Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm [ˈɛjl] = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos was possibly borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lead (Metal)

Today we’re looking at the words for lead (metal) and related things in Celtic languages.

Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Wales.
Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Ceredigion, Cymru

Proto-Celtic *ɸloudom = lead (metal)
Gaulish *laudon = lead (metal)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lúaide = lead (metal)
Irish (Gaeilge) luaidhe [ˈl̪ˠuːiː] = lead (metal), (sounding-) lead, plummet, (fishing) sinker
luaidhiúil = lead-like, leaden
luaidhnimh = lead-poisoning
peann luaidhe = pencil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luaidhe [l̪ˠuəjə] = lead (metal), leaden
luaidheach = leaden
peann-luaidhe = pencil
Manx (Gaelg) leoaie = lead (metal), leaden, sounding lead
penn leoaie = pencil

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plewd- (to fly, flow, run), from *plew- (to fly, flow, run), from the Proto-West Germanic *laud [source].

Some words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood and pneumonia in English, vlieten (to flow) in Dutch, fließen (to flow) in German, flyte (to float, flow) in Swedish [source].

The English word lead comes from the Middle English le(e)d (lead) from the Old English lēad (lead) from the Proto-West-Germanic *laud (lead), from the Gaulish *laudon (lead) [source], and words for lead in other Germanic language languages come from the same root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *plum = lead (metal)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pluum, plwm = lead (metal)
Welsh (Cymraeg) plwm [plʊm] = lead (metal); mass or ball of lead, plumb, plummet, straight(ness), vertical(ness)
plymaidd = leaden, lead-like, heavy, oppressive, worthless
plymen = lead weight, plummet, sheet, of lead
plymio = to sound (for depth), fathom, dive, plunge, plummet; to cover or solder with lead, line (pottery) with lead, glaze
plymwr = plumber, dealer/worker in lead, plunger, diver
plymliw = lead-coloured, blackish-blue, greyish blue, pale blue
Cornish (Kernewek) plomm, plobm = lead (metal)
plommer = plumber
plommwedhek = vertical
pyncel plomm = pencil
Breton (Brezhoneg) plom = lead (metal)
plomek = lead(en)
plomer = plumber
plomerezh = plumbing

Etymology: from the Latin plumbum (lead, pencil), may be borrowed from Etruscan, Iberian or some other pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate language [source].

Some words from the same Latin root include plumb (truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line) in English, piombo (lead, grey, bullet) in Italian, plomb (lead, fuse, sinker) in French, and Plombe (seal, filling) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Copper

Today we’re looking at the words for copper and related things in Celtic languages.

copper pots

Proto-Celtic *omiyom = copper, bronze
Old Irish (Goídelc) umae, humae [ˈu.ṽe] = copper, bronze, brass
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) uma = copper, bronze, brass
Irish (Gaeilge) umha = copper, copper alloy, bronze
umhadhaite = bronze-coloured, bronzed
umhaí = worker in copper or bronze
cré-umha = bronze
cré-umhaigh = to bronze
salachar-umha = verdigris
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umha [ũ.ə] = bronze, copper, brass
umhach = coppery, brassy
umha-dhathte = copper-coloured, bronze-coloured
ceàrd-umha = coppersmith
Linn an Umha = the Bronze Age
meirg-umha = verdigris
Manx (Gaelg) ooha = bronze
cur ooha er = to bronze, bronzing
Yn Eash Ooha = the Bronze Age
Proto-Brythonic *öβ̃ɨð = bronze, copper
Old Welsh emid, emed = bronze, copper
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) euyð, euyd = bronze, copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) efydd [ˈɛvɨ̞ð / ˈeːvɪð] = bronze, brass, copper; made of bronze brass or copper; brazen; bronze colour, coppery
efyddaf, efyddu = to cover or adorn with brass or copper, to braze
efyddaid = made of bronze or brass; brazen, brazed
efyddog = brassy, coppery
efyddwr = brass-smith, copper-smith
medal efydd = bronze medal
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
Oes yr Efydd = Bronze Age

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *omos (raw), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour) [source].

Some words from the same PIE root, via the Latin amārus (bitter, harsh, sour, dire), include amaro (bitter) in Italian, amer (bitter, sour) in French, amarillo (yellow, golden coloured) in Spanish [source], and marulă (lettuce) in Romanian [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) copar [ˈkopˠəɾˠ] = copper
gabha copair = coppersmith
coparás = copperas, copper sulphate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) copar [kɔhbər] = copper
coparach = cuperous, like copper, coppery
copar-dubhaidh = copperas, green vitriol (iron(II) sylphate)
Manx (Gaelg) cobbyr, copuir = copper
cobbyragh = copperish, cupric
gaaue cobbyr = coppersmith
plait cobbyr = copperplate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) copyr, copr, kopyr = copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) copr, copor, coper = copper; something of little value; red hair
gof copr = copper-smith
gwaith copr = copper-works, vessels made of copper
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
Cornish (Kernewek) kober [stɛːn / steːn] = copper
kobrek = copper (colour)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouevr = copper
kouevrek = cupric (relating to or containing copper)
kouevrus = cuprous (relating to or containing copper)

Etymology: from the Middle English coper (copper, bronze), from the Old English copor (copper), from the Proto-Germanic *kuprą (copper), from the Latin Latin cuprum (copper) from the Ancient Greek Κύπρος (Cyprus – where large reserves of copper can be found). The Breton word kouevr was borrowed from the French cuivre (copper, brass), from the same Latin root [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Metal

Today we’re looking at the words for metal, ore, mines and related things in Celtic languages.

The cave at Parys mountain.

Proto-Celtic *mēnis = ore, metal, mine
Old Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
Middle Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
míanach = vein of ore, mine
míanaige = miner
Irish (Gaeilge) mianach = ore; stuff, material, substance, quality
mianadóir = miner
mianrach = mineral
mianreolaí = mineralogist
mianreolaíocht = mineralogy
mianadóireacht = mining; burrowing, excavating, digging deep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mèinn [mɛːn̪ʲ] = mine, ore
mèinnear, mèinneadair = miner
mèinnireach = mineral
mèinn-guail = coal mine, colliery
mèinn-talmhainn = landmine
mèinn salainn = salt mine
mèinneadh = mining
mèinnearach = mining
mèinn-eòlas = mineralogy
mèinneadh = mineralogical
mèinnearach = mineralogist
Manx (Gaelg) meain = ore, mine
meainagh = ore
meain-oayllys, meaineraght = metallurgy
meain-oaylee, meaineraght = mineralogist
meain arih = gold mine
meain argid = silver mine
meain chobbyr = copper mine
meain gheayil = coal mine, colliery
meain hollan = salt mine
meain leoaie = lead mine
Proto-Brythonic *muɨn = ore, metal, mine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mwyn, mŵn = mineral, ore, mine
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyn = mineral, ore, mine
mwynwr = miner, sapper
mwyn arian = silver ore, silver mine
mwyn aur = gold ore, gold mine
mwyn cellt = quartz
mwyn coch = red lead, red ochre, haematite, other red ores
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
mywn du = blacklead, graphite
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
mwyn haearn = iron ore
Cornish (Kernewek) moon = fusible metal mineral, mineral
Middle Breton *men = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) mengleuz = quarry, slate quarry, mine
mengleuzer = slate quarry worker
mengleuzerezh = mining industry
mengleuziañ = to mine
mengleuziek = mining
mengleuzier = quarryman

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *mēy(H)nis, from *(s)mēy(H)- (to cut, hew) [source].

The English word mine (an excavation from which ore or solid minerals are taken) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old French myne, mine, the Late Latin mina and Gaulish [source].

Middle Irish (Goídelc) mital(l) = metal
Irish (Gaeilge) miotal [ˈmʲɪt̪ˠəlˠ] = metal; mettle, spirit, hardihood
miotalach = metallic; mettlesome, spirited; hardy, wiry
miotalagrafaíocht = metallography
miotalóir = metallurgist
miotalóireach = metallurgic(al)
miotalóireacht = metal-work, metallurgy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotal, meiteal = metal
= miner
meatailteach = metallic
obair-mheatailtean, obair-mheatailt = metalwork, metallurgy
meatailt uasal = precious metal
Manx (Gaelg) metal = metal
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mettel = metal
Welsh (Cymraeg) metel, metal = metal, metal weapon or armour; substance, mettle, bravery, courage
metelaidd, metelig = metallic
meteleg = metallurgy
metelegol = metallurgical
metelegwr, metelegydd = metallurgist
Cornish (Kernewek) metol = metal
metolyek = metallic
Breton (Brezhoneg) metal = metal
metalerezh = metallurgy
metalour = metallurgist

Etymology (Welsh): from the Middle English metel(l), metal(l) (metal, ore), from the Old French metal (metal), from the Latin metallum (metal, precious metals, mine), from the Ancient Greek μέταλλον (métallon – metal, precious metals, mine) [source].

Etymology (Irish): from the Old French metal (metal), then as above [source].

The English word metal comes from the same roots, via Middle English, Old French, etc [source]. The word mettle (a quality of endurance and courage) was originally a variant of metal, and later came to have a figurative sense [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hard Steel

Today we’re looking at the words for steel and related things in Celtic languages.

Steel

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúr = hard, hardy, resolute, rigid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dúr = rigid, hard, solid; difficult; hard to bear; strict, austere; hardy, resolute; unfeeling, dour, obdurate
Irish (Gaeilge) dúr = hard, rigid, solid; dour, grim, obstinate; dense, stupid, blunt, insensitive; sluggish
dúramán = dull-witted, stupid person
dúramánta = dull-witted, stupid
dúranta = dour, grim, morose, sullen
dúrantacht = dourness, sullenness
dúrapóg = surly person
dúrchroí = hard heart, hardness of heart
dúrchroíoch = hard hearted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dùr [duːr] = stubborn, intractable; obstinate, dull, stupid; persevering
durganta = rigid, stiff, hardened; robust, rigorous; obstinate, dogged; sullen, morose; grim, forbidding
Manx (Gaelg) douyr = mournful, uncomfortable, unhappy, afflicting
Proto-Brythonic *dʉr = hard, hard metal, steel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dur = steel
Welsh (Cymraeg) dur [dɨːr / diːr] = steel, steel weapon; hard, cruel
duraidd = steely, hard, faithful, true
durawdr = steel sword or lance
dur bwrw = cast steel
edau ddur = wire
fel y dur = true as steel, like steel
llifddur = file, rasp
Cornish (Kernewek) dur = steel
dur dinamm = stainless steel
Breton (Brezhoneg) dir = steel
dir disvergi = stainless steel
kazeg-dir = bicycle (“steel mare”)

Etymology from the Latin dūrus (hard, rough, harsh), from the Proto-Indo-European *drew- (hard, fast), from *dóru (tree) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include the Scots word dour (hard, stern, severe, relentless), possibly via Middle Irish, which was also borrowed into English and means stern, harsh or forbidding; the French word dur (hard, tough, harsh), the Italian word duro (hard, tough, harsh), and the Spanish word duro (hard, form, solid) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include Celtic words for oak (tree), and the English words true, trough and trim [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachghreanadóireacht = steel-engraving
cruachobair = steelwork
cruachphláta = steel-plate
cruachphlátáilte = steel-plated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
Manx (Gaelg) creoighey = steel

Etymology from the Irish crua (hard), from the Old Irish crúaid (hard, hardy, harsh, stern, strict), from the Proto-Celtic *kroudis (rude), possibly from *krū- (blood), from the Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂-. (blood) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stàilinn [sdaːl̪ʲɪn̪ʲ] = steel
clòimh-stàilinn = steel wool
obraiche-stàilinn = steelworker
ionad-stàilinn = steelworks
Manx (Gaelg) staillin, steillyn, steillin = steel
staillinagh = steel-maker, steel
obbyr staillinagh = steelwork
ollan staillinagh = steel wool
snaie staillinagh = steel wire
towse staillinagh = steelyard

Etymology from the Old Norse stál (steel, sword), from the Proto-Germanic stahlą (steel), from the Proto-Indo-European *stek- (to be firm, stand fast) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include steel in English, staal (steel) in Dutch, Stahl (steel) in German, and stål (steel, tool) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wood Intelligence

Today we’re looking at the words for chess and related things in Celtic languages.

Chess

According to legend, the ancient Irish game of fidchell was invented by Lugh (god of light and inspiration) in the 9th century. It played an important role in the celebrations at the Festival of Lughnasa (in August), and was played by kings, druids, warriors – more details. See also: https://totallyirishgifts.com/fidchell-the-ancient-celtic-chess-game/.

The old Welsh game of gwyddbwyll is mentioned in medieval Welsh literature, however there are no surviving examples of the game.

Chess is thought to have originated in India in the 6th century AD, and was brought to Britian by the Normans in the 12th century.

See also: https://lornasmithers.wordpress.com/2017/06/16/gwyddbwyll-why-the-war-games/.

Old Irish (Goídelc) fidchell [ˈfɪðʲçɛlː] = an old Irish board game similar to chess
Irish (Gaeilge) ficheall [ˈfʲɪhəl̪ˠ / ˈfʲɪhəl̪ˠ / ˈfʲɪçəl̪ˠ] = chess, chessboard
flcheallacht = chess-playing
flcheallaí = chess-player
clár fichille = chessboard
fear fichille = chessman
fíann/forieann fichille = set of chessmen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fidhcheall = Celtic chess
Manx (Gaelg) feeal = chess
feealee = chess player
fer feeal, babban feeal = chess piece
claare feeal = chessboard
Proto-Brythonic *gwɨðbuɨll = a board-game similar to chess
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvytbuill, gvydbvll, gvydbvyll = one of the twenty-four feats of skill or prowess performed in Wales in medieval times; a board-game similar to chess
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyddbwyll [ˈɡwɨ̞ðbʊɨ̯ɬ] / ˈɡʊi̯ðbʊi̯ɬ] = chess; knowledge, learning, science; reason, sense, discretion
gwyddbwyllwr = chess player, chess piece, chess man
Cornish (Kernewek) gwydhbol = chess
Old Breton guidpoill, guidpull = chess
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwezboell = (Celtic) chess
gwezboellet = chequered

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *widukʷēslā [source], *widu (wood), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁widʰ(h₁)-u-s [source]; and *kʷēslā (mind, sense, wisdom, intelligence, meaning), from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

The English word wood also comes from the PIE root *h₁widʰ(h₁)-u-s, via the Middle English wode (wood), the Old English widu, wudu (wood) the Proto-West-Germanic *widu (forest, tree, wood), and the Proto-Germanic *widuz (wood) [source].

See also the post about Trees, Wood(s) & Forests

In Welsh, chess is also sies or ses, which were borrowed from the Middle English ches(se) (chess, chess set, chessboard, chess pieces) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) táiplis, táibhleis = tables, backgammon, backgammon-board
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàileasg [taːl̪ˠəsg] = chess, backgammon, draughts / checkers
Manx (Gaelg) tawlish = draughts / checkers
tawlish beg = draughts / checkers
tawlish mooar = backgammon
Welsh (Cymraeg) tawlfwrdd, towlfwrdd, tolfwrdd = a board game similar to chess, game-board; chess; chessboard, draughtboard

Etymology: from the Old Norse tafl (chess-like game, chess, backgammon), from the Latin tabula (tablet; board, plank) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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