Copper

Today we’re looking at the words for copper and related things in Celtic languages.

copper pots

Proto-Celtic *omiyom = copper, bronze
Old Irish (Goídelc) umae, humae [ˈu.ṽe] = copper, bronze, brass
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) uma = copper, bronze, brass
Irish (Gaeilge) umha = copper, copper alloy, bronze
umhadhaite = bronze-coloured, bronzed
umhaí = worker in copper or bronze
cré-umha = bronze
cré-umhaigh = to bronze
salachar-umha = verdigris
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umha [ũ.ə] = bronze, copper, brass
umhach = coppery, brassy
umha-dhathte = copper-coloured, bronze-coloured
ceàrd-umha = coppersmith
Linn an Umha = the Bronze Age
meirg-umha = verdigris
Manx (Gaelg) ooha = bronze
cur ooha er = to bronze, bronzing
Yn Eash Ooha = the Bronze Age
Proto-Brythonic *öβ̃ɨð = bronze, copper
Old Welsh emid, emed = bronze, copper
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) euyð, euyd = bronze, copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) efydd [ˈɛvɨ̞ð / ˈeːvɪð] = bronze, brass, copper; made of bronze brass or copper; brazen; bronze colour, coppery
efyddaf, efyddu = to cover or adorn with brass or copper, to braze
efyddaid = made of bronze or brass; brazen, brazed
efyddog = brassy, coppery
efyddwr = brass-smith, copper-smith
medal efydd = bronze medal
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
Oes yr Efydd = Bronze Age

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *omos (raw), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour) [source].

Some words from the same PIE root, via the Latin amārus (bitter, harsh, sour, dire), include amaro (bitter) in Italian, amer (bitter, sour) in French, amarillo (yellow, golden coloured) in Spanish [source], and marulă (lettuce) in Romanian [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) copar [ˈkopˠəɾˠ] = copper
gabha copair = coppersmith
coparás = copperas, copper sulphate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) copar [kɔhbər] = copper
coparach = cuperous, like copper, coppery
copar-dubhaidh = copperas, green vitriol (iron(II) sylphate)
Manx (Gaelg) cobbyr, copuir = copper
cobbyragh = copperish, cupric
gaaue cobbyr = coppersmith
plait cobbyr = copperplate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) copyr, copr, kopyr = copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) copr, copor, coper = copper; something of little value; red hair
gof copr = copper-smith
gwaith copr = copper-works, vessels made of copper
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
Cornish (Kernewek) kober [stɛːn / steːn] = copper
kobrek = copper (colour)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouevr = copper
kouevrek = cupric (relating to or containing copper)
kouevrus = cuprous (relating to or containing copper)

Etymology: from the Middle English coper (copper, bronze), from the Old English copor (copper), from the Proto-Germanic *kuprą (copper), from the Latin Latin cuprum (copper) from the Ancient Greek Κύπρος (Cyprus – where large reserves of copper can be found). The Breton word kouevr was borrowed from the French cuivre (copper, brass), from the same Latin root [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Doors

Today we’re looking at the words for door and related things in Celtic languages.

Priory Church of St Mary in Chepstow, Wales

Proto-Celtic *dwār = door
Gaulish *durom = door – was borrowed into Latin and appeared in placenames such as Augustodurum (now Bayeux), and Nemetodurum (now Nanterre)
Proto-Brythonic *dor = door
Old Welsh dor = door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dor = door
Welsh (Cymraeg) dôr [druːs] = door; defence, refuge, shield; opportunity; protector, defender, chief, leader
dôr blyg(edig) = folding door
dôr ddyrchafad = portcullis
Middle Breton dor = door
Breton (Brezhoneg) dor = door
dor a-dreñv = rear door
dor a-raok = front door
dor emgefre = automatic door
dor greñvaet = fortified gate
dor harz tan = fire door
dor-borzh = gate (of a courtyard)
dor brenestr = French window
dor dal = front door, portal
gwir treuz-dor = doorstep

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *dʰwṓr (door), from *dʰwer- (doorway, door, gate) [source].

Words from the sane Proto-Indo-European root include: door and forum in English, deur (door) in Dutch, Tür (door, doorway) in German, dehors (outside) in French, fuori (outside) in Italian, and fuera (outside) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *dworestus = door
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Irish (Gaeilge) doras [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəsˠ] = door, doorway
doras isteach = entrance
doras amach = exit
doras tosaigh / béil = front door
doras cúil / thiar = backdoor
doirseach = having doors, open, accessible, gaping (wound)
doirseoir = door-keeper, (hall) porter
doirseoireacht = occupation of door-keeper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dorus [dɔrəs] = door, valve
dorus-beag = back door, inner door
dorus-mór = front door, main entrance
doras a-mach = exit
àrd-doras = lintel
ath-dhoras = next door
deoch an dorais = stirrup cup, one for the door/road, Jock and Doris
Manx (Gaelg) dorrys = door, doorway, gate, portal; back (of cart), fly (of tent)
dorrys doont = back door
dorrys toshee = front door
dorrys egin = emergency exit, exit
jough yn dorrys = parting drink, stirrup cup
sole y dorrys = doorstep, threshold
Proto-Brythonic *drus = doorway, entrance, door
Old Welsh drus = doorway, entrance, door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) drus, drvs, drws = doorway, entrance, door
Welsh (Cymraeg) drws [druːs] = doorway, entrance, door, pass, estuary, opening, opportunity, facility
drws codi/cudd = trap-door
drws nesaf = next door (to), very near (to), bordering (on)
wrth y drws = at hand, close, near
o ddrws = from before
drysaf, drwsaf, dryo, drwso = to mind a door (in a coal-mine)
dryswr, drwswr = door-boy (in a coal-mine)
drysor = doorkeepr, janitor, porter
Middle Cornish daras, darat = door
darador = doorkeeper
Cornish (Kernewek) daras = door
darasik = wicket
penn/pedn daras = lintel

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *dwār (door) – see above [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fathers

Today we’re looking at the words for father and related people in Celtic languages.

Father & son

Proto-Celtic *ɸatīr [ˈɸa.tiːr] = father
*ɸatriyos = paternal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ath(a)ir [ˈaθɨrʲ] = father
athramail = fatherly, paternal, fatherlike
Irish (Gaeilge) athair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = father, ancestor, sire
aithriúil = fatherly
ardathair = patriarch
athair mór = maternity, fatherhood
leasathair = stepfather
seanathair = grandfather
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) athair [ahɪrʲ] = father, progenitor, sire
athair-baistidh = godfather
athair-cèile = father-in-law
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
leas-athair = stepfather
piuthar-athar = parternal aunt
prìomh-athair = forefather, patriarch
taobh athar = paternal
Manx (Gaelg) ayr [ˈeːar] = father, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
ayroil = fatherly, parternal
ayrvarroo = patricide
shennayr = grandfather
Old Welsh -atr = ?

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos = father, foster-father
Old Irish (Goídelc) aite [ˈadʲe] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
Irish (Gaeilge) oide [ˈɛdʲə] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
oideachas = education
oideachasóir = educationalist
oideachasúil = educational
oideas = instruction, teaching, prescription, recipe
oideoir = educator
oideolaíoch = pedagogic(al)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) oide [ɤdʲə] = tutor, foster-father, stepfather, godfather
oide-altraim = foster-father
oide-baistidh = godfather
oide-foghlaim = instructor
oide-ionnsachaidh = tutor
oide-sgoile = schoolmaster
oidich = instruction
Manx (Gaelg) gedjey = foster-father, godfather, guardian, sponsor

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tatos = dad, daddy
Proto-Brythonic *tad = father
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tad = father
Welsh (Cymraeg) tad [taːd] = father
tadaidd = fatherly, paternal
tadeiddiad = fatherhood
tadenw = patronymic
tadol = paternal, fatherly, inherited from the father
tadu = to father (a child), become a father; ascribe, attribute (to)
tadwlad = fatherland, native land
tadwys = family, lineage, fatherhood
tadwysaeth = paternity
Old Cornish tat = father
Cornish (Kernwek) tas [taːz/tæːz] = father
tasek = patron
tasrewl = patriarchy
tasveth = foster-father
tas bejydh = godfather
tas gwynn = grandfather
Tas Nadelik = Father Christmas
tas sans = patron saint
ugheldas = patriarch
Middle Breton tat = father
Breton (Brezhoneg) tad [ˈtɑːt] = father
tadeg = father-in-law
tadig = dad, daddy
tad-kaer = father-in-law
tad-kozh = grandfather
tad-kuñv = great-grandfather
tata = dad

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos (father, foster-father), the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Festive Feasts

Today we’re looking at the words for festival, feast and related things in Celtic languages.

Crowds with St David's Flags / Tyrfa, Baner Dewi Sant

Proto-Celtic *lītus = feast, celebration
Old Irish (Goídelc) líth [l͈ʲiːθ] = festival
Irish (Gaeilge) líth [ˈfʲeːlʲə] = festival, festivity, rejoicing; (good) omen, good luck, prosperity
lítheach = festive
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = proserity, happiness
Breton (Brezhoneg) lid = ceremony, rite, worship, jubilation

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *leyH- (flow) [source].

Proto-Celtic *westā = food, feast
Old Irish (Goídelc) feis, fess, feiss = entertainment, feast; night’s lodging
Irish (Gaeilge) feis [fʲɛʃ] = festival, carnival; act of sleeping, accommodation, entertainment, bed and supper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fèis [feːʃ] = festival
fèist [feʃdʲ] = entertainment, feast
fèistear [feːʃdʲər] = entertainer
fèisteas [feːʃdʲəs] = entertainment
Manx (Gaelg) feish = assembly, carnival, festival, fete
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwest [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = night’s stay/lodging, night’s sleep/rest, lodging, hospitality, welcome, entertainment, provision, maintenance, food-rent, feast, banquet; guest, visitor
gwestu = to spend a night, sleep, rest, lodge, visit, feast, borrow, beg, sponge (upon)
gwesty = lodging, guest-house, inn, hotel
gwestya = to lodge, live in lodgings, show hospitality to (guests), welcome
gwestywr = landlord, host, innkeeper, hotelier
Cornish (Kernewek) gwester = guest
gwesti = guesthouse
gwestva = hospitality
Old Breton guest = feast

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes- (to reside) [source].

Proto-Celtic *wlidā = food, feast
Old Irish (Goídelc) fled [fʲlʲeð] = banquet, feast
Irish (Gaeilge) fleá [fʲlʲaː / fʲlʲɑː / fʲlʲæː] = (drinking) feast
fleá cheoil = festival of music
fleách = festive, convivial
fleáchas = festivity, conviviality
fleadhaigh = to feast, carouse<
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fleadh [flɤɣ] = feast, reception
fleadh-bainnse = wedding reception
fleadhach [flɤɣəx] = feasting, banqueting, entertaining
fleadhadh = (act of) conviving, gathering for feasting/td>
Manx (Gaelg) fleah = banquet, feast
fleah foalley = barbeque
Proto-Brythonic *gwleð [ˈɡwlɛːð] = feast, banquet
Old Welsh guled = feast, banquet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwledd = feast, banquet
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwledd [ɡwleːð] = feast, banquet, repast, carousal, revelry, sumptuous meal
gwleddu = to partake of a feast or banquet, feed with relish or enjoyment, carouse, revel, observe a festival
gwleddol = convivial, festive, banqueting, feasting, feaster
gwleddoldeb = festivity
gwleddwr = banqueter, guest, frequenter of feasts, reveller, carouser
Cornish (Kernewek) gwledh = banquet
Old Breton gloê = feast, banquet

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *wldeh₂, from *welh₁- (to wish, desire, want) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) féil = festival, feast-day
Irish (Gaeilge) féile [ˈfʲeːlʲə] = festival, feast (day)
féilire = calendar
féiltiúil = pertaining to festival, festive; periodic, recurrent, regular, punctual
féiltiúlacht = observance of feast days, seasonableness, regularity, punctuality
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) féill [feːl̪ˠ(ə)] = feast, festival, holy day fair, sale, market
féilleachd [feːl̪ˠəxɡ] = festivity, festivities
Manx (Gaelg) feaill [ˈsolan] = festival, holy day
feailley = feast, festival, fête, holiday, holy day, sacred
feaillys = festivity, sacredness, vacation
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyl, gŵyl = holiday, holy-day, religious festival
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = holiday, holy-day, religious festival, fête; watch, guard, vigil
gŵyl y Banc = Bank Holiday
Middle Cornish goil = festival, holiday
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = fair, feast, festival, vigil, wake
Gool Enys = carnival
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = (religious) festival, fête

Etymology from the Latin vigilia (wakefulness, watch), from vigil (awake), from the Proto-Indo-European *weǵ- (to be strong) [source].

The English words vigil, vigilant come from the same Latin root, and wake and watch come from the same PIE root, via Proto-Germanic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Walls

Today we’re looking at the words for walls, weirs and related things in Celtic languages.

wall

Irish (Gaeilge) balla [ˈbˠal̪ˠə] = wall
cúlbhalla = back wall
idirbhalla = party wall
uchtbhalla = parapet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) balla [bal̪ˠə] = wall
balla-tòin = back wall
balla-tarsainn = partition (wall)
balla-dìon = protective wall, safety barrier
Manx (Gaelg) boalley = bulwark, dyke, wall
boallee = to wall, enclose, impale
boallit = walled, dyked, enclosed
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wal/gwal = wall
Welsh (Cymraeg) (g)wal [(ɡ)wal] = wall
walio = to wall
Middle Cornish gwal = wall

Etymology: from the Old English weall (wall, dike), from the Proto-Germanic *wallaz / *wallą (wall, rampart, entrenchment), from the Latin vallum (rampart, military wall), from vallus (stake, pallisade, point), from the Proto-Indo-European *welH-/*wel- (to turn, wind, roll) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) múr = wall
Irish (Gaeilge) múr [mˠuːɾˠ] = wall, rampart, pile, building, dwelling, bank, mound, heap, mass, shower, profussion, abundance
múrach = having walls, walled, mural
múrdhathadóireacht = wall-painting
múr báistí = rain-cloud, heavy fall of rain
múr cathrach = city wall
múr ceo = bank of fog
múr tine = wall of flame, conflagration
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mùr [muːr] = (defensive) wall, rampart, fortification
Proto-Brythonic *mʉr = wall
Old Welsh mur = wall
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mur = wall
Welsh (Cymraeg) mur [mɨːr/miːr] = wall, rampart, fortification, defender
murio = to build (a wall) to wall, fortify, lay bricks or stones
muriog = walled, fortified, wall-like, defensive
murlen = poster, placard
murlun = mural, frieze
Breton (Brezhoneg) mur = (exterior) wall

Etymology: from the Latin mūrus (wall), from the Proto-Italic *moiros, from the Proto-Indo-European *mey- (to fix, to build fortifications or fences) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fraig = wall (interior)
Irish (Gaeilge) fraigh = (interior of) wall, rafters, roof
fraighfhliulch = damp-walled, damp from contact with a wet wall (of clothes)
fraighleach = roofing, rafters
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fraigh [frɤj] = partition, partitioning wall, border, edge, fringe, shelf
fraighnidh [frɤin̪ʲɪ] = water oozing through a wall

Etymology: unknown

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) paret, parwyt = wall
Welsh (Cymraeg) pared = wall, surface of a wall, dividing-wall, partition
Old Cornish poruit = wall

Etymology: from the Latin pariēs (wall) [source].

Proto-Celtic *koret = palisade, wall
Old Irish (Goídelc) cora = weir
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cora = stone fence, weir
Irish (Gaeilge) cora [ˈkɔɾˠə] = weir, rocky crossing-place in river, rocky ridge extending into sea or lake
cora éisc = fish weir
cloch chora = stepping-stone
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caradh [karəɣ], cairidh [karʲɪ] = weir, mound (in a body of water)
cairidh-iasgaich = fishing weir
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kored, cored, coret = weir, dam, fishgarth
Welsh (Cymraeg) cored = weir, dam
Old Breton kored / gored = fish weir
Breton (Brezhoneg) kored = fish weir

Etymology: uncertain – possibly related to the German word Hürde (hurdle) and/or the Old English word *hyrd (framework, door), which is the root of the English word hurdle.

The usual word for wall in Cornish is fos, which is cognate with words for ditch in other Celtic languages. See Ditches and Trenches.

Another word for wall in Breton is moger. See Fields, Meadows and Pastures.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Steps

Words for steps and related words in Celtic languages.

Medieval Estella.

Proto-Celtic *kanxsman = step, act of stepping
Gaulish *kamman = step
Old Irish (Goídelc) céimm [ˈkʲeːmʲ] = step; rank (in a hierarchy)
Irish (Gaeilge) céim [ceːmʲ] = step, degree, rank, pass, ravine, difficulty
céimnigh = to step, grade, graduate
céimniú = stepping, tread, grading, graduation
aischéim = backward step
ardchéim = high rank, dignity, higher degree
bunchéim = primary degree, positive (degree)
coiscéim = footstep, pace
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceum [kʲeːm] = step, footstep, pace, tread, path, degree, measure
cois-cheum = step, pace
ceum-coise = footstep, footpath
Manx (Gaelg) keim = phase, step, degree, stage, standard, stile, grade
keimagh = postgraduate
keimee = to graduate, promote
Proto-Brythonic *kamman = step
Old Welsh cemmein = step
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam, camm, kam = step
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = step, stride, pace, leap, foot-fall, footprint, trace, progress
camu, camaf = to step over, take a stride, take strides, pace
camâd = stile
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = pace, step, track
Middle Breton cam = step
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm = pace, walk tread, (foot)step
kammed = step

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *kengeti (to step), from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)keng- (to limp, walk lamely) [source]

Words from the same Gaulish root (*kamman) include: cammīnus (way) in Latin, camino (track, path, road, way, route, journey) and caminar (to walk, stroll, travel) in Spanish, caminho (way, road, path) in Portugese, cammino (walk, path, way) and camminare (to walk, work (function)) in Italian, and chemin (path, way, pathway) in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cloaks and Veils

Words for cloak and related words in Celtic languages.

The Pumpkin Whisperer

Proto-Celtic linnā = veil, cloak
Gaulish linna = veil, cloak
Old Irish (Goídelc) lenn = cloak, mantle
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = cloak, mantle
Old Welsh lenn = curtain, veil, screen, covering, sheet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lenn = curtain, veil, screen, covering, sheet
Welsh (Cymraeg) llen [ɬɛn] = curtain, hanging, veil, screen, covering, canopy, tapestry, sheet, pall, mantle, shawl
llen amdo = winding-sheet, shroud
llen iâ = ice sheet
llen olaf = final curtain (after a theatrical performance)
llen rhwydog = net curtains
llen dân = safter curtain
Old Cornish len = blanket, cloth
Cornish (Kernewek) lenn = blanket, cloth
lenn dhu = blind
brithlen = tapestry
Breton (Brezhoneg) lenn = flag, coat
lenn-wele = bedspread, bed-cover

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *linom (flax) [source].

Proto-Celtic *brattos = cloak, mantle
Old Irish (Goídelc) bratt [ˈbr͈at] = cloak, mantle
Irish (Gaeilge) brat [bˠɾˠɑt̪ˠ / bˠɾˠat̪ˠ] = mantle, cloak, covering, curtain
brata (le) = carpeted, covered (with)
aerbhrat = atmosphere
brat brád = neckerchief
bratóg = small cloak, covering, rag, flake
bratógach = ragged, in rags
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brat [brahd] = carpet, mat, cloak, mantle, cover(ing), sheet, drape, drapery
brat-cùil = backdrop
brat-deighe = ice-sheet
brat-dorais = doormat
brat-dubhair = awning
brat-dorais = tapestry
brat-gréise = bed cover, coverlet
brat-ùrlair = carpet, rug, mat
Manx (Gaelg) brat = covering, cover, coat, layer, film, pall, curtain, cloak, sheet, wrap, coating
brat jaagh = smokescreen
brat laare = carpet
brat lhiabbagh = coverlet, bedcover
brat peintey = coat of paint
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brethyn, bredhyn = woollen, cotton, cloth, covering, bedspread, hanging, tapestry
Welsh (Cymraeg) brethyn = woollen, cotton, cloth, covering, bedspread, hanging, tapestry
brethyn arwyl = funeral pall, bier-cloth
brethyn bord = tablecloth
brethyn cyfrwy = saddlecloth
brethyn neuadd = tapestry
brat = rag, clout, tatter, piece, apron, pinafore (possibly borrowed from Irish)
Old Breton brothrac = skirt
Middle Breton broz = skirt
Breton (Brezhoneg) brozh = skirt
brozh-dan = petticoat, underskirt
korf-brozh = bodice, corset

Etymology: unknown [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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