.adr̩] = waterfall, cataract, cascade, torrent
rhaeadru = to fall or pour in a cascade or waterfall, fall steeply, gush, flow, stream
rhaeadraidd = like a waterfall
rhaeadriad = the act of falling or flowing like a waterfall

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃reiH- (to flow) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ess = rapids, waterfall
Irish (Gaeilge) eas = waterfall, cascade, cataract; swift current, rapid
easach = having, abounding in waterfalls, cascading
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eas [es] = waterfall, cataract, cascade
easach [esəx] = abounding in waterfalls
easachan [esəxan] = small waterfall
easan [esan] = small waterfall; thin gruel
easgraich [esgrɪç] = torrent
easraich [esrɪç] = plunge pool, waterfall lake; bustle, commotion
eas muilinn = mill-race
con-eas = multiple waterfalls
poll-easa = plunge pool
Manx (Gaelg) eas = cascade, cataract, chute, shoot, waterfall
easan = small waterfall, small cataract
mwyllin roie’n eas = water mill

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ysgwt, ysgwd, ysgŵd = waterfall, cataract, cascade
Welsh (Cymraeg) sgwd [skuːd] = waterfall, cataract, cascade, chute, millstream, mill-race, sluice, floodgate (South Wales)

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pistill = waterfall, cataract, cascade
Welsh (Cymraeg) pistyll = waterfall, cataract, cascade, chute, millstream, mill-race, sluice, floodgate (South Wales)
pistyll yr ysgyfaint = trachea
Cornish (Kernewek) pistyl = little waterfall
pistylla = to spout

Etymology: possibly from the Latin pistillum (pestle), which is also the root of the English word pestle [source].

Cornish (Kernewek) dowrlam = waterfall
Breton (Brezhoneg) lamm-dour = waterfall

Etymology: from dowr / dour (water) and lam / lamm (leap).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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