Words for food and related things in Celtic languages.

Welsh Rarebit

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *bētom = food
Old Irish (Goídelc) bíad [bʲiːa̯ð] = food
banbíad = dairy products
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) biad, bíad = food,
bánbiad = dairy products
berbiad = to boil, cook, melt, dissolve
bíadamail = nourishing, nutritive
bíadmar = abounding in food
Irish (Gaeilge) bia [bʲiə] = food, substance
biachlár = menu
biathaigh = to feed, shower
bia-eolaí = dietician
biamhar = abounding in food
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) biadh [biəɣ] = food, fare, repast, viand, victual, feed, a meal
biadhachadh = (act of) feeding, nourishing, baiting
biadhchar = fruitful, productive, wholesome, nutritious
biadhmhor = nutritious
biadhta = fed, nourished, baited
biadhtach = feeder, grazer, hospitable person, supplier, provider, glutton
biadhtachd = hospitality
Manx (Gaelg) bee [biː] = diet, feed, food, nourishment, provisions
beiyhaghey = feeding
beaghee = nutritious
beaghit = fed, maintained
beaghey = to feed, nourish, nuture, maintain; food, nutrition, sustenance
Proto-Brythonic *buɨd [ˈbuɨ̯d] = food
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bvid, bwyt, bwyd = food
bwydo, bwyda = to feed, nourish
bwydlawn = satiated, full of food
Welsh (Cymraeg) bwyd [buːɨ̯d / bʊi̯d] = food, nourishment, meat, victuals, provisions
bwydaf, bwydo, bwyda = to feed, nourish
bwydfa = eating-house, restauarant, hotel, inn
bwydlon, bwydlon = satiated, full of food
bwydwr = feeder, provider
Old Cornish buit = food
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) buit, boys, bôs = meat, food
Cornish (Kernewek) boos [ˈbɔːz] = food, meal, fare
boos bestes = feed, fodder
bosa = to feed
bosti = restaurant
Middle Breton boet, boed, bouet = food
boedec, boëdecq = fleshy, soft, pulpy, fodder
Breton (Brezhoneg) boued = food, eat, edible, bait, flesh (of fish), marrow, pulp, substance
bouetaj = (animal) feed, fodder
bouedañ = to feed, supply
bouedek = fleshy, soft, pulpy, fodder

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷeyh₃tom, from *gʷeyh₃- (to live) [source].

Words from the same roots include biology, biology, hygiene, quick, vital and zoo in English [source], and words for alive and living and life in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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