Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Foreheads

Today we’re looking at words for foreheads, brows and related things in Celtic languages.

Big forehead!

Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, forehead, flat surface, facet, end
éadanán = headstall
éadanchlár = fascia
in éadan = against, opposed to
as éadan = one by one, in (rapid) succession, indiscriminately
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial
aodannan = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-fuadain = mask
dà-aodannach = two-faced, double-skinned (in architecture)
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = apron (of a dam), rockface, countenance, dial, disc, facade, face, facet, facial, fascia, front, frontage
far-eddin = mask
eddin harroo = sour-faced

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (forehead) [source].

Words from the same root include end, answer and antimony in English, and ante (before, earlier, instead of) in Italian [source].

Proto-Celtic *talu = front, forehead
Gaulish *talu = ?
Celtiberian talukokum = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) tul, taul, tel, til = protruberance, projecting part, swelling, boss of a shield
Irish (Gaeilge) tul = protuberance, prominence, front, forehead
tulach = low hill, hillock, mound
tulán = protuberance, mound, knoll, hummock
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tul [tul̪ˠ] = face
Manx (Gaelg) tool = ?
tool-vuilley = forehand stroke
Proto-Brythonic *tal
Old Welsh tal = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tal = end
Welsh (Cymraeg) tâl [taːl] = end (of an object), gable end, extremity, top, side, edge, rampart, front, face (of shield), forehead, brow, head
tâl bainc, talbainc = end of bench, place of honour, best kind, first class
ar dâl = at the top, end, by the side, near
talaith = state, province, district, area, principality
talar = headland (of ploughed field), boundary
talaraf, talaru = to reach the headland, set a boundary
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tal = the front, forehead, end, top
Cornish (Kernewek) tal = brow, forehead, front, temple
talar = headland
talgamma = to frown
plegya tal = to frown, knit one’s brows
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tal = forehead
taleg = sb with a big forehead
Breton (Brezhoneg) tal = face, forehead

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *telh₂- (ground, bottom), or from *teHlu- [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Heels

Words for heel and related words in Celtic languages.

Sock heels

Proto-Celtic *stātlā / *stādlā = heel
Old Irish (Goídelc) sál [saːl] = heel
Irish (Gaeilge) sáil [sˠɑːlʲ/sˠæːlʲ] = heel
sáilchaite = down at heel
sála arda = high heels
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sàil [saːl] = heel, boot, trunk (of car)
sàileach [saːləx] = heel-like, having heels, heeled
sàil bhiorach = high heel
gu mo shàil = (come to) heel! (dog command)
Manx (Gaelg) saayl = heel, tree, tip, sale, skid
saayltrey = to heel in, trampling, treading
saayltraghey = to tread on with heel
saayl-cheaut = down at heel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) saudel = heel
oet = time, period
Welsh (Cymraeg) sawdl [sau̯dl/ˈsau̯dʊl] = heel
soldlaf, sodli, sodlu, sodlo = to heel (a shoe or sock), trip (sb) up, take to one’s heels, run (away), go
sodliad = a kick with the heel, tripping
sodlog = (high-)heeled
sodlwr, sawdlwr = heeler (of shoes), shadower, one who follows at the heels
sodlau uchel = high heels
disodli = to displace, supplant
Cornish (Kernewek) seudhel [ˈsœðɛl / ˈzɛðɐl] = heel
seudhelyow ughel = high heels
Middle Breton (Brezonec) seuzl = heel
Breton (Brezhoneg) seul = heel
seulad = substrate
seulañ = to heel
seulenn = heel pad
seuler = hooker
seul an dorn = heel of the hand
seul pik = stiletto heel
seulioù uhel = high heels

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *stéh₂tleh₂ / *stéh₂dʰleh₂ (that which is used for standing), from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bundos = foot, hoof, sole
Old Irish (Goídelc) bonn = foot, hoof, sole
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bonn = sole of the foot, foot, hoof
Irish (Gaeilge) bonn [bˠoun̪ˠ/bˠuːn̪ˠ/bˠʌn̪ˠ] = sole (of foot), footing, foothold, base, foundation, footmark, spoor, tyre, backing
bonnaigh = to walk, trot
bonnaire = walker, trotter, footman, foot messenger
bonnaireacht = walking, trotting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bonn [bɔun̪ˠ] = base, bottom, foundation, lowest, part, sole (of a shore), foot (of a hill)
bonntachadh [bɔun̪ˠdəxəɣ] = (act of) basing, establishing, consolidating, base, foundation, farmstead, homestead
bonntaichte [bɔun̪ˠdɪçdʲə] = based, established, consolidated
Manx (Gaelg) boyn = heel, walker, foot of sail, tread of shoe, basement, medal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰudʰmḗn (bottom), from *dʰewbʰ-/*dʰubʰ- (deep) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include fund in English; fondo (bottom, fund, background); and fond (back, bottom, fund, foundation) in French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Wildflower meadow at Mount Stewart

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blood

Words for blood and related things in Celtic languages.

Blood

Proto-Celtic *wolis, *weli- = blood
Old Irish (Goídelc) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) fuil [fˠɪlʲ / fˠɨ̞lʲ] = blood
fuilaistriú = blood transfusion
fuilbheartach = sanguinary, bloody-minded
fuilchill = blood cell
fuilchíocrach = bloodthirsty
fuilchoirpín = blood corpuscle
fuildoirteadh = bloodshed
fuiligh, cuir fola = to bleed
cú fola = bloodhound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuil [ful] = blood, family, tribe, kindred
fuileachdach = bloody, bloodthirsty
fuil-mìos = menstruation, period
brùthadh-fala = blood pressure
cion-fala = anæmia
iomlaid fala = blood transfusion
marag-fhala = black pudding
ruith-fala = haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, piles
Manx (Gaelg) fuill [fuɪlʲ] = blood, breeding, kindred
fuill-vreck = bloodstained
coo folley = bloodhound
lhiggey fuill, roie folley = to bleed
mooinjer folley = blood relation
ym-roie folley = hemophilia
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gweli, gwely, gueli = wound, cut, gash
Welsh (Cymraeg) gweli [ˈɡwɛli] = (bleeding) wound, cut, gash, ulcer, sore
gweli angheuol mortal wound
gwelïaf, gwelïo = to wound, injure, hurt, exulcerate; to fester
gwelïog = fulls of wounds, sores, ulcers, wounded, bruised
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goly = wound, mark, hurt
guli = wound
Cornish (Kernewek) goli = injury, wound
goli bew/byw = ulcer
golia = to wound
goliesiges = casualty
Middle Breton gouli, goulyow = wound, injury
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouli = wound, injury

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to wound, strike) [source]. Words from the same root include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla [source].

Proto-Celtic *krū- = blood
*krowos = blood
*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crú = gore, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) cró [kɾˠoː / kɾˠɔː] = blood, gore
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crò [krɔː] = blood, gore, blood oath
crò-dhearg = crimson
Proto-Brythonic *krow = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crev, creu = blood
Welsh (Cymraeg) crau [kraɨ̯ /krai̯] = blood, gore, carnage, bloody
creulon = bloody, cruel, fierce, brutal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crow = gore, blood, death
Cornish (Kernewek) krow = bloodshed, gore

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kréwh₂s (blood) [source]. English words from the same root include crude and raw [source].

Proto-Celtic *wayos = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guayt, guaed, gwaet = blood. gore, juice, sap
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwaed [ˈɡwaːɨ̯d /ˈɡwai̯d] = blood. gore, juice, sap
gwaedlyf haemorrhage
gwaedlyd = bloody, sanguinary
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedogen = black pudding
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedu = to bleed
Old Cornish guit = blood
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gois, goys, goos, gos = blood
gosys = bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) goos [ˈɡuːz] = blood, bloodline
devera goos = to bleed, lose blood
gwaskedh goos = blood pressure
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwad [ˈɡwaːt] = blood, essence
gwadañ = to bleed
gwadegenn = black pudding, blood sausage
gwadgi = bloodhound
gwadorged = incest

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Corners

Today we’re looking at the words for corners, backs and related things in Celtic languages.

corner

Proto-Celtic *kūlos = corner
Old Irish (Goídelc) cúl [kuːl] = back, rear
iarcúl = remote place
Irish (Gaeilge) cúl [kuːlˠ] = back, reserve, support, rear, reverse (of coin), counter
cúlaí = back (in rugby, etc)
cúlaigh = to back, move back, reverse, retreat
cúláire = recess, nook, back of throat
cúlaistín = backer, henchman
cúlsráid = back street
iargcúil = remote corner, backward, out-of-the-way place, isolated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cùl [kuːl̪ˠ] = back, hind part, tress, shadow
cùl-fraon = background
cùl-chainnt = backbiting, slander, defamation, calumny
cùl-taic = patron, supporter, patronage, support, (military) reserves
cùl-shràid = back street
Manx (Gaelg) cooyl = back, behind, astern, reverse
cooyl-charrey = backer
cooyl-eaishtagh = to eavesdrop
cooyl-pholt(al) = backfire
cooyl-raad = back street
Proto-Brythonic *kil = corner, angle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kil = corner, angle
Welsh (Cymraeg) cil [kiːl] = corner, angle, back, nape of the neck, retreat, flight, recess, covert, nook, eclipse, wane
cilaidd = retiring, elusive, furtive
cilio = to retreat, withdraw, depart, recede, retire, pass away
Old Cornish chil = back
Cornish (Kernewek) kil = back, nape of the neck, book, reverse
kilans = recession
kilden = retreat
kildenna / kildedna = to back off, withdraw
kildennans / kildednans = withdrawal
Breton (Brezhoneg) kil = back, reverse, lapel, neck, heel
kiladenn = reverse
kilañ = to return
kilober = feedback
kilseller = retrospective

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewH-lo-, from *(s)kewH- (to cover, conceal, hide). The English words such as hide, hose, house and sky come from the same PIE root [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wings

Today we’re looking at the words for wings and related things in Celtic languages.

Wings

Proto-Celtic *ɸeto/*feto- = to fly
*fatar/*fatanos/*fetnos = wing, bird
Old Irish (Goídelc) ette [ˈetʲe] = wing, pinion, fin, feather, plume
ettech/ittech = winged, finned, flying, fluttering
Irish (Gaeilge) eite [ˈɛtʲə] = wing, pinion, wing feather, fin, vane
eiteach = winged, pennate, plumed, feathered, finned
eiteog = wing, (little) wing feather, (little) fin, wing-like
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ite [içdʲə] = feather, plume, fin, overlap, blade
iteach [ihdʲəx] = feathery, feathered, finned
itealach = winged, flying, hovering, fluttering
Manx (Gaelg) fedjag [ˈfaiaɡ] = feather, plume, quill, pinion
fedjagagh = pinnate, feathery
Proto-Brythonic *atanī = wing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) adain = wing, fin
Welsh (Cymraeg) adain [ˈadai̯n/ˈadɛn/ˈaːdɛn] = wing, fin, arm, sleeve
adeiniog = winged
Old Cornish aden = leaf of a book
Old Breton attanoc = wing

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *peth₂- (to fly, to spread out) [source]. The English words such as feather, petal, pinion and helicopter come from the same PIE root [source].

Words for birds and larks come from the same Proto-Celtic roots.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ascall = armpit
Irish (Gaeilge) ascaill [ˈasˠkəl̠ʲ/ˈasˠkəl̪ˠ] = armpit, recess, avenue, axil
asclán = something carried under arm, armful, gusset
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) asgall [asgəl̪ˠ] = breast, bosom, armpit
Manx (Gaelg) aghlish = axil, armful, armpit
Proto-Brythonic *askell = wing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) asgell, askell = wing
Welsh (Cymraeg) asgell [ˈasɡaɬ / ˈaskaɬ] = wing, feather, fin, flank, side
asgellog = winged, feathered, flying, finned, scaly, barbed
asgellwr = winger, wing-forward (in sports)
asgellu = to feather (an arrow), put wings on, grow wings, shelter/protect (with wings)
Old Cornish ascall = wing
Cornish (Kernewek) askel = wing
Breton (Brezhoneg) askell [ˈas.kɛl] = wing, fin, flipper

Etymology: from the Latin ascella (wing), from axilla (little wing, axilla, armpit), a diminutive of āla (wing, armpit, shoulder blade) from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eḱs- (axis) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Knees

Here are some words for knee, and related words, in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *glūnos = knee
Old Irish (Goídelc) glún [ɡluːn] = knee
Irish (Gaeilge) glúin [ɡl̪ˠuːnʲ / ɡlˠuːnʲ] = knee, generation, step (in a series), node
caipín glúine, gealacán glúine = kneecap, patella
bean ghlúine = midwife
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) glùin [ɡl̪ˠuːnʲ] = knee, generation, lap, joint (of boat)
copan na glùine / cnap-glùine / falman = kneecap, patella
lùbadh-glùin = curtsey
bean-ghlùine = midwife
Manx (Gaelg) glioon [ɡlʲuːnʲ] = joint, crooked timber, knee
rollian ny gliooney = kneecap, patella
moddey glioon = lap dog, toy dog
glioon-lhoobey = genuflect, genuflection
Proto-Brythonic *glin = knee
Welsh (Cymraeg) glin [ɡliːn], pen (g)lin [pɛnˈ(ɡ)liːn] = knee
clwyd y glin = kneecap, patella
llinach = lineage, genealogy, pedigree, ancestry, stock, kindred, offspring, succession, generation
camu glin = to curtsey
Cornish (Kernewek) glin [ˈɡliːn] = knee
padell bedn glin / penn glin = kneecap, patella
Breton (Brezhoneg) glin [ˈɡliːn] = knee
koubloù = kneecap, patella

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵónu (knee).

From the Proto-Celtic word *glūnos we also get the Proto-Celtic word *genwā ((river) bend), which is the root of the names Geneva, Genoa.

The word knee comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English kne, from the Old English cnēow, from the Proto-West Germanic *kneu, from the Proto-Germanic *knewą.

The word genuflect (to bend the knee) also comes from the same PIE root, via the Latin genū (knee) and flectō (to bend) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis

Nails, Claws and Talons

Words for nails in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *angʷīnā = (finger/toe) nail
Old Irish (Goídelc) ingen [ˈiŋʲɡʲen] = (finger/toe) nail
Irish (Gaeilge) ionga [ˈɔŋə] = nail, claw, talon; hoof; clove (of garlic); quid (of tabacco)
ionga méire finger nail
ionga ordóige = thumbnail
ionga coise / ionga laidhre toenail
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ionga [iŋgə] = (finger) nail, toenail, claw, talon, gusset
Manx (Gaelg) ingin [ˈiŋən] = claw, nail, talon, hoof; clove (of garlic)
ingin ordaag = thumbnail
ingin choshey toenail
Proto-Brythonic *ėɣwin = nail
Old Welsh eguin = nail
Middle Welsh (Kyrmraec) ewin = nail
Welsh (Cymraeg) ewin [ˈɛu̯.ɪn] = nail of a finger or toe; claw or talon (of bird), claw (of carnivorous beast); division of a cloven hoof; worthless remnant; power of grip; cog of a wheel; jutting edge of rock; clove (of garlic), small piece, particle
ewin bawd thumbnail
ewin troed toenail
Old Cornish euuin = fingernail
Cornish (Kernewek) ewyn = claw, fingernail, talon, toenail; clove (of garlic)
Old Breton eguin = fingernail
Middle Breton euin = fingernail
Breton (Brezhoneg) ivin [ˈboːs] = fingernail, tab

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃nṓgʰs ((finger/toe) nail) [source].

30: Shiny

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis