Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Swans on Llyn Padarn / Elyrch ar Lyn Padarn

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blood

Words for blood and related things in Celtic languages.

Blood

Proto-Celtic *wolis, *weli- = blood
Old Irish (Goídelc) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) fuil [fˠɪlʲ / fˠɨ̞lʲ] = blood
fuilaistriú = blood transfusion
fuilbheartach = sanguinary, bloody-minded
fuilchill = blood cell
fuilchíocrach = bloodthirsty
fuilchoirpín = blood corpuscle
fuildoirteadh = bloodshed
fuiligh, cuir fola = to bleed
cú fola = bloodhound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuil [ful] = blood, family, tribe, kindred
fuileachdach = bloody, bloodthirsty
fuil-mìos = menstruation, period
brùthadh-fala = blood pressure
cion-fala = anæmia
iomlaid fala = blood transfusion
marag-fhala = black pudding
ruith-fala = haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, piles
Manx (Gaelg) fuill [fuɪlʲ] = blood, breeding, kindred
fuill-vreck = bloodstained
coo folley = bloodhound
lhiggey fuill, roie folley = to bleed
mooinjer folley = blood relation
ym-roie folley = hemophilia
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gweli, gwely, gueli = wound, cut, gash
Welsh (Cymraeg) gweli [ˈɡwɛli] = (bleeding) wound, cut, gash, ulcer, sore
gweli angheuol mortal wound
gwelïaf, gwelïo = to wound, injure, hurt, exulcerate; to fester
gwelïog = fulls of wounds, sores, ulcers, wounded, bruised
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goly = wound, mark, hurt
guli = wound
Cornish (Kernewek) goli = injury, wound
goli bew/byw = ulcer
golia = to wound
goliesiges = casualty
Middle Breton gouli, goulyow = wound, injury
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouli = wound, injury

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to wound, strike) [source]. Words from the same root include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla [source].

Proto-Celtic *krū- = blood
*krowos = blood
*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crú = gore, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) cró [kɾˠoː / kɾˠɔː] = blood, gore
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crò [krɔː] = blood, gore, blood oath
crò-dhearg = crimson
Proto-Brythonic *krow = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crev, creu = blood
Welsh (Cymraeg) crau [kraɨ̯ /krai̯] = blood, gore, carnage, bloody
creulon = bloody, cruel, fierce, brutal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crow = gore, blood, death
Cornish (Kernewek) krow = bloodshed, gore

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kréwh₂s (blood) [source]. English words from the same root include crude and raw [source].

Proto-Celtic *wayos = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guayt, guaed, gwaet = blood. gore, juice, sap
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwaed [ˈɡwaːɨ̯d /ˈɡwai̯d] = blood. gore, juice, sap
gwaedlyf haemorrhage
gwaedlyd = bloody, sanguinary
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedogen = black pudding
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedu = to bleed
Old Cornish guit = blood
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gois, goys, goos, gos = blood
gosys = bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) goos [ˈɡuːz] = blood, bloodline
devera goos = to bleed, lose blood
gwaskedh goos = blood pressure
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwad [ˈɡwaːt] = blood, essence
gwadañ = to bleed
gwadegenn = black pudding, blood sausage
gwadgi = bloodhound
gwadorged = incest

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Corners

Today we’re looking at the words for corners, backs and related things in Celtic languages.

corner

Proto-Celtic *kūlos = corner
Old Irish (Goídelc) cúl [kuːl] = back, rear
iarcúl = remote place
Irish (Gaeilge) cúl [kuːlˠ] = back, reserve, support, rear, reverse (of coin), counter
cúlaí = back (in rugby, etc)
cúlaigh = to back, move back, reverse, retreat
cúláire = recess, nook, back of throat
cúlaistín = backer, henchman
cúlsráid = back street
iargcúil = remote corner, backward, out-of-the-way place, isolated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cùl [kuːl̪ˠ] = back, hind part, tress, shadow
cùl-fraon = background
cùl-chainnt = backbiting, slander, defamation, calumny
cùl-taic = patron, supporter, patronage, support, (military) reserves
cùl-shràid = back street
Manx (Gaelg) cooyl = back, behind, astern, reverse
cooyl-charrey = backer
cooyl-eaishtagh = to eavesdrop
cooyl-pholt(al) = backfire
cooyl-raad = back street
Proto-Brythonic *kil = corner, angle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kil = corner, angle
Welsh (Cymraeg) cil [kiːl] = corner, angle, back, nape of the neck, retreat, flight, recess, covert, nook, eclipse, wane
cilaidd = retiring, elusive, furtive
cilio = to retreat, withdraw, depart, recede, retire, pass away
Old Cornish chil = back
Cornish (Kernewek) kil = back, nape of the neck, book, reverse
kilans = recession
kilden = retreat
kildenna / kildedna = to back off, withdraw
kildennans / kildednans = withdrawal
Breton (Brezhoneg) kil = back, reverse, lapel, neck, heel
kiladenn = reverse
kilañ = to return
kilober = feedback
kilseller = retrospective

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH-lo-, from *(s)kewH- (to cover, conceal, hide). The English words such as hide, hose, house and sky come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wings

Today we’re looking at the words for wings and related things in Celtic languages.

Wings

Proto-Celtic *ɸeto/*feto- = to fly
*fatar/*fatanos/*fetnos = wing, bird
Old Irish (Goídelc) ette [ˈetʲe] = wing, pinion, fin, feather, plume
ettech/ittech = winged, finned, flying, fluttering
Irish (Gaeilge) eite [ˈɛtʲə] = wing, pinion, wing feather, fin, vane
eiteach = winged, pennate, plumed, feathered, finned
eiteog = wing, (little) wing feather, (little) fin, wing-like
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ite [içdʲə] = feather, plume, fin, overlap, blade
iteach [ihdʲəx] = feathery, feathered, finned
itealach = winged, flying, hovering, fluttering
Manx (Gaelg) fedjag [ˈfaiaɡ] = feather, plume, quill, pinion
fedjagagh = pinnate, feathery
Proto-Brythonic *atanī = wing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) adain = wing, fin
Welsh (Cymraeg) adain [ˈadai̯n/ˈadɛn/ˈaːdɛn] = wing, fin, arm, sleeve
adeiniog = winged
Old Cornish aden = leaf of a book
Old Breton attanoc = wing

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *peth₂- (to fly, to spread out) [source]. The English words such as feather, petal, pinion and helicopter come from the same PIE root [source].

Words for birds and larks come from the same Proto-Celtic roots.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ascall = armpit
Irish (Gaeilge) ascaill [ˈasˠkəl̠ʲ/ˈasˠkəl̪ˠ] = armpit, recess, avenue, axil
asclán = something carried under arm, armful, gusset
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) asgall [asgəl̪ˠ] = breast, bosom, armpit
Manx (Gaelg) aghlish = axil, armful, armpit
Proto-Brythonic *askell = wing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) asgell, askell = wing
Welsh (Cymraeg) asgell [ˈasɡaɬ / ˈaskaɬ] = wing, feather, fin, flank, side
asgellog = winged, feathered, flying, finned, scaly, barbed
asgellwr = winger, wing-forward (in sports)
asgellu = to feather (an arrow), put wings on, grow wings, shelter/protect (with wings)
Old Cornish ascall = wing
Cornish (Kernewek) askel = wing
Breton (Brezhoneg) askell [ˈas.kɛl] = wing, fin, flipper

Etymology: from the Latin ascella (wing), from axilla (little wing, axilla, armpit), a diminutive of āla (wing, armpit, shoulder blade) from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱs- (axis) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Knees

Here are some words for knee, and related words, in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *glūnos = knee
Old Irish (Goídelc) glún [ɡluːn] = knee
Irish (Gaeilge) glúin [ɡl̪ˠuːnʲ / ɡlˠuːnʲ] = knee, generation, step (in a series), node
caipín glúine, gealacán glúine = kneecap, patella
bean ghlúine = midwife
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) glùin [ɡl̪ˠuːnʲ] = knee, generation, lap, joint (of boat)
copan na glùine / cnap-glùine / falman = kneecap, patella
lùbadh-glùin = curtsey
bean-ghlùine = midwife
Manx (Gaelg) glioon [ɡlʲuːnʲ] = joint, crooked timber, knee
rollian ny gliooney = kneecap, patella
moddey glioon = lap dog, toy dog
glioon-lhoobey = genuflect, genuflection
Proto-Brythonic *glin = knee
Welsh (Cymraeg) glin [ɡliːn], pen (g)lin [pɛnˈ(ɡ)liːn] = knee
clwyd y glin = kneecap, patella
llinach = lineage, genealogy, pedigree, ancestry, stock, kindred, offspring, succession, generation
camu glin = to curtsey
Cornish (Kernewek) glin [ˈɡliːn] = knee
padell bedn glin / penn glin = kneecap, patella
Breton (Brezhoneg) glin [ˈɡliːn] = knee
koubloù = kneecap, patella

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵónu (knee).

From the Proto-Celtic word *glūnos we also get the Proto-Celtic word *genwā ((river) bend), which is the root of the names Geneva, Genoa.

The word knee comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English kne, from the Old English cnēow, from the Proto-West Germanic *kneu, from the Proto-Germanic *knewą.

The word genuflect (to bend the knee) also comes from the same PIE root, via the Latin genū (knee) and flectō (to bend) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis

Nails, Claws and Talons

Words for nails in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *angʷīnā = (finger/toe) nail
Old Irish (Goídelc) ingen [ˈiŋʲɡʲen] = (finger/toe) nail
Irish (Gaeilge) ionga [ˈɔŋə] = nail, claw, talon; hoof; clove (of garlic); quid (of tabacco)
ionga méire finger nail
ionga ordóige = thumbnail
ionga coise / ionga laidhre toenail
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ionga [iŋgə] = (finger) nail, toenail, claw, talon, gusset
Manx (Gaelg) ingin [ˈiŋən] = claw, nail, talon, hoof; clove (of garlic)
ingin ordaag = thumbnail
ingin choshey toenail
Proto-Brythonic *ėɣwin = nail
Old Welsh eguin = nail
Middle Welsh (Kyrmraec) ewin = nail
Welsh (Cymraeg) ewin [ˈɛu̯.ɪn] = nail of a finger or toe; claw or talon (of bird), claw (of carnivorous beast); division of a cloven hoof; worthless remnant; power of grip; cog of a wheel; jutting edge of rock; clove (of garlic), small piece, particle
ewin bawd thumbnail
ewin troed toenail
Old Cornish euuin = fingernail
Cornish (Kernewek) ewyn = claw, fingernail, talon, toenail; clove (of garlic)
Old Breton eguin = fingernail
Middle Breton euin = fingernail
Breton (Brezhoneg) ivin [ˈboːs] = fingernail, tab

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃nṓgʰs ((finger/toe) nail) [source].

30: Shiny

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis

Fingers and Toes

Words for fingers and toes in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *makro = finger
Old Irish (Goídelc) mér [mʲeːr] = finger, digit, toe
Irish (Gaeilge) méar [mʲeːɾˠ] = finger, digit, toe, leg (of crustaceans, mollusks, etc), arm (of a cuttle fish)
an mhéar thosaigh/cholbha = the forefinger, index finger
an mhéar fhada/láir/mheáin = (the) middle finger
méar an fháinne = ring finger
an mhéar bheag / lúidín / lúideog = (the) little finger
méar coise = toe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meur [miar] = finger, digit, branch (of an organisation/family), key (in music), point (of an antler), knot (in wood)
meur-meomhair = forefinger, index finger
meur-meadhain / (am) meur fada / (am) meur meadhanach = middle finger
màthair na lùdaige / mac an aba / am madadh fada = ring finger
meur beag an airgid / plaoisgeag = little finger
Manx (Gaelg) mair = finger, digit, prong, ray, (piano) key, hand (of clock), tributary (of river)
corrag / corvair = the forefinger, index finger
mair vooar = the middle finger
mair ny fainey = ring finger
mair veg = the little finger
mair chass / mair choshey = toe
mair choshey veg / mair veg ny coshey = little toe

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *mh₂ḱros (lean, meager), which is also the root of the English word meagre/meager, via Old French and Latin [source].

Proto-Celtic *bissī / *bistis = finger
Old Irish (Goídelc) biss = icicle
Welsh (Cymraeg) bys [bɨːs / biːs] = finger (of hand/glove), toe; medium, agency; hand (of clock); latch
bys bawd = thumb
bys blaen = forefinger, index finger
bys y cogwrn = middle finger (“knuckle finger”)
bys y gyfaredd = ring finger
bys bach = little finger, ear-finger; minute-hand
Old Cornish bis/bes = finger
Cornish (Kernewek) bys/bes = finger, digit
bys bras = thumb
bys rag = index finger
bys kres = middle finger
bys bysow = ring finger
bys byghan / bes bian = little finger
Breton (Brezhoneg) biz = finger, hand (of clock), tooth (of tool), leg (of anchor), tentacle, tendril
biz-meud = thumb
biz-yod = index finger
biz bras = middle finger
biz-gwalenn / biz bizou = ring finger
biz bihan / skouarnel = little finger

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷist- (twig, finger). The French word bijou (a piece of jewellry), comes from the same root, via the Breton bizoù (ring), from biz (finger). [source]

Proto-Celtic *māto = finger
Welsh (Cymraeg) bawd = thumb, big toe; claw (of crab), hoof
bawd troed = big toe
Cornish (Kernewek) meus = thumb
Breton (Brezhoneg) meud [ˈmøːt] = thumb

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mē-.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ordu = thumb, big toe
Irish (Gaeilge) ordóg [ˈəuɾˠd̪ˠoːɡ] = thumb, big toe, claw, pinces, bit, piece, fragment
ordóg coise = big toe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrdag [ɔːr̪ˠdag] = thumb, big toe
òrdag-coise / òrdag-mhór = big toe
òrdag-làimhe = thumb
òrdag bheag an airgid = little toe, little finger
Manx (Gaelg) ordaag = thumb
ordaag chass / ordaag choshey / ordaag vooar = big toe

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish ord/ordd (hammer, piece, fragment, stub), from the Proto-Celtic *ordos (hammer).

Irish (Gaeilge) ladhar [lˠaiɾˠ] = space between toes or fingers, toe, claw, prong, (clawed) hand
ladhar mhór = big toe
ladhar bheag = little toe
laidhricín = little toe, little finger
lúidín / lúideog = little finger, little toe
lúidín coise = little toe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ladhar [l̪ˠɤ.ər] = hoof, prong, toe, claw (of lobster)
ladhrag [l̪ˠɤːrag] = toe, prong, hoof
an ladhar mór = big toe
lùdag / lùdag bheag / lùdag dhubh na catha [l̪ˠuːdag] = little finger, hinge

Etymology: unknown

Laugh

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis

Wagons & Carts

Words for wagons, carts, cars and related things in Celtic languages:

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Proto-Celtic *karros = wagon
Gaulish *karros = wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) carr = cart, wagon
Irish (Gaeilge) carr [kɑːɾˠ / kæːɾˠ] = car
carraeireacht = carting, carriage, haulage
carrán = small cart
carrbhealach = carriageway
carrchlós = car park
otharcharr = ambulance
carr sleamhnáin = sledge
carr róchain = swing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) càr [kar] = car, cart, raft
Manx (Gaelg) carr = car, cab, van
carr laadee = lorry, wagon
carr oanluchkee = = hearse
carr surranse = ambulance
Proto-Brythonic *karr [ˈkar͈] = wagon, cart, load
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) car, kar, karr = wagon, cart
Welsh (Cymraeg) car [kar] = vehicle, car, sled, dray; rack, stand
car a cheffyl = horse-drawn carriage
car caws = cheese rack
car cerdded = go-cart, child’s cart
car trol = cart, wagon
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carios = cart, carriage
Cornish (Kernewek) karr [karː / kær] = car
karr bonk = dodgem
karr ergh = snowmobile
karr klavji = ambulance
karr kreslu = police car
karr slynk = sleigh
karr stret = tram
karr tan = motor-car
kerrik = cart, carriage, buggy
kerrik flogh = baby carriage
Old Breton carr = cart
Middle Breton karr = cart, car, coach, carriage
Breton (Brezhoneg) karr = car, coach, carriage, trailer, vehicle
karr-ar-argad = tank
karr-a-dan = automobile, locomotive
karr-ar-marv = hearse
karr-chalbotat = lorry, truck

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥sós (vehicle), from *ḱers- (to run) [source].

The Gaulish word *karros was borrowed into Latin as carrus (wagon, cart, cartload), which became carro (wagon, cart, van, lorry, truck) in Italian; carro (cart, car, bus) in Spanish; car (bus, coach) in French; car, carriage and chariot in English; and similar words in other languages [source].

Words from the same PIE root include horse in English, hors (mare, female foal, frivolous woman) in Norwegian (Nynorsk), hross (horse) in Icelandic, and currus (chariot, car, wagon) in Latin [source].

Proto-Celtic *karbantos = (war) chariot, wagon
Gaulish *karbanton, carbantos = chariot, wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) carpat [ˈkarbad] = chariot
cairptech = chariot owner, chariot-fighter
Irish (Gaeilge) carbad [ˈkaɾˠəbˠəd̪ˠ] = chariot
carbadóir = charioteer
fo-charbad = undercarriage
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carbad [karabad] = chariot, coach, carriage, wagon, vehicle, bier, jaw(bone)
carbadach = abounding in chariots, coaches, etc
carbadachd = (act of) driving a chariot
carbadair = charioteer, cab driver, coachman, teamster
carbad-eich = horse carriage
carbad-eiridinn = ambulance
carbad-fànais = spacecraft
carbad-mharbh = hearse
carbad-smàlaidh = fire engine
carbad-smùide = steam locomotive
carbad-suain = sleeping coach
Manx (Gaelg) carbyd = bus, coach, vehicle, bier, hearse
carbyd bee = dining car, restaurant car
carbyd clienney = pram, baby carriage
carbyd-lheeys = ambulance
carbyd-mooghee = fire engine
Proto-Brythonic *karr [ˈkar͈] = wagon, cart, load
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerbyt = wagon, cart
Welsh (Cymraeg) cerbyd [ˈkɛrbɨ̞d / ˈkɛrbɪd] = car, carriage, chariot, wagon, coach; clumsy fellow, bungler
cerbyd agored = open carriage, landau
cerbyd cyflog = hackney-carriage, stage-coach
cerbyd rhyfel = war chariot
cerbydan = small carriage, chaise, gig, cab
cerbydol = vehicular
cerbydwr = wagoner, coachman, charioteer
Old Cornish (Cernewec) cerpit = chariot, wagon
Old Breton cerpit = chariot, wagon
Breton (Brezhoneg) karbed = vehicle
karbed-tan = motor vehicle
karr tredan = electric vehicle

Etymology: possibly related to the Proto-Celtic word *korbos (wagon, basket) [source]. The Brytonic words were borrowed from Old Irish [source].

The Gaulish word carbantos was borrowed into Latin as carpentum (carriage, chariot, wagon, cart), which became charpente (framework, structure) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *wegnos = wagon, cart
*wegnyā = wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) fén [fʲeːn] = wagon, cart
Irish (Gaeilge) féan [fʲeːnˠ] = wagon, wain, cart
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feun [fian] = cart, wain, chariot
feunair = waggoner
feun-cogaidh = war chariot
feun-mòine = peat cart
Manx (Gaelg) fainagh = carriage, chariot, coach
fainagh cabbil = horsedrawn coach
fainagh-bee = restaurant car
Proto-Brythonic *gweɨn = wagon, cart

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *weǵʰ- (to go, transport) [source]. English words from same PIE root include wagon, weigh, way wain (a four-wheeled cart for hauling loads, usually pulled by horses or oxen), vehicle and vector [source].

There appear to be no descendents of the Proto-Brytonic word *gweɨn in the Brythonic languages, but the Welsh word certwain (cart, wagon, wain) is indirectly related. It comes from the Old English crætwǽn (chariot, wain – lit.”cart-wain”) [source], from cræt / ceart (cart, wagon, chariot), from the PIE *krattijô (basket) [source], and wæġn (wagon, carriage) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Languages and Tongues

Today we’re looking at the words for language and tongue and related things in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *tangʷāss, tangʷāt = tongue
Old Irish (Goídelc) tengae [ˈtʲeŋɡe] = tongue, language
Irish (Gaeilge) teanga [ˈtʲaŋə / ˈtʲaŋɡə] = tongue, language
teangach = tongued, lingual, wordy, loquacious
teangachruthach = tongue-shaped, linguiform
teangaigh = to tongue (in music)
teangaire = interpreter
teangeolaí = linguist, expert in linguistics
teangeolaíocht = linguistics
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teanga [tʲɛŋgə] = tongue, speech, spit (of land)
teangan = tongue
teangaidh = tongue, speech
teangach = abounding in tongues, loquacious, langued (in hearldry)
teangair = linguist, interpreter, orator, philologist
Manx (Gaelg) çhengey [ˈtʃɛnʲə] = bell-clapper, clasp, feather, strap-hinge; catch (of buckle); tongue; language, speech; utterance
çhengeyr çhyndaader = interpreter
çhengeyder = linguist
çhengoaylleeaght = linguistics
çhengey ny mayrey = mother tongue
daa-hengagh = bilingual
yl-çhengagh = polyglot
Proto-Brytonic *tau̯āt, *tavọd = tongue
Old Welsh tauawt = tongue, language
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tauaut = tongue, language
Welsh (Cymraeg) tafod [ˈtavɔd / ˈtaːvɔd] = tongue, faculty of speech, power of expression; language, speech, dialect, accent
tafod aur = pleasant or witty talk, eloquence (“gold tongue”)
tafod bach = uvula
tafod cloch = clapper (of bell)
tafodiaeth = language, vernacular or native language, dialect, pronunciation, articulation, verbal expression
tafodi = to scold, rebuke, chide, berate, cheek, abuse (verbally), tongue (in music)
tafodiad = a scolding or berating, pronunciation
tafodwr = speaker, talker
Old Cornish tauot = language, tongue
Middle Cornish tawes = language, tongue
Cornish (Kernewek) taves = language, tongue
tavosa = to scold, tell off
tavosek = talkative, verbose
tavoseth = idiom, jargon
Old Breton tavod = tongue
Middle Breton teaut, teut = tongue
Breton (Brezhoneg) teod [ˈtɛwt] = tongue
teodel = oral
teodek = talkative, gossipy
teodyezh = speech, dialect, way of speaking
teodyezhañ = to speak
teodyezher = speaker

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *dn̥ǵʰwéh₂s (tongue) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include: tongue and language in English, lingua (tongue, language) in Italian, язик [jɐˈzɪk] (tongue) in Ukrainian, and jazyk (tongue, language) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Proto-Celtic *yaxtī = language
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) icht = race, people, tribe; province, district
Proto-Brythonic *jeiθ, *i̯ekti = tongue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ieith, yeith = language, nation, race
Welsh (Cymraeg) iaith [jai̯θ] = language, tongue; people, nation, race, tribe
ieithiadur = grammar
ieithio = to pronounce, proclaim, express
ieithog = having language or several languages, multilingual, polyglot
ieithydd = one who has thorough knowledge or command of a language or languages, linguist, grammarian, philologist, interpreter, speark, poet
ieithyddiaeth = linguistics, philology, grammar
ieithgi = one who is interested in the study of language (rather than of literature), philologist
Cornish (Kernewek) yeth [eːθ / jeːθ] = tongue, language
yeth le-usys = minority language
yethador = grammar
yethel = linguistic
yethonieth = linguistics
yethor, yethores = linguist
Middle Breton yez = language
Breton (Brezhoneg) yezh [ˈjeːs] = language
yezhadur = grammar
yezhadurel = grammatical
yezhel = linguistic
yezher = speaker
unyezher = unilingual
divyezher = bilingual
liesyezher = polyglot

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *yek- (to utter). It is uncertain if the Middle Irish word icht is cognate with the Brythonic words [source].

Words from the same PIE root include: joke and Yule in English, jul (Yule, Christmas) in Danish and Norwegian, juego (play, game, sport) in Spanish, and joc (game, play, dance) in Romanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) bélrae [ˈbʲeːl͈re] = language, speech
bélrae Féne = legal language
bélrae na filed = acrane vocabulary, poetic language
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bérla(e) = speech, language
Irish (Gaeilge) béarla = speech (archaic)
béarlachas = Anglicism
béarlagair = jargon
béarlamhail = having command of language, fluent (archaic)
Béarla [ˈbʲeːɾˠl̪ˠə] = English (language)
Béarlóir = English speaker
Béarlóireacht = (act of) speaking English
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Beurla [bjɤːr̪ˠl̪ˠə] = English (language)
Beurlachas = Anglicism
Beurla Leathann = Broad Scots
Manx (Gaelg) Baarle [bɛːᵈl] = English (language)
Baarlagh = of or pertaining to the English language
Baarlaghys = Anglicism
Baarleyr = English-speaker, anglophone
Baarle Albinagh = Scots, Lallans
Baarle Ghaelagh, Baarle Vanninagh = Anglo-Manx (language)
Baarle Heenagh = pidgin
Baarle chiart = the Queen’s English

Etymology: from the Old Irish bél (mouth) and -ra (collective suffix) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Elbows

Words for elbow in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *olīnā = elbow, angle
Old Irish (Goídelc) uilen = elbow, forearm; angle, corner
Irish (Gaeilge) uillinn = elbow, angle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uileann [ulən̪ˠ] = elbow, angle
Manx (Gaelg) uillin = elbow, elbow joint, crook, angle, corner, nudge
Welsh (Cymraeg) elin [ˈɛlɪn / ˈeːlɪn] = elbow, forearm; angle, bend
Cornish (Kernewek) elin [‘ɛlɪn] = elbow, angle
Breton (Brezhoneg) ilin = elbow, bend

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *Heh₃l- (to bend). Cognate with the Latin ulna (elbow, arm), and the English ulna (one of the bones in the forearm) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau