Mixed & Confused

In this post we’re getting mixed up and confused about words for drunk and related things in Celtic languages.

Drunk cat 1

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *miskos = mixture, confusion
*miskati = to mix, confuse
*kom-miskos = mixture, confusion
*kommiskati = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) mesc [mʲesk] = drunk, intoxicated
mescae [ˈmʲeskɘ] = drunkenness, intoxication
mescaid = to confuse
mesctha = confused, intoxicated
con·mesca [konˈmʲeska] = to mix together
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mesc(c) = drunk, intoxicated, mixed, confused, muddled, confusion
mescae = drunkenness, intoxication, daze, bewilderment, excitment
mescaid = to mix, bewilder, confuse, confound
mesctha = confused, intoxicated, mixed, variegated
con-mesca = to mix together, conmingle, join, unite
Irish (Gaeilge) measc [mʲasˠk] = jumble, confusion, to mix (up), blend, stir
meascadh = (ad)mixture, confusion
meascán = mass, lump, mixture, jumble, muddle
meascthóir = mixer, stirrer
meisce [ˈmʲɛʃcɪ / ˈmʲɪʃcɪ] = drunkenness, intoxication, daze, bewilderment
ar meisce = drunk, intoxicated
meisceoir = drunkard
meisceoireacht = drunkenness, inebriety
meisciúil = intoxicating, drunken, addicted to drinking
cumaisc = to mix together, blend, combine, compound, cohabit
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) measg [mesg] = mix, stir, mingle
am measg [ə mesg] = amongst, among
measgach [mesgəx] = sociable, gregarious, promiscuous
measgachadh [mesgəxəɣ] = mixing, mixure, combining
measgadair = mixer
measgadh [mesgəɣ] = mixing, stirring, mingling, mixture
misg [miʃgʲ] = drunkenness, inebriation, insobriety
air misg = drunk
misgeach [miʃgʲəx] = heady, drunk, intoxicated
misgear [miʃgʲər] = drunkard, tippler
coimeasg [kɔiməsg] = combine, merge, blend, mix
coimeasgadh [kɔməsgəɣ] = combining, combination, merging, merger, blending
Manx (Gaelg) mastey = amid(st), among(st), mingled, within, mixture
mestey = compound, mixture, jumble; to confuse, mix, mingle, mash, shuffle, stir
mestey-vestey = concoction, melee, mix up
meshtey [ˈmeʃtə] = inebriety
er meshtey = drunk, inebriated, intoxicated
meshtallagh = drunk(ard), boozer, inebriate
meshtallaght = promiscuity, drunkenness
meshtallys, meshtelllys, meshtyrys = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
covestey = to mix, mingle, merge
covestit = mixed, mingled, blended
Proto-Brythonic *mɨsk = amid, amidst
*mɨskad [mɨˈsˑkaːd] = to blend, mix, confuse
*kɨm-mɨsk = mixed, confused (?)
*kummɨskad = to mingle, confuse, mix
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mysc = mixing, mixture, confusion, mixed, confused
mysci, mysgi = turmoil, tumult
cymysc, kymysc, kymmysc, kymysg = mixed, mingled, blended, compound, mixture
cymyscu, kemescu, kymysgu, kymyscu = to mix, mixed, blend, compound
cymysced, cymmyscedd = mixture, compound, jumble
ymysg, ym mysc = among, between
Welsh (Cymraeg) mysg [mɨːsk / mɪsk] = mixing, mixture, confusion, mixed, confused, midst
mysgaf, mysgu = to undo, untie, unpick, unravel, disentangle, loosen, mix, mingle, jumble
mysgi = turmoil, tumult
cymysg [ˈkʰəmɨ̞sk / ˈkʰəmɪsk] = mixed, mingled, blended, compound, mixture
cymysgaf, cymysg(u) = to mix, mixed, blend, compound
ymysg = among, between, in the midst of
Old Cornish commisc = mixed
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mysc, mŷsk = midst, middle
cemescys, kemeskis, kemeskys = mixture
cemyscy, kemyskys, cymyscys, kemyskis = to mingle, mix
Cornish (Kernewek) mysk, mesk = midst
myska, meska = to blend, involve, mingle
myskas, myskii = mongrel
kemmysk = mix
kemyska = to mix, jumble, mingle
kemyskans = mixture
kemyskedh = hybrid
kemyskell = mixer (machine)
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mesc = mixture, chaos, disorder
mescaff, meskaff = to mix, blend, stir
quemesq [mɛ(z)w] = mixed, complex, confusion
quemesq(a) = to mix, merge
Breton (Brezhoneg) mesk [mesk] = mixture, chaos, disorder
meskaj [ˈmes.kaʃ] = mixure
meskañ [ˈmeskã] = to mix, blend, stir
meskata [ˈmeskat:a] = mixer
kemmesk [mɛ(z)w] = mixed, complex, confusion
kemmeskad = composite
kemmeskañ = to mix, merge

Etymology: from PIE *miḱsḱéti (to mix), from *meyḱ- (to mix) [source].

Words from the same roots include mash, meddle, medley, melee, miscellaneous, mix and promiscuous in English, mêler (to mix, meddle in, get mixed up in, shuffle) in French, mischen (to mix, shuffle) in German, and miesić (to knead) in Polish [source].

For words for drunk and related things in Brythonic languages, see the Celtiadur post Honey Wine.

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Honey Wine

Words for mead, wine and related things in Celtic languages.

mead!

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *medu = mead, wine, alcoholic drink
*medwos = drunk
Celtiberian Mezu-kenos = personal name “mead-born”
Gaulish medu = mead
Medu-genos = personal name “mead-born”
Primitive Irish medu = mead
Primitive Irish *ᚋᚓᚇᚒ (*medu) = mead
ᚋᚓᚇᚇᚑᚌᚓᚅᚔ (meddogeni) = personal name “mead-born”
ᚋᚓᚇᚃᚃᚔ (medvvi) = personal name “meady”
Old Irish (Goídelc) mid [mʲið] = mead
Midgen = personal name “mead-born”
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mid, midh = mead
medb = strong, intoxicating (liquor)
Irish (Gaeilge) meá [mʲæh / mʲa(h)] = mead
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meadh [mjɤɣ] = mead
meadhach = fuddled with mead, like mead, abounding in mead
Manx (Gaelg) meddagh = mead-maker
Proto-Brythonic *með [mɛːð] = mead
Old Welsh (Kembraec) med = mead
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) met, med = mead
meddawt, meddavt, meddwdod = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
meddfaeth, metveith, meduaeth, medweith = nourished on mead, having feastedon mead, mead-feast
medgell, meddgell = mead-cellar, drink-cellar
met kirn, medgyrn, metgyrn, meddgyrn = mead-horn, drinking-horn
metv, medw, meddw = drunk
medwyt, medwi, meddwi [ˈmɛðwi] = to get drunk
Welsh (Cymraeg) medd [meːð] = mead
meddaidd = like mead, sweet
medd-dod, meddwdod = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
meddfaeth = luxurious, soft, gentle, delicate, pampered, effeminate
meddw [ˈmɛðu] = drunk, intoxicated, fuddled, tipsy
meddwi [ˈmɛðwi] = to be(come) drunk or tipsy, to be intoxicated or inebriated, to make drunky
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) medh, medu, meddou = mead
medhas = drunkenness, intoxication
medho = drunken, intoxicated
Cornish (Kernewek) medh = mead, hydromel
medhow = drunk, intoxicated
medhwenep = drunkenness, intoxication
medhwi = to intoxicate, make drunk
medhwynsi = drunkenness
Old Breton (Brethonoc) medot = mead
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mez = mead
Breton (Brezhoneg) mez [meː(s)] = mead
mezv [mɛ(z)w] = drunk, wobbly (furniture)
mezventi = alcoholism
mezvier = drunkard
mezvierezh = drunkenness
mezviñ [ˈmɛ(z)vĩ] = to get drunk
mezvus [ˈmɛ(z)vys] = intoxicating, heady

Etymology: from PIE *médʰu (honey, honey wine, mead), possibly related to Proto-Semitic *mataḳ- (sweet) [source].

Words from the same roots include mead in English, mead in English, mjöður (mead) in Icelandic, медведь [mʲɪdˈvʲetʲ] (bear, large clumsy person, lit. “honey eater”) in Russian, mesi (nectar) in Finnish, and possibly (mì / mitsu – honey) in Chinese and Japanese and (mil – beeswax, honey) in Korean [source].

The Irish name Méabh (Maeve) also comes from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *wīnom = wine
Leptonic 𐌖𐌉𐌍𐌏𐌌 (uinom) = wine
Old Irish (Goídelc) fín = wine
fín acat = vinegar
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fín = wine
fínán = cheap wine
fínda = pertaining to wine
fínmar = having abundance of wine
fíntan = vineyard
Irish (Gaeilge) fíon [fʲiːn̪ˠ] = wine
fíonchaor = grape
fíoncheannaí = wine merchant, vintner
fíonda = vinous, pertaining to wine
fíondaite = wine-coloured
fíonghort [ˈfʲiːnˠˌɣɔɾˠtˠ] = vineyard
fíonmhar = rich in wine, vinous
fíonsaothrú = viticulture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fìon [fiən] = wine
fìon-chaor [fiən xɯːr] = grape
fìon-chrann = grapevine
fìon-fhoghar = wine harvest, vintage
fìon-geur = vinegar
fìon-lios = vineyard
fìonadair = wine-maker
Manx (Gaelg) feeyn = wine
feeyney = of wine, vinous
feeyneyder = wine-maker, vintner
feeyneydys = viticulture
berrish-feeyney = grape
feeyn geayr = vinegar
fouyr feeyney = vintage
garey feeyney = vineyard
Proto-Brythonic *gwin = wine
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guin = wine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvin, guin, gwin = wine
gwinblas = mansion where wine is dispensed in abundance
gwindeveirn = wine-tavern
gwindy, gwin-dŷ = wine-house, wine-tavern, wine-cellar, banqueting house
guinegyr, gwinegyr = vinegar
guinlann, gwinllan(n) = vineyard, vine
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwin [ɡwiːn] = wine, fermented liquor made from the juice of fruits (apples, elderberries, rhubarb, gooseberries, etc), like wine, pleasant, sweet, fine, excellent
gwinbren = vine
gwindy = wine-house, wine-tavern, wine-cellar, banqueting house
gwinegr = vinegar
gwinllan = vineyard, vine, copse, grove, wood, plantation
gwinwr, gwinydd = vintner, vine-grower, vine-dresser, vineyard owner
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwin, guin = wine
gwinbren, guinbren = vine
Cornish (Kernewek) gwin [ɡwiːn] = wine
gwinbren = vine
gwinlan = vineyard
gwinyer = winemaker
Old Breton (Brethonoc) guin = wine
guiniin = vines
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guin, guyn = wine
guiny, guyni = vines
guynieyer = vineyard
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwin [ɡwĩːn / ɡɥĩːn] = wine
gwinegr [ɡwĩnˈɛk(r)] = vinegar
gwini [ˈɡɥĩːni] = vines
gwinieg [ɡɥĩ.ˈniː.ɛk] = vineyard
gwinier [ɡwĩ.ˈniː.ɛr / ɡɥĩ.ˈniː.ɛr] = winemaker
gwinioniezh [ɡɥĩ.nɔ̃ˈniː.ɛs] = oenology

Etymology: from Latin vīnum (wine, grapes, grapevine), from Proto-Italic *wīnom (wine), from Proto-Indo-European *wóyh₁nom (wine, vine). The Welsh and Cornish words come from Latin via Proto-Celtic, the Breton and Goidelic words were borrowed direct from Latin, and the Leptonic word comes direct from Proto-Italic [source].

Words from the same roots include wine, vine, vinegar and oenology (the scientific study of wines and winemaking) in English, wijn (wine) in Dutch, vino (wine) in Italian, wino (wine) in Polish, and possibly ወይን (wäyn – grape) in Amharic [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Eyebrows

Words for eyebrow, eyelash, eyelid and related things in Celtic languages.

002-365 Nothing But Eyebrows

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *abrant- = eyelid
Old Irish (Goídelc) abra = eyelash
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) abra eyelash, eyelid
fabra = eyelash, eyelid, fringe
Irish (Gaeilge) fabhra, abhra = eyelash, (eye)brow
fabhraí = fringe
fabhraíoch = pertaining to eyelashes, ciliary
fabhrán = cilium
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) abhra [aurə] = eyelid, eyelash
abhrad [aurəd] = eyelid, eyelash
fabhra [faurə] = eyelid, eyelash, fringe
fabhrad [faurəd] = eyelid, eyelash, fringe
Manx (Gaelg) ferroogh = eyelash, eyelid
Proto-Brythonic *abrant = eyelid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrant, amraỽt = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrant [ˈamrant] = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
ar amrant = in the twinkling of an eye, instantly
amrantaf, amrantu = to blink, wink, shut (eyes), doze, slumber sleep, fall asleep
amrantiad = twinkling of an eye, instant
amrantun = nap, sleep
amrantyn = twinkling of an eye, moment, instant, eyelid
Old Cornish abrans = eyebrow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) abrans = eyebrow
Cornish (Kernewek) abrans [ˈabrans] = eyebrow
Middle Breton abrant = eyebrow
abrantec = with large eyebrows
Breton (Brezhoneg) abrant [ˈa.brãnt] = eyebrow
abranteg = finicky, pernickety, haughty, supercilious, punctilious
abrantek = with large eyebrows

Etymology: related to Proto-Celtic *brū- (brow), from PIE *h₃bʰrúHs (eyebrow) [source]. Words from the same roots include brim, brine, brow and front in English, front (forhead) in French, and bryn (brow, edge, crest, ridge) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *malaxs = eyelid
Old Irish (Goídelc) mala = eyebrow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mala = eyebrow
Irish (Gaeilge) mala [ˈmˠɑl̪ˠə] = eyebrow, brow, slope, incline
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mala [mal̪ˠə] = eyebrow, brow
malairneach [mal̪ˠər̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = frowning
malach [mal̪ˠəx] = having / pertaining to eyebrows
Manx (Gaelg) mollee = brow, eyebrow
Middle Breton maluen = eyelid, eyebrow
maluennec = having big eyebrows
Breton (Brezhoneg) malvenn [ˈmal.vɛn] = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow, canopy
malvenneg = ciliated
malvennek = having big eyebrows
malvennin, malvenniñ = to blink

Etymology: from PIE *ml̥Hdʰo- [source]. Words from the same roots include brim, brine, brow and front in English, front (forhead) in French, and bryn (brow, edge, crest, ridge) in Swedish [source].

Old Welsh (Kembraec) ail = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ael = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead, edge, border, hem, side, summit
aeldew = thick-browed
Welsh (Cymraeg) ael [aːɨ̯l / ai̯l] = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead
aeldew = thick-browed
aeldrist = sad-faced
aeldrwm = heavy-browed, frowning
aeliad, aelio = to protrude
aeliog = (big-/large-)browed, large-brimmed
Old Breton (Brethonoc) guorail = eyebrow

Etymology: unknown [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

The End

Words for end, after and related things in Celtic languages.

Kyle of Lochalsh / Caol Loch Aillse

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *dīwedom = end
Old Irish (Goídelc) dead [ˈdʲe] = end, conclusion, limit
déidenach = final, last
deired [ˈdʲerʲəð] = remainder, residue, end, rear, conclusion
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dead, deud, diud = end, conclusion, limit
i ndead, inna dead = below, further on, after, behind, since
co dead = forever, to the end, always
fo deoid = = at last, in the end, ultimately
deired = remainder, residue, end, rear, conclusion
deiredach = coming at the end, latest, last
Irish (Gaeilge) diaidh [dʲiəɟ / dʲiə]
as diaidh = after, behind
diaidh ar/i ndiaidh = gradually
i ndiaidh [əˈnʲiəɟ / əˈn̠ʲeːj] = after, later, subsequently
ina ndiaidh sin [ɪnˠə ˈjiə ʃin] = afterwards, after that
deireadh = end, conclusion, termination
deireanach = last, late, latter, recent
deireanaí = lateness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dèidh [dʲeː] = after
an dèidh [ən̪ʲˈdʲeː] = after, behind
dèidheanach = last, hindmost
deireadh [dʲerʲəɣ] = end, rear, stem, remains, leftovers
deireannach [dʲerʲənˠəx] = final, last, ultimate, hindmost, latter, late, tardy, slow, posterior, backward
Manx (Gaelg) jei = afterwards, after, behind
jei shoh = henceforth
jei-cheeayllagh = retarded, backward
jerrey = back, close, conclusion, effect, end, expiration, expiry, extreme, finale, finish
jerrinagh = absolute, belated, closing, end, final, last
jerrinaght = absoluteness, final, finality
Proto-Brythonic *diweð [ˈlɔːn] = end, ending
Old Welsh (Kembraec) diued = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) diuet, diwet, dyuet, diwed, diỽed = end, close, conclusion
diwedho, diwed = to end, finish, close
diwedar, diweddar = late, recent, modern, deceased
Welsh (Cymraeg) diwedd [ˈdɪu̯ɛð] = end, close, conclusion, consumation, termination, extremity, death, event, issue
diweddaf, diwedd(u) = to end, finish, close, terminate, perish, put an end to
diweddar [dɪu̯ˈɛðar] = late, recent, modern, deceased
diweddaru = to modernize, get or become late
diweddaf [dɪu̯ˈɛθav] = last, final, previous, most recent
ar y diwedd = in the end, at the end, at last, ultimately, finally
o’r diwedd = at last, finally
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diwedh, dewedh = an end, bound, goal, limit
diwedha = late, utmost
diwedhas = late
diwedhe = to end, finish, accomplish
diwedhva = an ending place, end, conclusion
Cornish (Kernewek) diwedh = end, outcome
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
war an diwedh = at long last, finally, in the long term
diwedha = to end, expire
diwedhans = expiry
diwedhes = late
diwedhva = destination, end, ending
diwedhys = ended, late, over
Old Breton diued = end
Middle Breton divez, diuez = end
diuezaff = last, final
Breton (Brezhoneg) diwezh [ˈdiwːɛ(s)] = end, final
diwezhañ [di.ˈweː.zã] = last, final
diwezhat [diˈweː(z)at] = late, remained, backward
diwezhataat = to postpone, adjorn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *dīwedeti (to stop), *dī- (from, away) and *wedeti (to lead), from Proto-Indo-European *wédʰeti (to lead), from *wedʰ- (to bind, secure, pledge, guarantee, lead) [source]. Words from the same roots include engage, gage, wage, wager and wed in English, and gager (to guarantee, wager, bet) in French [source]. The word Taoiseach (the Head of the Irish government), possibly comes from the same roots [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Glens and Valleys

Here are some words for valley, glen and related things that are found in some or all of the Celtic languages, and related words in other languages.

Strath Croe
Strath Croe

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *stratos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) srath = grassland, swarth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) srath, sreth, sraith = grass, sward, valley, bottom, meadow or grassy place near a river, fine, tax
Irish (Gaeilge) srath [sˠɾˠa(h)] = river valley, low-lying land along a river
srathach = bottom, low-lying, marshy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) srath [sdrah] = strath, wide valley, vale
srathach = pertaining to or abounding in straths / wide valleys
Manx (Gaelg) strah = level valley, plain, strath, flatness
Proto-Brythonic *strad = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystrad, istrad, ystrat = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystrad [ˈəsdrad] = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Old Cornish stræt = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Middle Cornish (Cernewec strat = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Cornish (Kernewek) stras = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Old Breton (Brethonoc) strat = bottom, low ground
Middle Breton (Brezonec) strat = bottom, low ground
Breton (Brezhoneg) stad [strɑːt] = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *str̥h₃tós (stretched, spread), from *sterh₃- (to spread, extend, stretch out [Source]. Words from the same roots include sternum, strategy, stratus, stray, street (a type of cloud) and stratosphere in English, estrato (layer, stratum, stratus [cloud]) in Spanish, and sarnu (to trample, tread, ruin) in Welsh [Source].

Cwm Idwal
Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *kumbā = valley
Transalpine Gaulish *cumba = valley
Gaulish *kumba = valley
Irish (Gaeilge) com [kʌmˠ] = coomb, cirque, mountain recess
Proto-Brythonic *komm = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cum, cwm(m), kwm = a deep narrow valley, dale, dingle
kwm(m)an = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
kwmarch, cwmaearch = ravine, dingle, little valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwm [ˈəsdrad] = a deep narrow valley, coom, glen, dale; hollow, bowl-shaped depression
cwmach = a stoop
cwman = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
cwmanu = to stoop, hunch
cwmanllyd, cwmanog = hunchbacked, crooked, bent
cwmarch = ravine, dingle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec cum = a valley opening downwards, from a narrow point, a dingle
Cornish (Kernewek) komm = cirque, corrie, cwm
Middle Breton (Brezonec) comm = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
Breton (Brezhoneg) komm [ˈkɔ̃mː] = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
komman, kommañ = to form hollows
kommek = forming hollows

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kumbʰos / *kumbʰéh₂, either from PIE *kew- (bend) or a from non-Indo-European substrate [Source].

Words from the same roots include cwm, combe (a valley or hollow, often wooded and with no river; a cirque) in English, combe (combe) in French, and coma (combe, cwm, cirque; an alpine meadow situated between two peaks) in Catalan [Source].

A dingle is a small, narrow or enclosed, usually wooded valley [Source].

Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain
Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain

Proto-Celtic *glendos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) glenn [ɡʲlʲen͈] = valley
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glenn = valley, hollow, depression
glennach = having vales or hollows, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) gleann [ɟlʲɑun̪ˠ(h) / ɟlʲɑːn̪ˠ / ɟlʲan̪ˠ] = glen, hollow
gleann = abounding in glens, hollow-backed, wavy (hair)
gleanntán = small glen, dell, dale
gleanntóir = glensman, dalesman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gleann [glaun̪ˠ] = glen, valley
gleannach [glan̪ˠəx] = having or related to glens, steep sided
gleannan [glan̪ˠan] = small glen / valley
gleann crochte = hanging valley
gleann sgoraidh = rift valley
Manx (Gaelg) glion(e) [ɡlʲɔᵈn] = valley, glen, vale, creek
Proto-Brythonic *glɨnn [ɡlɨnː] = glen, dale, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glynn, glyn = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) glyn [ɡlɨ̞n / ɡlɪn] = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley, gloom, distressing experience
Middle Cornish (Cernewec glen, glyn = valley (through which a river flows), a woody valley, dale
Cornish (Kernewek) glynn, glydn = deep wooded valley, glen
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glenn, glen = earth, country
Breton (Brezhoneg) glen = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *glendos (shore). Words from the same root include klit (dune) in Danish, klettur (rock, crag, cliff) in Icelandic, and cleit (rocky outcrop, cliff, reef) in Scottish Gaelic [Source].

The Irish word ailt refers to a steep-sided glen, ravine, height or cliff. There are cognate words in other Celtic languages, such as allt (hill, slope, cliff) in Welsh [More details].

Nant Gwrtheyrn
Nant Gwrtheyrn

Proto-Celtic *nantos / nantus = stream, valley
Gaulish nanto, nantu = valley
Proto-Brythonic *nant [nant] = stream, river, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nant = river, stream, brook
Welsh (Cymraeg) nant [nant] = river, stream, brook, rivulet; torrent, ditch, valley, glen, dale; ravine, gorge
nentig, nennig = small stream
Middle Cornish (Cernewec nans = valley, dale, ravine
Cornish (Kernewek) nans [nans / nænz] = dale, vale, valley
krognans = hanging valley
Old Breton (Brethonoc) nant = valley with watercourses
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nant, ant = valley with watercourses
Breton (Brezhoneg) nant [nãnt] = valley with watercourses (found in place names – archaic)

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *nemetom (sacred place, sanctuary), from the Proto-Indo-European *nem- (to give, take, distribute) [source].

The Francoprovençal word nant (stream) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots [source], as does the French place name Nanterre [source], the Irish word neimheadh (sanctuary, privilege of rank, holy thing), and the Breton word neved / neñved (sanctuary) [source].

More details of words for Streams and Currents in Celtic languages.

Old Welsh (Kembraec) t(o)nou = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tnou, tonou, tyno, tino = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Welsh (Cymraeg) tyno = valley, vale, hollow, dale, plain, green
Cornish (Kernewek) tnow = dale, valley-bottom
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tenou, tnou = bottom, lower part, valley
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tnou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley
trauyen = valley
Breton (Brezhoneg) traoñ, traou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley (found in place names)
traoñienn [ˈtrãw.jɛn] = valley

Etymology: unknown [Source].

Another Welsh word for valley is dyffryn [ˈdəfrɨ̞n / ˈdəfrɪn], which comes from dwfr (water) and hynt (course, way). There are no cognates in other Celtic languages, as far as I can discover [Source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Bodies

Words for body and related things in Celtic languages.

Body

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) corp [korp] = (human) body, coprse, Eucharist, Communion, bulk, mass, main part, body (of text)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) corp = (human) body, corpse, Eucharist, Communion, bulk, mass, main part, body (of text)
corpḟine = kin, family
Irish (Gaeilge) corp [kɔɾˠpˠ/kʌɾˠpˠ] = body, corpse, bodily frame, main part, trunk, hulk
corpanta = big-bodied, corpulent, total, out and out
corpeolaíocht = physiology
corplach = body, torso
corplár = centre, core
corpoideachas = physical education
corprach = corporeal
corpaigh = to incorporate
corprú = incorporation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corp [kɔrb] = body, corpse
corp-eòlas = anatomy
corpach = pertaining to the body, bodied, corpulent
corpachadh = incorporating, incorporation
corpaichte = incorporated
corpas = corpus
corporachd = corporation
Manx (Gaelg) corp = (human) body, corpse, trunk (of tree), physique, hull (of ship), solid
corpagh = bodily, corporal, incarnate, physical
cocorp = corporation, burgh
cochorpaghey = embodiment, incorporation; to embody, incorporate
Proto-Brythonic *korf = body
*korfor = body, corpse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) corff, corph = the whole, mass, bulk, main portion, gathering, assembly, society, substance, heavenly body, body, trunk, bodice, corpse
corphi = to taste, starve, embody
corffawc, corphol = corpulent, portly, stout, bulky
corfor, corffor = body, corpse
corforavl, korfforawl, corfforaỽl = bodily, corporeal, physical, corpulent, incoporated
Welsh (Cymraeg) corff [kɔrf] = the whole, mass, bulk, main portion, gathering, assembly, society, substance, heavenly body, body, trunk, bodice, corpse
corff(i)af, coffi(o) = to taste, take food, starve (with cold, die, be(come) a corpse, embody, incorporate
corffog, corffol = corpulent, portly, stout, bulky, bodily, physical, incorporated, corporate
corffor = body, corpse, constitution
corfforol = bodily, corporeal, physical, corpulent, incoporated
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) corf = (the/a) body, human body
Cornish (Kernewek) korf = body, person
korflan = cemetry, graveyard
korfliw = tattoo
korforeth = corporation
korforethel = corporate
korfwithyas = bodyguard
Middle Breton (Brezonec) corff, corf, corph = body
Breton (Brezhoneg) korf [ˈkɔrf] = body, corpse, constitution, trunk
korfadur = constitution
korfadurezh = anatomy
korfan, korfañ = to have/gain body, to be constituted
korfeg, korfek = corpulent
korfenn [ˈkɔr.fɛn] = bodice, corset
korfus = bodily

Etymology: from Latin corpus (body, person, substance, material) from Proto-Italic *korpos (body), from PIE *krep- (body) [source].

Words from the same roots include corps (an organized group of people united by a common purpose), corpus (a collection of writings) and corpse (a dead body) and midriff (the middle section of the human torso) in English, corps (body) in French and cryf (strong) in Welsh [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Meaty Flesh

Today we’re looking at the words for meat, flesh, breast and related things in Celtic languages.

MEAT

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kīkos = breast
Primitive Irish ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐ (ccica-) = breast
ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐᚋᚔᚅᚔ (ccicamini) = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) cích [kʲiːx] = breast
Cíchmuine [ˈkʲiːxmunʲe] = male given name
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cích [kʲiːx] = pap, breast, nipple, teat
cíchech, cīgech [ˈkʲiːxʲəx] = big-chested
Cichmuine, Cichmhuine, Cíchmaine = male given name
Irish (Gaeilge) cíoch [ciəx] = breast, pap, papilla, protuberance
cíochach = mammary
cíochbheart = bra(ssiere)
cíoch-chruthach = mammiform
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cìoch [kʲiəx] = breast, pap
cìochach [kʲiəxəx] = mammary, pertainning to breasts, ample-bosomed
cìochag
cìoch [kʲiəxag] = valve, small breast
cìocharan [kʲiəxan] = suckling infant
Manx (Gaelg) keeagh [kiːx] = breast, bud, nipple, pap, teat
keeaghagh = mammary
Proto-Brythonic *kig = meat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cic, kic = meat
cigva meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cicbran, cicuran, kigvrain, kicfran = raven
kicawc, kigawc = meaty, fleshy
kiccyd, kygyd, kigydd = butcher
Welsh (Cymraeg) cig [kiːɡ] = meat, flesh
cigaf, cigo = to fatten, become fleshy
cigaidd = meaty, fleshy, bloody, cruel, carnivorous,
cigfa meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cigfran = raven
cigog = meaty, fleshy
cigydd = butcher
Old Cornish cic, chic = meat, flesh
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cig, kig = meat, flesh
cigliu = flesh-coloured
cigver, kiguer = flesh-fork
Cornish (Kernewek) kig = meat, flesh
kiger, kigores = butcher
kigereth = butchery, slaughterhouse
kigliw = flesh (colour), pink
kigti, kigva = butcher’s, butchery, slaughterhouse
Old Breton cic = meat, flesh
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quic = meat, flesh
quicguec = fleshy, muscled
Breton (Brezhoneg) kig [kiːk] = meat, flesh
kigder = overweight
kigek = fleshy, muscular, plump
kigenn [ˈkiːɡɛn] = complexion, muscule
kigennan, kigennañ = to build muscule, to heal
kigennek [kiˈɡɛnːek] = muscule
kiger [ˈkiːɡɛr] = butcher
kigerezh [ki.ˈɡɛː.rɛs] = butcher’s shop

Etymology: assumed to be of expressive/imitative origin [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) brollach = breast, bosom, chest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brollach, brothlach = breast, bosom, chest
Irish (Gaeilge) brollach [bˠəɾˠˈl̪ˠax/ˈbˠɾˠɔl̪ˠəx] = breast, bosom, front, beginning, preface, prologue
brollaiocht = close wrestling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brollach [brɔl̪ˠəx] = bosom, breast, bust, chest, brisket
Manx (Gaelg) brollagh = bosom, breast

Etymology: related to the Old Irish bruinne (breast) and brú (belly) [source]. See also the post about Hills

Proto-Celtic *weɸolis = flesh, meat (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) feóil, féuil [fʲeːu̯lʲ] = flesh, meat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) feóil, feól = flesh, meat
feólaigid = to make or form flesh
feólairecht = butchery, slaughter
feólamail = the flesh, worldly
feólmar = fleshy
Irish (Gaeilge) feoil [fʲoːlʲ/fʲɔːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feoilteach = carnivorous
feoilteoir = carnivore
feoilséantóir = vegetarian
feoilaire = butcher
feoilmhar = fleshy, fat, flabby
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feòil [fjɔːl̪ˠ] = flesh, meat
feòil-itheach [fjɔːl̪ˠ içəx] = carnivorous
feòil-itheadair [fjɔːl̪ˠ içədɪrʲ] = carnivore
feòil-sheachnair = vegetarian
Manx (Gaelg) feill [feːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feillagh = fleshy, meaty
feill-eeagh = carnivorous
feilleyder = butcher
feill-haghnagh = vegetarian (adj)
feill-haghneyder = vegetartian (person)

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cnes = skin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cnes, cnis, cneis, cneas = skin, surface, body, flesh, bosom, breast
Irish (Gaeilge) cneas [cnʲasˠ/cɾʲasˠ] = skin, good appearance
cneasach = covered with skin, cutaneous
cneasaí = close companion, spouse, healer
cneasaigh = to cicatrize, heal
cneasluiteach = skintight
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cneas [krʲẽs] = skin, bosom
cneasachadh [krʲesəxəɣ] = (act of) squeezing, tightening, pressing, making slender, curing, healing
Proto-Brythonic *knōto- = flesh (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) knaud, cnaut, knaỽt, knawt = flesh
knowdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
knaỽtaỽl, knaỽdaỽl, knoawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnawd [knau̯d] = flesh
cnawdaidd = pertaining to the flesh, carnal
cnawd(i)edig = fleshy, carnal
cnawdiad = incarnation, putting on of flesh
cnawdiaf, cnawdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
cnawdig = fleshy, carnal, fat, plump
cnawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Cornish (Kernewek) kneus = skin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kneud = carnality, fleshliness (?)

Etymology: possibly from PIE *kneu-t- [source].

More Celtic words for breast and meat can be found on the posts about Hills, Central Hearts, Baskets, Wings, Bones, Fatty Lard and Food

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Barn

Words for barn and related things in Celtic languages.

Barn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) sciból = barn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sciból, sgioból = barn, granary
Irish (Gaeilge) scioból [ʃkɪˈbˠoːl̪ˠ] = barn
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgiobal [sgʲibəl̪ˠ] = barn, granary
Manx (Gaelg) skibbalt = barn, granary
Old Welsh (Kembraec) scipaur = barn, granary
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ysgubaỽr, yscubawr, sgubor, yscubor, yscupor = barn, granary
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgubor, sgubor [əsˈɡɨ̞bɔr/əsˈɡiːbɔr] = barn, granary, farm building
(y)sguboraidd = barn-like
ysguborio = to put or store in a barn
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scaber, sciber, skibor = barn, any large room
Cornish (Kernewek) skiber = barn, corn-loft, granary
Middle Breton (Brezonec) squiber, skiber = lean-to, shed, reception room
Breton (Brezhoneg) skiber = shed, lean-to, storage room

Etymology (Brythonic words): possibly from Proto-Brytonic *ɨskʉb (sheaf), from Latin scōpa (branch of a plant, broom, besom), from Proto-Italic *skōpās, from Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (rod, shaft, staff, club) [source]. The Goidelic words were probably borrowed from a Brythonic language [source].

Some words for Brushes and Brooms in Celtic languages come from the same roots, as do the words scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) saball = barn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) saball = barn
Irish (Gaeilge) sabhall = barn
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sabhal [sa.əl̪ˠ] = barn, granary
sabhal-feòir = hay barn
sabhalalach [sa.əl̪ˠəx] = barn-like, pertaining to or abounding in barns
Manx (Gaelg) soalt = barn, granary

Etymology: from Latin stablum (dwelling, stable, hut, tavern), from stō (to stand, stay, remain) and‎ -bulum (instrumental suffix) ( [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ithlann = barn, granary, threshing floor
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ithlann, ithla, ithland = threshing floor, barn, granary, storehouse, garden
Irish (Gaeilge) iothlainn = stackyard, rickyard
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iothl(i)ann [jul̪ˠən̪ˠ/jul̪ɪn̪ʲ] = yard, farmyard enclosure
Manx (Gaelg) uhllin = corn-yard, farmyard, haggard, rick-yard, stack-yard

Etymology: from Old Irish ith (corn, grain) and lann (building, house, land, plot) [source].

Other words for barn in Welsh include grawndy (barn, granary), grawnfa (barn, granary) and heiniardy (barn, granary).

Incidentally, the word barn means opinion, view, judgement or sentence in Welsh, to judge in Breton, and it means child in the Northern Germanic languages, such as Danish, Norwegian, Swedish and Icelandic, and in dialects of English spoken in parts of northern England [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Lies and Deceit

Words for deceit, treachery, conspiracy and related things in Celtic languages.

Colonial Conspiritors

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mratrom = deceit, betrayal, treachery
Old Irish (Goídelc) mrath [ˈmr͈aθ] = deceiving, betraying
marnaid [ˈmar͈n͈ɨðʲ] = to betray, deceive, delude
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brath =
mairnid = to betray, deceive, delude
Irish (Gaeilge) brath [bˠɾˠɑh/bˠɾˠah] = perception, feeling, detection, spying, betrayal, expectation, intention, dependence, reliance
braith [bˠɾˠa/bˠɾˠaç] = to perceive, feel, spy out, note, betray, sense, intend, expect, depend on
braiteach = perceptive, alert, wary, sensitive, treacherous
braistint = perception
braiteoir = sensor
brathadóir = betrayer, spy, informer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brath [brah] = betraying, giving away, betrayal, knowledge
brathadair [brahədɪrʲ] = betrayer, informer, traitor
brathadh = betraying, giving away, betrayal, treason, informing on
brathach [brahəx] = traitorous
brathaich = (to) betray, inform on
Manx (Gaelg) brah = betray, disclose, betrayal, disclosure
brahder = detector, traitor, betrayer, informer
braheyder = betrayer, traitor
Proto-Brythonic *brad = treachery, betrayal, deceit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brat, brad = treachery, betrayal, deceit, guile, ruse, conspiracy, treason
bradu = to commit treachery, betray, deceive, plot, conspire
bradedic = treacherous, deceitful
bradaỽc, bradouc, bradog, bradoc = treacherous, deceitful, guileful, false
bratwr, bradỽr, bradwr = traitor, betrayer
bradychu, bredychu = to betray, be disloyal, deceive
Welsh (Cymraeg) brad [braːd] = treachery, betrayal, deceit, guile, ruse, conspiracy, treason
bradaf, bradu = to commit treachery, betray, deceive, plot, conspire
bradedig = treacherous, deceitful
bradog = treacherous, deceitful, guileful, false, traitor, deserter
bradwr, bradydd = traitor, betrayer
bradwriad = conspiracy
bradychu = to betray, be disloyal, deceive, reveal unintentionally
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bras = conspiracy, plot (?)
Cornish (Kerneweg) bras = conspiracy, plot
brasa = to conspire, plot
braser, brasores = conspirator, plotter
Old Breton (Brethonog) brat = deception, betrayal
Middle Breton (Brezonec) barat = deception, betrayal
Breton (Brezhoneg) barad [ˈbɑː.rat] = deception, betrayal, perfidy
baradañ = to betray
barader = traitor
baraderezh = treachery

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic marnati (to betray), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *mr̥-né-h₂-ti from *merh₂- (to crumble, destroy), which is also the root of merja (to squash, crush, bruise) in Icelandic [source].

Proto-Celtic *brenkā = lie
Old Irish (Goídelc) bréc [bʲrʲeːɡ] = lie, falsehood, deception, exaggeration
brécach [ˈbʲrʲeːɡax] = lying, false, deceitful
brécaid = to deceive, entice, seduce
brécairecht = cunning, deceit, deception
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bréc, brég = falsehood, lie, deception
brécach, brégach = lying, deceitful, counterfeit, false, entice, coax
brécaid, bréicid = to deceive, lead astray, entice, seduce, decoy
brécaire = liar, deceiver, flatterer, hypocrite
brécán = plaything, toy
Irish (Gaeilge) bréag [bʲɾʲeːɡ] = lie, falsehood, false; to cajole, coax
bréagach [ˈbʲɾʲeːɡəx] = liar, lying, false
bréagadh = coaxing, cajolery
bréagadóir = liar, deceiver, cajoler, wheedler
bréagadóireacht = falsehood, deceit, cajolery, wheedling
bréagán [ˈbʲɾʲeːɡɑːnˠ] = toy, plaything
bréagchéadfa = hallucination
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breug [brʲiag] = falsehood, lie, untruth, deceiving, artificial, fake, false
breugach [brʲiagəx] = deceitful, dishonest, false, lying
breugadair [brʲiagədɪrʲ] = liar
breugadh [brʲiəgəɣ] = coaxing, cajoling, enticing, soothing
breugag [brʲiagag] = little lie, lying woman
breugaireachd [brʲiəgɛrʲəxg] = habit of lying, mendacity
Manx (Gaelg) breag = lie, fallacy, sham, fiction, invention, untruth
breagagh = lying, false, imitation, extravagant, fictious, spurious
breageraght = equivocation, lying
breagerey = liar, romancer, storyteller, dissembler
breageyder = fabler, fibber, leg-puller
breagerys = lying
breigey = to beguile, cajole, coax, entice, decoy, lure, persuade, seduce, wheedle

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European bʰrenḱ- from *merh₂- (to deviate, corrupt) [source].

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo

Ploughs

Words for plough* and related things in Celtic languages.

Plough

*plough = plow for those of you in North America.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *aratrom = plough
Old Irish (Goídelc) arathar = plough, ploughing equipment, tillage
airid = to plough
airem = ploughman
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arathar = plough, ploughing equipment, tillage
airem = ploughman, tiller
airid = to plough, till
airithe = ploughed
Irish (Gaeilge) arathar = ploughing equipment, plough, ploughing (literary)
air = plough (literary)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrach [aːrəx] = ploughshare, utensils for ploughing (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) erroo = ploughman, tiller of land
errooid = cultivation, tillage, ploughmanship
Proto-Brythonic *aradr [aˈradr] = plough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aratrum, aradyr, aradr, aratr = plough
aradrur, aradrwr = ploughman
aradỽy, aradwy = arable or ploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) aradr [ˈaradr/ˈaːradr] = plough, the Plough
aradraf, aradu = to plough, till, cultivate
aradrswch = ploughshare
araduriaeth = (act of) ploughing, ploughmanship
aradrwr = ploughman
aradrwy = arable or ploughed land
Old Cornish aradar = plough
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) aradar, ardar, aratum = plough
araderuur, arator = ploughmen
aras = to plough, till
Cornish (Kernewek) arader = plough
araderor = ploughman
aradow = arable
aras = to plough
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ararz, arazr = plough
Breton (Brezhoneg) arar [ˈɑːrar] = plough
aradeg = ploughing, ploughing competition
aradenn = ploughing, surge of anger
arat = to plough, spin

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₂érh₃trom (plough), from *h₂erh₃- (to plough) and *-trom (instrumental suffix). Words from the same roots include ard (a simple plough consisting of a spike dragged through the soil) in English, arður (plough, profit, gain) in Icelandic, årder (plough) in Swedish, ader (plough) in Estonian and arado (plough) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanktus / *kanxtus = plough, plough beam
Old Irish (Goídelc) cécht = plough-beam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cécht, cecht = plough-beam, plough
Irish (Gaeilge) céachta [ˈkeːx.t̪ˠə] = plough
céachtaíl = ploughing
céachtaire = ploughwright
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceuchd = plough (obsolete)
Manx (Gaelg) keeaght [ˈki.axt] = plough

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *kankā (branch), from Proto-Indo-European *ḱank- (branch). Words from the same roots include géag (branch, bough, limb) in Irish, cainc (branch) in Welsh, gancio (hook) in Italian, and gancho (hook, peg) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) trebaid = to cultivate, till, plough, inhabit
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trebad = (act of) ploughing cultivating, husbandry
trebaid = to cultivate, till, plough, inhabit, dwell
Irish (Gaeilge) treabh [ˈtʲɾʲavˠ/ˈtʲɾʲəu] = to plough; till, cultivate, occupy, inhabit (literary)
treabhadh = ploughing
treabhdóir = ploughman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = to till (the ground), plough, cultivate, delve
treabhadh = ploughing
treabhta = ploughed, tilled, cultivated
Manx (Gaelg) traaue = to plough (up), till, furrow, cleave, ploughing, tilling
traauee = ploughing, contributing, to tillage
traaueyder = ploughman

Etymology: from Old Irish treb (house(hold), farm, tribe), from Proto-Celtic *trebā (dwelling), from Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source]. For more related words, see the post about Towns and Tribes.

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyd, guyd = (wooden frame of a) plough
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwŷdd [ɡwɨːð] = plough (North Wales), tree(s), branches, timber, masts, loom
Etymology: from Proto-Brythonic *gwɨð (wood, trees), from Proto-Celtic *widus (wood, trees), from PIE *h₁weydʰh₁- (to separate, split, cleave, divide) [source]. For more related words, see the post about Trees, Wood(s) and Forests.

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Unlimited Web Hosting - Kualo