Colourful Hues

Words for colour, hue, pigment and related colourgs in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *līwos = colour
Gaulish *lios = colour
Old Irish (Goídelc) [ˈtane] = lustre, beauty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lí, li = beauty, lustre, glory, complexion, slendour, appearance, pallor
Irish (Gaeilge) [l̠ʲiː] = colour, complexion, lustre, sheen, pigment(ation)
líú = (act of) colouring, painting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = paint, colour, tinge, hue, complexion, properity, happiness
lìth [l̪ʲiː] = lustre, gloss, splendour, complexion, hue
lìtheach [l̪ʲiː] = greasy, slimy,slippery
Manx (Gaelg) lhee = pigment, pigmentation
Proto-Brythonic *lliw = colour
Old Welsh liu = colour, hue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llyu, lliw, lliỽ, llyw = colour,hue
lliwyav, lliwaw = to colour, paint, dye
lliỽyd, lliwyd = dyer, colourer, painter
Welsh (Cymraeg) lliw [ɬɪu̯] = colour, hue, tint, complexion, countenance, colouring
lliwddall = colourbind
lliwgar = colourful, vivid, beautiful, handsome
lliw(i)af, lliw(i)o = to colour, tinge, paint, dye
lliw(i)og = coloured, tinted, dyed, painted
lliwydd = dyer, colourer, painter
Old Cornish liu = colour
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) liu, lyw = colour, dye, hue
liue = to colour, paint
liuor = painter, dyer
Cornish (Kernewek) liw = colour,dye, paint
liwa = to colour, dye, paint
liwans = painting
liwus = colourful
liwayans = painting, picture
liways = coloured, dye
Old Breton (Brethonoc) liu = colour, ink, dyed
Middle Breton (Brezonec) liu, liou = colour, ink, dyed
liuaff = to colour, dye, paint
Breton (Brezhoneg) liv [liw] = colour, ink, paint, dyed
livañ [ˈliː.vã] = to colour, dye, paint, depict
livek [ˈliːvek] = coloured
liver, livour [ˈliː.vɛr/ˈli.wːər] = painter, colourist
livus [ˈliːvys] = dye, picturesque

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *slih₂-wó-s from *(s)leh₃y- (blueish, plum-coloured) and *-wós (creates adjectives from verb stems) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include livid, lurid and sloe in English, slíva (plum) in Czech, and possibly lloer (moon) in Welsh, loor (moon) in Cornish and loar (moon) in Breton [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dath [daθ] = colour, dye
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dath = colour, dye, hue, tint, complexion
dathach = coloured
dathaid, daithaigid = colours, dyes, stains
dathamail = coloured, fine, handsome, beautiful, comely, graceful
dathugud = colouring, dyeing, painting
Irish (Gaeilge) dath [d̪ˠax/d̪ˠɑh/d̪ˠah] = colour, dye
dathach = coloured
dathadóir = colourist, dyer, painter, exaggerator, fictionist
dathadóireacht = (act of) dyeing, painting
dathaigh = to colour,dye, paint
dathannach = multi-coloured, gaily-coloured, colourful, glowing
dathdhall = colour-blind
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dath [dah] = colour, colouring, dye, pigment, dying, hue, tint, staining, suit (of cards)
dathach [dahəx] = coloured, colourful
dathachadh [dahəxəɣ] = colourising, dyeing, staining
dathadair [dahədɪrʲ] = dyer, colourist
dathail [dahal] = colourful
dathte [dahdʲə] = coloured
Manx (Gaelg) daah = colour, dye, hue, paint, pigment, singe, stain, tincture
daahagh = coloured, stainable
daahder = colourer, colourist, dyer, exaggerator, painter
daahit = coloured, dyed, painted, pigmented, stained
daahoil = colourful, picturesque, well-coloured

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) gné = appearance, form, kind, sort, species
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gné = kind, species, appearance, form, way, manner
Irish (Gaeilge) gné [ɟnʲeː/ɟɾʲeː] = species, kind, form, appearance
gnéitheach = specific, of good appearance
gnétheacht = specificity
gnéthigh = to regain appearance, mend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnè [grʲɛ̃ː] = sex, gender, genre, kind, sort, temper, disposition, genus, species
gnè-fhàs [grɛ͂ː aːs] = evolution
gnè-eòlas = typology
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
gorne = colour, hue, tint
Welsh (Cymraeg) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
agne = colour, tincture
gorne = colour, hue, tint, tincture, blush, brightness, appearance, aspect

Etymology: from PIE *ǵenh₁- (to produce, beget, give birth) [source]. Words from the same roots include gender, general, generate, genius and germ in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Thin & Slender

Words for thin, slender and related things in Celtic languages.

The Spire of Dublin.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *tanauyos = thin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tana [ˈtane] = thin, slender
tanacht = thinness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tana = thin, slender, narrow, shallow, sparse, scanty, scattered
tanacht = thinness, tenuity, shallowness
tanaide = subtle, abstract, thin, slender
tanaigid = to thin (out), dilute
Irish (Gaeilge) tanaí [t̪ˠəˈn̪ˠiː / ˈt̪ˠan̪ˠiː] = thin, shallow
tanaigh = to thin, slim
tanaíochan = thinning
tanaíocht = thinness, sparseness, flimsiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tana [tanə] = lean, slender, slim, thin, gaunt, skinny, shallow, flimsy
tanalachd [tanəl̪ˠəxg] = shallows, shallowness
tanach [tanəx] = narrow, slender
tanachadh [tanəxəɣ] = thinning, makeing thinner, diluting
tainead [tanəd] = degree of thinness
tanlach [tanəl̪ˠəx] = shallow water, shallows, shoal, thin soil, epidermis
tanachd [tanəxg] = thinness
tanaichte [tanɪçdʲə] = diluted, thinned
Manx (Gaelg) thanney = thin, watery, weak, flimsy, rare, shallow, slender, slim
thannaghey = to dilute, liquefy, rarefy, reduce
thannid = thinness, shallowness, leanness
Proto-Brythonic *tanẹw = thin
Old Welsh teneu = thin, slender, slim
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tenev, tenau, teneu = thin, slender, slim, flat, sparse, rare, tenuous, liquid, runny
teneir = to make or become thin(ner)
teneuder = thinness, leanness, slenderness
Welsh (Cymraeg) tenau [ˈtɛnaɨ̯ / ˈteːnai̯] = thin, slender, watery, thin, scarce, rare
teneuaf, teneuo = to make or become thin(ner), lose weight, slim, dwindle, thin, dilute, water down
teneuder = thinness, leanness, slenderness, rareness, scarcity, keenness
teneudra = thinness, leanness, slenderness
teneuedig = thin, thinned, diluted, depleted, rarefied
teneuwr = dieter, weight-watcher, slimmer
Old Cornish tenewen = thin
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tanow, tanaw = thin, slim, slender, lean, few, scarce
tanowder = thinness, scantiness, scarcity
Cornish (Kernewek) tanow = flimsy, lean, rare, scarce, sparse, tenuous, thin
tanowder = rarity, scarcity, thinness
tanowhe = to thin out
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tanau, tano = thin, fine
Breton (Brezhoneg) tanav [ˈtãː.naw / ˈtãː.no] = thin, fine, fluid, rare, hypocritical
tanavaat = (to be) refined, (to be) rarefied, to liquefy, dilute, weed & clear, cut (bread for soup)
tanavded = tenuity, liquidity
tanavder = tenuity, decay
tanavenn = thin place (in fabric), sparse, liquid, emaciated, hypocritical

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ténh₂us (thin), from *tenh₂- (to stretch) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include thin and tenuous in English, tenú (tenuous, thin, slender) in French, dünn (thin, slender, slim) in German, and tenký (thin) in Czech [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Long Distance

Words for long, far, distant and related things in Celtic languages.

A White Rumped Shama male in the hot sun

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīros = long
Gaulish siros = long
Old Irish (Goídelc) sír [sʲiːr] = lasting, constant
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sír = long, lasting, constant
Irish (Gaeilge) síor- [ʃiːɾˠ / ʃiəɾˠ] = perpetual, continual, ever-
síoraí = eternal, perpetual, unceasing, continual, constant, perservering
síoraigh = to perpetuate
síoraíocht = eternity, permanence, lastingness, constancy
síorchaint = talking continually, never-ending talk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìor- [ʃiər̪] = continual(ly), perpetual(ly), incessant
sìorrachd [ʃiərˠ̪əxg] = eternity
siorraidh [ʃiər̪ʲɪ] = eternal, everlasting
Manx (Gaelg) sheer- = continuous, perennial, endless, permanent, ever, continual, consant
sheeraghey = to perpetuate
sheer dy sheer = continually
sheer-riaght = eternity
Proto-Brythonic *hit [ˈhiːr] = long, tall
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hir = long
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hir, huy, hwy = long, tall, lenghty, extensive, tedious
hiraeth, hyreyth = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia
hiraethu, hiraethav = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirfaith, hirveith, hirueith, hir vaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
Welsh (Cymraeg) hir [hiːr] = long, tall, lenghty, extensive
hiraeth [ˈhɪraɨ̯θ/ˈhiːrai̯θ] = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia, wistfulness, homesickness, earnest desire
hiraethaf, hiraethu = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirder = length, longitude
hirhaf, hirhau = to lengthen, prolong, extend
hirfaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
hirian = lanky person, tall slim fellow, gangrel, long, tall
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hir, hŷr = long, tall, prolix, tedious, dilatory
hirenath = a length of time, a long time, duration
hireth, hyreth = longing, an earnest desire, regretting, regret
hirgorn = trumpet
Cornish (Kernewek) hir = long, tall
hirder = length, tallness
hireth = homesickness, longing, loneliness, nostalgia, yearning
hirthek = homesick, longing, lonely, yearning
hirhe = to lengthen
hirneth = a very long time, tedium
hirwelyek = long-sighted
Middle Breton hyr, hir, hirr = long, far
hirder = length, anxiety
Breton (Brezhoneg) hir [ˈhiːr] = long, more
hiraat [hiˈrɑːt] = to lengthen, lie down
hiraezh [hi.ˈrɛːs] = impatience, haste, nostaligia, melancholy
hiraezhus [hiˈrɛːzys] = impatient, nostaligic
hirded [ˈhir.det] = length
hirder [ˈhirdɛr] = length, anxiety
hirnezh [ˈhirnəs] = length, boredom, melancholy
hirvoudus [hirˈvuːdys] = lamentable, moaning, plaintive

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-ró-s, from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include menhir (a single tall standing stone as a monument) in English and French (borrowed from Breton maen-hir), soir (evening) in French, sedert (since) in Dutch, seit (since, for) in German, and hidas (slow, stupid) in Finnish [source].

Proto-Celtic *siti- = length
Old Irish (Goídelc) sith- = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sith- = long
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hit = length
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hyt, hyd = length, height, duration
hyduod = continuance, continuation
Welsh (Cymraeg) hyd [hɨːd / hiːd] = length, height, duration, until, throughout, during
hydaeth = length, longitude
hydfod = continuance, continuation
hydiog = lengthy, long, tall
hydol = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hes, hês, heys, hŷs = longitude, length, duration
Cornish (Kernewek) hys, hes = extent, length
hys-ha-hys = altogether, end to end
a-hys = along
dhe-hys = at length
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hit = length
Middle Breton (Brezonec) het = length
Breton (Brezhoneg) hed [ˈheːt] = length, longitude, ordered
hedan, hedañ = to lengthen
a-hed = along, throughout
hed-ha-hed = all along

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-tó- (lengthened), from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fota [ˈfoda] = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fota, fata = long, enduring
Irish (Gaeilge) fad [fˠɑd̪] = length, distance, duration, extent
fada [ˈfˠɑd̪ˠə / ˈfˠad̪ˠə] = long, far
fadáil = delaying, lingering, dilatoriness
fadáoch = tall man, long fellow
fadáocht = lengthiness, longsomeness
fadálach = slow, tardy, dilatory, lingering, tedious
fadálacht = tardiness, tediousness
fadó = long ago
fadó fadó = once upon a time
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fad [fad] = length, duration
fada [fadə] = long, far, lanky, tall
fadachadh [fadəxəɣ] = elongating, lengthening
fadachd [fadəxg] = longing, yearning, length
fadal [fadəl̪ˠ] = delay, tediousness, longing
fadalach [fadəl̪ˠəx] = late, tardy, tedious, wearisome
fada air ais = backward, oldfashioned, uncool
fada air astar = far off / away
o chionn fhada = a long time ago, for a long time
Manx (Gaelg) foddid = distance, remoteness
foddey = afar, distance, far, markedly, remote(ly), long
foddey er-dy-henney = long ago, long since
foddey ersooyl = far afield, far away, outlying
foddey-hannaghtyn = lingering, long-distance
foddeeaght = distance, fervent desire, homesickness, longing, nostalgia

Etymology: from Old Irish fot (length), from PIE *wasdʰos (long, wide), from *h₁weh₂- (empty, wasted). Words from the same roots include waste and vast in English, and vaste (profound) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *kēnos = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) cían [kʲiːa̯n] = distant, far, lasting, long, since
cíana = distance, length, long time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cían = long, enduring, far, distant
cíana = length, distance
Irish (Gaeilge) cian [ciənˠ] = length of time, age, distance, distant time, long, distant
cianaimsir = a long time
cianaistear = long, tedious, journey
cianamharc = distant view
cianaois = old age
cianaosta = long-lived, very old, pristine, primeval
cianda = distant, remote
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cian [kʲian] = distant, far off, faraway, long, tedious, weary
cian-aimsir = antiquity
cian-chonaltradh = telecommunication(s)
cian-fhada = extremely long distance

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷello- = far
Gaulish pelignos = stranger, foreigner, born far away
Old Welsh (Kembraec) pel = far, distant, remote
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pell = far, distant, remote
bellbell, bell-bell, pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig, pelledic = far (off), remote
pellynnic, pellennic = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellau, pellav = to go far
pellter, pellder, pelther = (great) distance, remoteness
Welsh (Cymraeg) pell [pɛɬ / peːɬ] = far, far-off, far-away, distant, remote, far-reacing, long (time), far (in the past of future), late
pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig = far (off), remote
pelledd = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
pellennig, pellynnig = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellhaf, pellhau = to go far (from), distance oneself (from), to cause (sb/sth), to be far (from), to postpone
pellter = (great) distance, remoteness, length (of time), distant place
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = farther, longer
pellder = distance, remoteness
pellear = a long time
pelly = to render distant, to remove far off, to drive away
Cornish (Kernewek) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = extreme, farther, farthest, further, furthest, utmost, moreover
pellder = distance, long time, remoteness
pellgomunyans = telecommuication
pellgowsel, pellgowser = (tele)phone
pellgowsell = mobile-phone
pellhe = to banish, move away, send away
pellskrifen = fax telegram
pellweler = telescope
pellwolok = television
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pell = distant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pell = distant
pellhat = to get away from
Breton (Brezhoneg) pell [pɛlː] = far, long, late
pellaat [pɛˈlɑːt] = to move away
pellad = long time
pelladur, pellded = distance
pellder = distant, length of time
pellgemenn = remote control
pellgomz [ˈpɛl.ɡɔ̃ms] = telephone
pellidigezh = distance
pellwel = television

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kʷel-so- from *kʷel- (to turn, revolve around, sojourn). English words beginning with tele-, such as telescope and telephone, come from the same PIE roots [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Through and Through

Here are some words for through, across, over and related things in Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trē = through
Old Irish (Goídelc) tre [tʲrʲe] = through
trium = through me
triut = through you (sg)
triit = through him
tree = through her
triunn = through us
triib = through you (pl)
treu, tréu = through them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tri, tre, tré, trí [tʲrʲe] = through, along, across, by means of
tríom(sa) = through me
triut, tréot = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trethe, trithe = through her
trínn(e) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Irish (Gaeilge) trí [tʲɾʲiː] = through, within, throughout, on account of, by mean of
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tre [edər] = through
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Manx (Gaelg) trooid = through, betwixt
my hrooid = through me
dty hrooid = through you (sg)
e hrooid = through him
e trooid = through her
nyn drooid = through us / you (pl) / them
Proto-Brythonic *truɨ = through
Old Welsh troi = through
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trui, trwy, drỽy = through
trwof, drwof = through me
trwot, drwot = through you (sg)
trwyddo, drwyddo = through him
trwyddi, drwyddi = through her
trwom, drwom = through us
trwoch, drwoch = through you (pl)
trwyddynt, drwyddynt = through them
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwy, drwy [truːɨ̯/trʊi̯] = through(out), from end to end, over, across, along, while, by (means of), according to, because of
trwyddo (f)i = through me
trwyddot ti = through you (sg)
trwyddo fe/fo = through him
trwyddi hi = through her
trwyddon ni = through us
trwyddoch chi = through you (pl)
trwyddyn nhw = through them
trwyenaf, trawenu = to go (over, through), cross, bring through
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre = through
Cornish (Kernewek) dre = through via, by means of , per
dredhov = through me
drehos = through you (sg)
dredho = through him
dredhi = through her
dredhon = through us
dredhowgh = through you (pl)
dredha = through them
dre bub rann/radn = throughout
dre happ = by chance, by the way, incidentally
dre wall = accidentally, by accident
drefen = because of, on account of
Old Breton (Brethonoc) dre = through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dre, der, tre = through
dreizoff = through me
drezoude = through you (sg)
dreizaff = through him
drezi, dredi = through her
dré-omb = through us
dreizoch = through you (pl)
drezo, drede, dreze = through them
Breton (Brezhoneg) dre [dreː] = through, by, with
drezon = through me
drezout = through you (sg)
drezañ = through him
drezi = through her
drezomp = through us
drezoc’h = through you (pl)
drezo, dreze = through them
dre gant = percent
dre guzh = in secret
dre zegouezh = by chance, by accident

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-/*ter- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include thorough and through in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *taras = through, across
Old Irish (Goídelc) tar = across, over, through
thorum(sa) = over me
torut(su) = over you (sg)
tarais = over him
tairse = over her
torunn(i) = over us
toraib = over you (pl)
tairsiu = over them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tar = over, across, covering
torum, torom, toram = over me
torut, torot, thorad = over you (sg)
tarais, taris, tairis = over him
tarsi, tairs = over her
torunn, torund = over us
toraib thoruibh = over you (pl)
tairis, tairise = over them
Irish (Gaeilge) thar [haɾˠ/hæɾʲ] = over, above, across, by, past, through, beyond, more than
tharam(sa) = over/beyond me
tharat(sa) = over/beyond you (sg)
thairis(-sean) = over/beyond him
thairsti(se) = over/beyond her
tharainn(e) = over/beyond us
tharaibh(se) = over/beyond you (pl)
tharstu(san) = over/beyond them
thar bord = overboard
thar sáile = overseas
thar téarma = overdue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) thar [har] = across, over
tharam(sa) = over me
tharad(sa) = over you (sg)
thairis(-san) = over him
thairte(se) = over her
tharainn(e) = over us
tharaibh(se) = over you (pl)
tharta(san) = over them
thar bòrd/stoc = overboard
thar chnoc is sloc fuar fad ás = over the hills and far away
thar chuain = overseas, across the sea
thar tomhais = beyond measure
Manx (Gaelg) har [har] = across, beyond, former
harrish = above, across, beyond, bygone, over, trans
harrym(s) = over me
haryd(s) = over you (sg)
harrish(yn) = over him
harree(ish) = over her
harrin(yn) = over us
harriu(ish) = over you (pl)
harroo(syn) = over them
har cheer = overland
har mooir = oveasea
harrish as tarrish = over and over
harrish boayrd = overboard
harrish shen = furthermore, moreover
harrish yn traa = overdue
Proto-Brythonic *tra(ns) = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Welsh (Cymraeg) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond, the other side of, over, across, more than, above
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tra, tre = beyond, over
Cornish (Kernewek) dres = beyond, during, in the course of, over, past, through
dres an gwartha = over the top
dres mor = overseas
dres nos = overnight
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tra = through, across, by means of
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tra = through, across, by means of
Breton (Brezhoneg) tra [tʁa] = while
tramor [traˈmoːr] = overseas

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *térh₂-t (to get through, cross over) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include trans- in English, très (very) in French, tras (behind, after) in Galician, and tras (afterm behind, beyond) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *trāns(s) = across
Old Irish (Goídelc) trá [traː] = then, therefore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trá, tra, thra = then, therefore, so, however, but, on the other hand
Irish (Gaeilge) trá = then, indeed, however
Proto-Brythonic *trọs = strong, powerful, potent, mighty (?)
Old Welsh traus = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) traỽs, traus, traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
artraus, ar traỽs. ar y draỽs, ar traws = across, over, upon, about
trowsi = to move/cut across, cross
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
Welsh (Cymraeg) traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty, cruel, oppresive, cross, transverse, oblique, slanting
ar draws = across, over, upon, about
traws(i)af, trawsu, traws(i)o = to move/cut across, cross, turn sideways
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
trawseddaf, trawseddu = to offend, transgress
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tres = adverse, cross, forward
adres = across
Cornish (Kernewek) treus = pass
treusfurvyaz = transform
a-dreus = across
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tros = traverse, distance
Middle Breton (Brezonec) treuz, treus, trez = traverse, distance
Breton (Brezhoneg) treuz [trøːs] = traverse. distance, height
a-dreuz = across, traverse
treuzer = ferry
treuzerezh = crossing
treuzfurmin = to transform
treuzkas = to transmit
treuzkaser = transmitter
treuzlat = transfer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cauldrons and Kettles

Words for cauldron, kettle, pot and related things in Celtic languages.

Cauldron

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷaryos = cauldron
Gaulish *parios = cauldron
Old Irish (Goídelc) coire [ˈkorʲe] = cauldron
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) coire [ˈkorʲə] = cauldron, pot, whirlpool
coirén = little pot
Irish (Gaeilge) coire [ˈkɛɾʲə] = large pot, cauldron, boiler, corrie, cirque, amphitheatre, deep mountain hollow, pit, whirlpool
coire bolcáin = volcanic crater
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = kettle, corrie, cauldron
coireag [kɔrʲag] = small kettle, small corrie, small cauldron
Manx (Gaelg) coirrey = cauldron, boiler, pothole, hollow in hills, corrie, maelstrom, vent of volcano
Proto-Brythonic *pėr = cauldron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyr, peir, pair = cauldron
peireit, peried = cauldron(ful)
Welsh (Cymraeg) pair [ˈpai̯r] = cauldron, large pot, boiler, melting-pot
peiran = corrie, cwm, cirque (in geology)
peir(i)aid = cauldron(ful)
Old Cornish per = cauldron
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) per = cauldron, kettle, boiler, furnace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) per = cauldron
Breton (Brezhoneg) per [ˈpeːr] = cauldron

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷer- (to do, make, build). Words from the same roots include Britain, Brittany and karma in English, and words for time and shape in Celtic languages [source].

The city of Paris in France gets it name from Lutetia Parisiorum (Lutetia of the Parīsiī), a Gallo–Roman town that was established on the Left Bank of the Seine after the Romans conquered the local Gaulish tribe, the Parisioi, or Parīsiī in Latin, in 52 BC. The Gaulish name *Parisioi comes from Gaulish *parios (cauldron) [source].

Old Welsh calaur = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kallaur, kallawr, callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
Welsh (Cymraeg) callor, callawr = cauldron, cooking pot, boiler, kettle
calloriad = the fill or contents of a cauldron
calloryn = a small cauldron, skillet, kettle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) caltor = kettle
Cornish (Kernewek) kalter = kettle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cauter = boiler, cauldron, cooking pot
Breton (Brezhoneg) kaoter [ˈko.tɛr] = boiler, cooking pot
kaoteriad [kɔ.ˈtɛ.rjat] = contents of a pot, Cotriade /Brittany Fish Stew, fish that fishermen bring home for meals
primgaoter [prim.ˈɡo.tɛr] = pressure cooker

Etymology: from Latin caldāria (warm bath, kettle, cooking pot, cauldron, from caldārius (hot water), from cal(i)dus (warm, hot) [source]. The English word cauldron comes from the same roots, as do chowder, caldera and nonchalant [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Modestly Humble

Words for modest and related things in Celtic languages.

Modestly Humble

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *wēlos = modest
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíal [fʲiːa̯l] = becoming, generous, genteel, seemly, well-bred
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fíal = decorous becoming, seemly (of conduct or behavious), modest, chaste, well-bred, honourable, noble
fíalmar = noble-natured, generous
Irish (Gaeilge) fial [fʲiəlˠ] = seemly, proper, noble, generous, hospitable
fialmhaireacht = open-handedness, generosity
fialmhaitheas = goodness of heart, generosity
fialmhar = open-handed, generous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fial [fiəl̪ˠ] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fial-chridheachd = altruism
fial-inntinneach = open-minded, liberal-minded
fialach [fiəl̪ˠəx] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fialachd [fiəl̪ˠəxg] = generosity, liberality
fialaiche = provider of hospitality
Manx (Gaelg) feoilt = benevolent, bountiful, generous, munificent
feoiltagh = benevolent, bounteous, free, lavish, liberal, unselfish
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guiled = shame
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guyl, gwyl, gŵyl = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive
guilat, gwylat = merry, glad, lively
gwylder = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gvilet, gwylet, gwyled = modesty, humility, gentleness, shame
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl = [ɡuːɨ̯l/ɡʊi̯l] = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive, mild, tender, gentle, gracious, joyous, glad, generous, kind
gwylad = merry, glad, lively
gwyldeb = modesty, bashfulness
gwylader, gwyldra = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gwyledd = modesty, humility, gentleness, meekness, courtesy, graciousness, joy, shame

Etymology: possibly from the PIE *wey- (turn) or *wāg- (to be bent), which is related to vagus (wandering, roaming) in Latin, from which we get the English words vague and vagabond [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) umal [ˈuṽal] = humble, obedient
umaldóit = humility
umlaigid = to humble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) umal = humble, obedient, submissive
umaldóit, omaldóit, umallóit = humility
uimligid, huimligte, umlaigid = to humble
Irish (Gaeilge) umhal [uəl̪ˠ/uːlˠ] = humble, submissive, lithe, supple, plant
umhlaigh = to humble, bow, submit, obey, stoop
umhlaíocht = humility, submission, obedience, dutifulness, respect
umhlóid = humility, submission, lowly service, attendence, ministration, suppleness, pliancy
umhlú = genuflection, curtsey, obesiance, submission
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umhal [ũ.əl̪ˠ] = submissive, obedient, humble, lowly, meek
Manx (Gaelg) imlee = humble, lowly, menial, simple
imlagh = humble, humbling
imlaghey = humble, stoop
Old Welsh (Kembraec) humil = humble
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) huvyll, uvell = merry, glad, lively
uỽyl, vffil = humble, meek, submissive
ufullder, uvyllder = humility
uỽyltaỽd, uvylldaỽt, vuildaud, vffyldaud = humility
Welsh (Cymraeg) ufyl = humble, meek, submissive
ufyllter, ufullter = humility
ufylltod, ufulltod, ufelltod, hufylltod = humility
hyful = humble
Old Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Cornish (Kernewek) uvel = humble, lowly, modest
uvelder = humility
Middle Breton vuel, uuel = humble, meek, lowly
uffuelhat = to humiliate (oneself)
vuelaff, uvelañ = to humble oneself
vueldet, vuheltet = humility, humbleness, meekness
vulder, vuelder, uffuelter = humility, humbleness
Breton (Brezhoneg) uvel [ˈyː.vɛl] = humble, meek, lowly
uvelded, uvelder = humility, humbleness, meekness
uvelaat = to humiliate

Etymology: from the Latin humilis (low, lowly, small, slight, shallow), which is also the root of the English word humility, the French humilité (humility), and the humildad (humility, humbleness) [source].

The Cornish word klor means meek, mild, moderate, modest and klorder means modesty. Their origins are not known

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Worms & Maggots

Today we’re looking at the words for worm, maggot and related things in Celtic languages.

Earth Worm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷrimis = worm
Old Irish (Goídelc) cruim [kruṽʲ] = maggot, worm
crumdoma = maggot heap
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) cruim, crúim = worm, maggot
crumach = full of reptiles
crumdoma = dunghill
cromóc = maggot
Irish (Gaeilge) cruimh = maggot, larva, grub, tiny insect, worm
crumhóg = maggot
cruimheach = maggoty
cruimheachán = venemous person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnuimh [krɯ̃ĩv] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimheach [krɯ̃ĩvəx] = maggoty
cnuimheag [krɯ̃ĩvag] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimhneag [krɯ̃ĩvn̪ˠʲag] = maggot, worm
Manx (Gaelg) crooag = (flesh) worm, grub, maggot, worm
crooagagh = maggoty, wormy
Proto-Brythonic *prɨβ̃ [ˈprɨβ̃] = worm
Old Welsh prem = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pryuet, pryf = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryuyedic = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Welsh (Cymraeg) pryf [prɨːv/priːv] = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryfedaf, pryfedu, pryfedo = to breed worms of maggots, to become infested with worms or maggots
pryfediad = worm or maggot infestation
pryfedig = wormeaten, maggoty
pryfeteg = entomology
pryfiedig = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pref, prêv, pryf = any small animal, a vermin, an insect, a worm, a reptile
Cornish (Kernewek) pryv, prev = crawling animal, grub, insect, worm, weevil
pryv del = caterpillar
pryv prenn woodworm
pryvladher = insecticide
Middle Breton (Brezonec) preff, preuet, prenvv = worm
Breton (Brezhoneg) preñv = worm
preñvedik = vermiculated
preñvek = vermicular, wormlike, wormy
eneppreñveg, eneppreñvek = wormable

Etymology: from PIE *kʷŕ̥mis (worm) [source]. Words from the same root include cirmenis (maggot, grub) in Latvian, kirmis (worm) in Lithuanian, käärme (snake) in Finnish, کرم (kerm – worm) in Persian, and červ (worm, maggot) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dorb = worm, larva
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorb = small insect or worm
Irish (Gaeilge) doirb [kɑbʲ/kabʲ] = water beelte
doirbeach = infested with water beetles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doirb [dɤrʲɤb] = unspecific term for a small/tiny/insignificant creature (e.g. minnow, worm, leech, small person)
Manx (Gaelg) durrag = cabbage worm, larva of cabbage moth

Etymology: unknown

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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