Hooks and Crooks

Today we’re looking at hooks, crooks and related words in Celtic languages.

Hook

Proto-Celtic *bakkos = hook, (curved) stick
Old Irish (Goídelc) bacc = angle, bill-hook, corner, hindrance, mattock
Irish (Gaeilge) bac = balk, hindrance, barrier, mattock, bend (in a river), (door) step
bacadh = to balk, hindrance
bacainn = barrier, obstruction, obstacle, blocking
bacainneach = barring, obstructing, blocking
bacán = hinge-hook, crook, peg
bacánach = crooke, hinged
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bac [baxg] = hindering, impeding, obstructing, restraining, restricting, hindrance
bacadh = to hinder, impede, obstruct, restain, restrict, ban
Manx (Gaelg) bac = balk, disability, disqualification, drawback, handicap, moratorium, objection, obstacle, pull back, snag, trap
Old Welsh bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Welsh (Cymraeg) bach [baːχ] = hook, grapple, mattock, hoe, fish hook, shepherd’s crook; hinge, pivot; nook, angle, corner, bend
bachiad = a hooking, turning, curving, winding, bending
bachog = hooked, barded, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachogrwydd = hookedness, crookedness, incisiveness
bachol = hooking, grappling, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachu = to hook, anchor, connect, attach, fasten
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bah = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) bagh = hook
bagha = to trap
Old Breton bah = hook
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bach, bac’h = hook for uprooting potatoes or seaweed, big hook
bac’hig = little fang, hook, staple
Breton (Brezhoneg) bac’h = (fish) hook

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bachall (crook, crozier) in Irish, bagl (crook, crozier) in Welsh, pail in English, and possibly bok (side, flank, hip) in Czech, Polish and Slovak [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dough

Today we’re looking at the words for dough and related things in Celtic languages.

Rested Pasta Dough 2

Proto-Celtic *taistos, *taysto- = dough
Old Irish (Goídelc) taís, taés [ˈtai̯s] = dough
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tóes, táes = dough
Irish (Gaeilge) taos [t̪ˠeːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ] = dough, paste
taosach = doughy, pasty
taosaigh = to paste
taosrán = pastry
taoschnó = doughnut
taos fiacla = toothpaste
taos géar = sourdough
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) taois [tɯːʃ] = dough, paste
taoiseach = doughy, pasty
taoiseag = doughnut
taois-uighe = (egg) batter
taois-chailce = putty
taois gheur = sourdough
Manx (Gaelg) teayst = dough, pastry, paste
teaystag = dumpling
teaystagh = doughy, ill-baked, pasty, under-cooked
teaystyn, teaystnee = to knead
Proto-Brythonic *toɨs = dough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) toes = (lump of) dough or pastry
Welsh (Cymraeg) toes [toːɨ̯s/tɔi̯s] = (lump of) dough or pastry, paste, sticky mass
toesaidd = doughy, doughlike
toesen = lump of dough, doughnut
toesi = to make into dough, become a dough, knead, soften
toeslud = putty
toeslyd = doughy, doughlike, badly baked, soft, pasty, sticky, clammy, stodgy, heavy
surdoes = leaven, sourdough, ferment
Cornish (Kernewek) toos = dough
know toos = doughnuts
toos alamandys = marzipan
toos gwari = playdough
Middle Breton toas = dough, batter
Breton (Brezhoneg) toaz = dough, batter
toazadur = thickening, pastiness
toazenn = noodle
toazenner = pasta machine
toazennoù = pasta
toazennek = pasted, thickened

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂ys-t- (dough), from *teh₂- (to knead, melt, flow) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include desem (sourdough, leaven, yeast) in Dutch, těsto (dough) in Czech, ciasto (dough, batter, cake, pie) in Polish, тесто [ˈtʲestə] (dough, paste, batter) in Russian, and тісто [ˈtʲistɔ] (dough) in Ukrainian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Languages and Tongues

Today we’re looking at the words for language and tongue and related things in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *tangʷāss, tangʷāt = tongue
Old Irish (Goídelc) tengae [ˈtʲeŋɡe] = tongue, language
Irish (Gaeilge) teanga [ˈtʲaŋə / ˈtʲaŋɡə] = tongue, language
teangach = tongued, lingual, wordy, loquacious
teangachruthach = tongue-shaped, linguiform
teangaigh = to tongue (in music)
teangaire = interpreter
teangeolaí = linguist, expert in linguistics
teangeolaíocht = linguistics
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teanga [tʲɛŋgə] = tongue, speech, spit (of land)
teangan = tongue
teangaidh = tongue, speech
teangach = abounding in tongues, loquacious, langued (in hearldry)
teangair = linguist, interpreter, orator, philologist
Manx (Gaelg) çhengey [ˈtʃɛnʲə] = bell-clapper, clasp, feather, strap-hinge; catch (of buckle); tongue; language, speech; utterance
çhengeyr çhyndaader = interpreter
çhengeyder = linguist
çhengoaylleeaght = linguistics
çhengey ny mayrey = mother tongue
daa-hengagh = bilingual
yl-çhengagh = polyglot
Proto-Brytonic *tau̯āt, *tavọd = tongue
Old Welsh tauawt = tongue, language
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tauaut = tongue, language
Welsh (Cymraeg) tafod [ˈtavɔd / ˈtaːvɔd] = tongue, faculty of speech, power of expression; language, speech, dialect, accent
tafod aur = pleasant or witty talk, eloquence (“gold tongue”)
tafod bach = uvula
tafod cloch = clapper (of bell)
tafodiaeth = language, vernacular or native language, dialect, pronunciation, articulation, verbal expression
tafodi = to scold, rebuke, chide, berate, cheek, abuse (verbally), tongue (in music)
tafodiad = a scolding or berating, pronunciation
tafodwr = speaker, talker
Old Cornish tauot = language, tongue
Middle Cornish tawes = language, tongue
Cornish (Kernewek) taves = language, tongue
tavosa = to scold, tell off
tavosek = talkative, verbose
tavoseth = idiom, jargon
Old Breton tavod = tongue
Middle Breton teaut, teut = tongue
Breton (Brezhoneg) teod [ˈtɛwt] = tongue
teodel = oral
teodek = talkative, gossipy
teodyezh = speech, dialect, way of speaking
teodyezhañ = to speak
teodyezher = speaker

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s (tongue) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include: tongue and language in English, lingua (tongue, language) in Italian, язик [jɐˈzɪk] (tongue) in Ukrainian, and jazyk (tongue, language) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Proto-Celtic *yaxtī = language
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) icht = race, people, tribe; province, district
Proto-Brythonic *jeiθ, *i̯ekti = tongue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ieith, yeith = language, nation, race
Welsh (Cymraeg) iaith [jai̯θ] = language, tongue; people, nation, race, tribe
ieithiadur = grammar
ieithio = to pronounce, proclaim, express
ieithog = having language or several languages, multilingual, polyglot
ieithydd = one who has thorough knowledge or command of a language or languages, linguist, grammarian, philologist, interpreter, speark, poet
ieithyddiaeth = linguistics, philology, grammar
ieithgi = one who is interested in the study of language (rather than of literature), philologist
Cornish (Kernewek) yeth [eːθ / jeːθ] = tongue, language
yeth le-usys = minority language
yethador = grammar
yethel = linguistic
yethonieth = linguistics
yethor, yethores = linguist
Middle Breton yez = language
Breton (Brezhoneg) yezh [ˈjeːs] = language
yezhadur = grammar
yezhadurel = grammatical
yezhel = linguistic
yezher = speaker
unyezher = unilingual
divyezher = bilingual
liesyezher = polyglot

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *yek- (to utter). It is uncertain if the Middle Irish word icht is cognate with the Brythonic words [source].

Words from the same PIE root include: joke and Yule in English, jul (Yule, Christmas) in Danish and Norwegian, juego (play, game, sport) in Spanish, and joc (game, play, dance) in Romanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) bélrae [ˈbʲeːl͈re] = language, speech
bélrae Féne = legal language
bélrae na filed = acrane vocabulary, poetic language
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bérla(e) = speech, language
Irish (Gaeilge) béarla = speech (archaic)
béarlachas = Anglicism
béarlagair = jargon
béarlamhail = having command of language, fluent (archaic)
Béarla [ˈbʲeːɾˠl̪ˠə] = English (language)
Béarlóir = English speaker
Béarlóireacht = (act of) speaking English
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Beurla [bjɤːr̪ˠl̪ˠə] = English (language)
Beurlachas = Anglicism
Beurla Leathann = Broad Scots
Manx (Gaelg) Baarle [bɛːᵈl] = English (language)
Baarlagh = of or pertaining to the English language
Baarlaghys = Anglicism
Baarleyr = English-speaker, anglophone
Baarle Albinagh = Scots, Lallans
Baarle Ghaelagh, Baarle Vanninagh = Anglo-Manx (language)
Baarle Heenagh = pidgin
Baarle chiart = the Queen’s English

Etymology: from the Old Irish bél (mouth) and -ra (collective suffix) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Woman / Wife

Words for woman / wife in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *benā = woman
Gaulish benā = woman, wife
Old Irish (Goídelc) ben [bʲen] = woman
Irish (Gaeilge) bean [bʲanˠ] = woman, wife
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bean [bɛn] = woman, wife
Manx (Gaelg) ben = woman, lady, wife
Proto-Brythonic *ben = woman
Old Welsh ben = woman
Welsh (Cymraeg) benyw = female, girl, woman, feminine
menyw = woman, female, feminine
Old Cornish benen = woman
Cornish (Kernewek) benyn [‘bɛnɪn / ‘bɛnən] = woman
Old Breton ban = woman
Breton (Brezhoneg) e-ben = woman

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *gʷḗn (woman) [source], which is also the root of the English words queen and gynecology, words for woman in some other Germanic languages, such as kvinna in Swedish, and words for woman / wife in Slavic languages, such as žena in Czech.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Proto-Celtic *wrakkā = woman
Old Irish (Goídelc) frac = woman
Proto-Brythonic *gwrėg [ˈɡwre̝ːɡ] = woman, (human) female, wife
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gureic, gwreic = wife, woman
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwraig [ɡuˈrai̯ɡ] = wife, woman, (human) female
Old Cornish greg, grueg = wife
Middle Cornish gurek = wife
Cornish (Kernewek) gwreg [gwrɛ:g / gwre:g] = wife
Middle Breton gruec = wife
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwreg [ˈɡwʁɛːk] = wife

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Proto-Celtic English Word List, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau