Sticks and Rods

Today we’re looking at words for sticks, rods and related things in Celtic languages.

Plaster lath

Proto-Celtic *slattā = staff, stalk
Old Irish (Goídelc) slat = rod, lath, twig; ceremonial rod, staff; branch of a tree; scion, youth, stripling; yard (measure of length)
Irish (Gaeilge) slat [sˠl̪ˠɑt̪ˠ/sˠlˠat̪ˠ] = rod, slender stick, cane, switch, wand, yard, outskirts
slatach = rodlike, made of rods, wickered
slatáil = beat with a switch or birch
slataire = slip (of a person), sapling, tall supple youth
slatamáil = (act of) birching
slatfhear = slender supple man
slatóg = small rod, twig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slat [sl̪ˠahd] = long stick, rod, yard (measure), penis
slatag = small branch, twig
slat Ghàidhealach = Highland yard (8′)
slat-tomhais = standard, yardstick
slatan-draoidheachd = magic wand, fairy wand
Manx (Gaelg) slat(t) = batten, birch, cane, mace, rail, rod, slat, stem, switch, verge, wand
slat hendreil = lightning-rod
slat hows(h)e = criterion, yardstick
slat hummee = dipper, dipstick
slattag = perch, small rod, small stick, stripe, swizzle stick, twig
Proto-Brythonic *llaθ = rod, staff, stick, spear, beam, rafter, pole
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lath = rod, staff, wand, stick
Welsh (Cymraeg) llath [ɬaːθ] = rod, staff, wand, stick, lath, spear, lance, spar, rafter, beam, offshoot, descendant
llath Gymreig = Welsh yard (about 40 inches)
llathaid = yard’s length, yardstick, length of rod, pole or perch, square yard
lathen = rod, wand, staff, stick, lath
llathennaf, llathennu = to measure, be critical (of)
hudlath = magic wand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lath = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) lath = stick, staff, yard
Old Breton lath = pole, rod
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lazh, laz, lah = pole, rod
Breton (Brezhoneg) lazh = slat (of a plough), board, batten

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a substrate language of northwestern Europe [source].

Words that may be related include lath (a thin, narrow strip, fastened to the rafters) in English, Latte (batten, lath, slat) in German, lat (slate, lath, ruler, yardstick) in Dutch, and lata (can, tin, plate) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Up Above

Today we’re looking at up, over, above and related words in Celtic languages.

The Crowded Summit of Snowdon
A quiet day on the summit of Snowden / Dydd tawel ar gopa’r Wyddfa

Proto-Celtic *ouxsos = above
*ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high, elevated
Old Irish (Goídelc) úas [uːa̯s] = above, over
anúas [aˈn͈uːa̯s] = from above
súas = up, upwards, back (in time), forward on (in time),
túas = up, above, of heaven, above (mentioned)
úasal = high, lofty, noble, high-born, gallant, genteel, honourable
Irish (Gaeilge) suas [ˈɡaɾʲəmʲ/ˈɡɪɾʲəmʲ] = up, to higher place or station, at, towards, a high level, to the south, onwards, backwards, on high, risen
anuas = down (from above)
thuas = up, in higher place, in the south, put up, on top, successful, profiting
uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born, aristocratic, gentle, gallant, genteel, lofty, precious, fine, hallowed, enchanted, inhabited by fairies
na huaisle the good people, the fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) suas [suəs] = up, upwards, upright, standing
shuas [huəs] = above, aloft up (location), upper
a-nuas [əˈn̪ˠuəs] = down(wards) / up(wards) – towards the speaker
uasal [uəsəl̪ˠ] = noble, nobleman, nobility, high-minded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) seose = heavenwards, up, upward, upwards
heose = above, aloft, up, upper
neose = down, downward, downwards
ooasle = aristocratic, classy, creditable, dignified, esteemed, gentlemanly, goodly, highborn, honourable, illustrious, lofty, lordly, magnificent, noble, respected
Brythonic *ʉx [ˈʉːx] = above, on top of, over
*ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːlˑ] = high, elevated
Old Welsh uuc = above, on top of, over
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uch = above, on top of, over
uchel = shigh, tall, exalted
Welsh (Cymraeg) uwch [ɨ̞u̯χ/ɪu̯χ] = above, on top of, over, on, beyond, in front of
uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl/ˈiːχɛl] = high, tall, exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable
uchelder = high place, height, highness, nobility
uchelaf, uchelu = to raise, heighten, exalt, increase
uchelwr = landed, proprietor, freeholder, landlord, gentleman, nobelman, aristocrat, a superior
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) uhel = high, lofty, elevated
uhelder = height, highness
uhelle = to raise up on high, to exalt
Cornish (Kernewek) a-ugh = above
a-ugh dhe = over
ughel = high, grand, loud, tall
ughelder = height, loudness
Old Breton uh = on high
uchel = high
Middle Breton (Brezonec) uc’h = on high
uhel = high, noble, generous
uhelaat = to increase, rise in the sky, raise
uheladur = to shrug, enhancement
uhelañ = the highest point
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel [ˈy.ɛl] = high, uphill, upstream
uhelaat = to promote
uc’hek = maximal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewpso- (above) from *h₃ewps- (high, elevated) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hosts of Folks

Today we’re gathering some people, folk, crew and related word in Celtic languages.

Le tambours de Briec

Proto-Celtic *worīnā = band, troop, a group of warriors who have sworn allegiance (to each other)
Old Irish (Goídelc) foirenn = band, troop, group of people
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) foirenn = an indefinite number of people, set, group, category, band, troop, company, crew (of a ship)
Irish (Gaeilge) foireann [ˈfˠɪɾʲən̪ˠ] = number, group of people, band, troop, company, crew, team, personnel, staff, set
foireann loinge = crew of a ship
foireann spéirbhean = bevy of beauties
foireann dráma = cast of a play
foireann uirlisí = set of tools
foireann dinnéir = dinner-service
foireann fichille = set of chessmen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foireann [furʲən̪ˠ] = excess, abundance, crowd, multitude (ship’s) crew, ballast, furniture
Manx (Gaelg) fwirran = staff, team
fwirran bluckan-coshey = football team
fwirran buird = dinner service
fwirran meihaaghyn = set of weights
fwirran skynnaghyn = canteen (of cutlery)
Proto-Brythonic *gwörin = group of people
Old Welsh guerin = host, group of people
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwerin = people, populace, peasantry, folk
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwerin [ˈɡwɛrɪn] = people, populace, peasantry, folk, democracy, proletariat, liegemen; mob, rabble, troop, throng, host, multitude, rank and file of army, nation, ship’s crew
gwerinaf, gwerino = to render plebeian or common, to popularize, civilize, tame, arrange for battle, marshal
gwerinaidd = plebeian, lowly, humble, common, vulgar (speech), dialect, home-spun, democratic, proletarian
gwerindod = civilization, domestication
gwerinwr = commoner, peasant, democrate, republican
gweriniaeth = democracy, republic(anism), community
Cornish (Kernewek) gwerin = common people, folk, proletariat
gwerinek = proletarian
gwerinel = democratic
gwerinieth = democracy
gweriniether / gweriniethores = democrat
gwerinor(es) = peasant
lien gwerin = folklore
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gwerin, gueryn = people
gwerinad = plebeian
gwerinel = democratic
gwerinelaat = to become more democratic
gwerinelañ = to democraticize
gwerineler, gwerinelour = democrat
gwerinelezh, gweriniezh = democracy
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwerin = pleb, pawn
gwerinad, gwerinel = plebeian

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *wori-no- (flock, troop) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flour

In this post we’re looking into words for flour and related things in Celtic languages.

Skiing slope of flour

Proto-Celtic *mlātos = flour
Gaulish *blatos = flour
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blawd, blaỼt = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) blawd = flour, meal, powder
blawdaidd = mealy, floury, friable
blodiaf, blawdiaf, blawdio = to grind into meal, produce flour, become powdery, turn to dust, sprinkle (with) flour
blodiwr, blawdiwr = flour or meal merchant
Old Cornish blot = flour, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blot, blês = flour, meal
Cornish (Kernewek) bleus = flour
bleus hesken = sawdust
bleus leun = wholemeal
bleusa = to flour
Old Breton blot = flour
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleud = flour, powder
bleudañ = to flour
bleudek = floury
bleud brazed = wholemeal flour
bleud goellet = self-raising flour
bleud gwinizh = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ml̥h₂-tó-s, from *melh₂- (to crush, grind) [source]. Words from the same root include melancholy and melanin in English, and μελανός (melanós – black, dark, blue, bruised) in Greek [source].

Old Irish (Góidelc) men = flour
Irish (Gaeilge) min [ˈmʲɪnʲ/ˈmʲɨ̞nʲ] = meal; powedered matter
min choirce = oatmeal
min chruithneachta = wheatmeal
min sáibh = sawdust
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) min [min] = flour, meal, grounds, filings
min-fhlùir = flour
min-eòrna = barley flour/meal
min-sheagail = rye flour
min-chruithneachd = wheat flour
muileann-mine = flour mill
Manx (Gaelg) meinn = meal
meinn chorkey = oatmeal
meinn churnaght = wheatmeal flour
meinn hoggyl = rye meal
meinn oarn = barley meal
meinn saaue = sawdust

Etymology: unknown

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyllyeyt, peillit = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) paill = pollen, flour
peill(i)aid = flour, fine flour, wheat flour, white flour, powder
peilliaid gwenith = (fine) wheat flour
peilliaid haidd = barley flour
peilliaid rhyg = rye flour

Etymology: from the Latin pollen (fine flower, powder, dust), from the Proto-Indo-European *pel- (flour, dust) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Latin pulvis (dust, powder, ashes), include polve (dust, ashes) in Italian, polvo (dust, powder) in Spanish, poussière (dust) in French, and pulverise (to render into dust or powder) in English [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) plúr [pˠlˠuːɾˠ] = flour, flower
plúr geal = white flour
plúr cruithneachta = wheaten flour
plúrach = floury, farinaceous; flower-like, pretty
plúraigh = to effloresce
plúróg = pretty girl
plúrscoth = choicest flower, pick, choice
plúrú = efflorescence
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flùr [fl̪ˠuːr] = flour
flùr lom = plain flour
flùr-éirigh = self-raising flour
Manx (Gaelg) flooyr = flour
flooyr churnaght = wheaten flour
grine-flooyr = cornflour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) fflwr = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) fflŵr [fluːr], fflowr = flour (in South Wales)
fflŵr can = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman flur (flower), from the Old French flor (flower), from the Latin flōrem (flower), from flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Italic *flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (flower, blossom) [source].

The English words flour, flower, flora, blossom and bloom come from the same roots, as does the French word fleur (flower) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flowers

Words for flower, blossom and related words in Celtic languages.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *blātus = flower, blossom
Old Irish (Goídelc) bláth = flower, blossom, bloom
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth [bˠl̪ˠɑː/bˠl̪ˠaː] = blossom, flower; bloom, beauty, prime; prosperity, abundance
bláthach = floral, flowering
bláthadóir = florist
bláthadóireacht = cultivation of flowers
bláthaigh = to blossom, bloom
bláthóg = floret
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) blàth [bl̪ˠaː] = bloom, blossom, flower; consequence, effect; heyday
blàthaich = (to) flower, flourish
blàthach = flowery
Manx (Gaelg) blaa [bleː] = bloom, blossom, flower; heyday, pride
blaaghey = to bloom, blossom, bud, flourish, flower
blaagheyder = florist
blaaoil = floral, florid, flowery
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flower
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blodeuyn, blodeun, blodeuoed = flower
blodeu, blodev, bloden, blawt, blawd = flowers
Welsh (Cymraeg) blodyn [ˈblɔdɨ̞n / ˈbloːdɪn] = flower, bloom, blossoms, florets, flowering plant, petal
blodau = flowers, blooms, blossom, florets; flowering plant
blodeuad = flowering, blooming, blossoming
blodeua(f), blodeuo = to flower, bloom, blossom, bud; flourish, thrive, prosper; mature, gather flowers; to menstruate
blodeuaidd = floral, flower-like, flowering, floriform
blodeuas = bouquet
blodeuddwyn = floriferous, flower-bearing
Old Cornish blodon = flower, blossom
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blodon, bledzhian, bledzhan = flower, blossom
Cornish (Kernewek) bleujen [ˈblɛdʒən] = blossom, flower
bleujyowa = to blossom, flower
bleujyowek = flower bed
Old Breton bloduu = blossom, flower
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bleuzff = blossom, flower
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleuñv [blœ̃w] = flowers, flowering; apogee; menstruation
bleuã‘venn = flower
bleuñveg = flowerbed
bleuñvell = jewel, floret
bleuñvellek = flowery
bleuñvin = to flower, blossom, flourish

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (bloom, flower) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include bloom, blossom, blade, flower, flour and flourish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Buying and Purchasing

Words for to buy, purchase and related words in Celtic languages.

image illustrating words for to buy in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *kʷrinati = to buy
Old Irish (Goídelc) crenaid [ˈkʲrʲeniðʲθ] = to buy, purchase, sell
do·aithchren = to redeem, ransom
fo·cren [foˈkren] = to buy, purchase, hire
in·cren = to buy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crenaid = buys, obtains, sells, dispenses
do-cren = purchases
do-aithchren = buys back, redeems
fo-cren = buys, purchases, pays, hires, recompenses
Irish (Gaeilge) crean [cɾʲanˠ] = to obtain, purchase, bestow, spend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crean = to consume, remove, purchase, marketplace (obsolete)
Proto-Brythonic *prɨnad = to buy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prinit, prynnu = to buy
Welsh (Cymraeg) prynu [ˈprənɨ / ˈprəni] = to buy, purchase, exchange, redeem, ransom
prynu cath mewn cwd = to buy a pig in a poke
prynedig = bought, purchased, redeemed
prynedigaeth = redemption, buying, purchase
prynedigol = redeeming, redemptive, redeemed
prynwr, prynydd = buyer, purchaser, customer, redeemer
prynwriaeth = comsumerism, redemption
prynwriaethol = comsumerist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) prenne = to take, buy, purchase, redeem, expiate, pay for
Cornish (Kernewek) prena = to acquire, buy, purchase
prena kath yn sagh = to buy a pig in a poke
prenas = purchase
prenassa = to go shopping, to shop
prenasser, penassores = shopper
prener = buyer, customer, purchaser
Old Breton prenaff = to buy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prenaff = to buy
prener, prenouréss = buyer
Breton (Brezhoneg) prenañ = to buy
dasprenañ = to redeem
rakprenañ = to pre-purchase
prener, prenerez = buyer
prenadenn = acquisition
prener = buyer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷrinéh₂ti, from *kʷreyh₂- (to buy) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include क्रीत (krīt – bought, purchased) and क्रेता (kretā – buyer, purchaser) in Hindi [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cennach = bargin, purchase, transaction
cennaigid = to buy, purchase
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cennach = bargin, transaction, compact
cennaigid = buys, purchases, redeems, saves
cennaigtheóir = redeemer
Irish (Gaeilge) ceannaigh [ˈcan̪ˠəɟ/ˈcan̪ˠə/ˈcan̪ˠiː] = to buy, purchase, redeem, suborn, bribe
ceannach = purchase
ceannachán = purchase, purchased article
ceannaí = buyer, purchaser, dealer, merchant
ceannaíocht = buying, purchasing, dealing, trading
ceannaitheoir = buyer, purchaser, redeemer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceannaich [kʲan̪ʲɪç] = buy, purchase
ceannach = buying, purchasing, purchase, trading, commerce, trade, reward, bribe
Manx (Gaelg) chionnys = to buy. compel
chionnaghey = to buy, purchase
kionnee = to buy
kionnaghey = to buy, buy in, buying, purchase, purchasing, redeem
kionneeaght = buy, merchandise, purchase, traffic, redemption

Etymology: from the Old Irish cenn (head) and -aigid (suffix that turns a noun into a verb) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hammers

Words for hammer and related things in Celtic languages:

Hammer

Proto-Celtic *ordos = hammer
Gaulish Ordo-vices = placename, tribal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = hammer
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = sledgehammer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [ɔːr̪ˠd] = hammer; cock, hammer (of a fireman): rounded but steep mountain
òrd-fiodha = mallet
òrd-ladhrach = claw hammer
òrd-mòr = sledgehammer
Manx (Gaelg) oard = hammer, sledgehammer
oard inginagh = claw hammer
gaal-oard = steam hammer
Proto-Brythonic *orð = hammer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ord, orth, yrd, orð = hammer
Welsh (Cymraeg) gordd [ɡɔrð] = hammer, mallet, sledgehammer
gorddio = to hammer with a mallet, drive with a sledgehammer
gordd haearn = sledgehammer
gordd bren = wooden mallet
Old Breton ord = mallet, hammer,
Middle Breton orz, horz = mallet, hammer,
Breton (Brezhoneg) horzh = mallet, gavel, hammer, pestle
horzhig = sledgehammer
horzh-fuzuilh = rifle butt

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃erg-dʰh₁o-, from *h₃erg- (to perish) and *dʰeh₁- (to do) [source].

Ordovīcēs is the Latin name for a Celtic tribe who lived in what is now North Wales (where I live) and nearby parts of England. In Common Brittonic there were known as *Ordowīcī. The Ordovician geological period (c. 485 – 443 million years ago) is named after them as rocks associated with that period were first found in their former territory by Charles Lapworth in 1879 [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) casúr [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = hammer
casúr ladhrach = claw hammer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) casar [kasər] = small hammer, gavel, knocker
Manx (Gaelg) casoor = hammer (of a gun)

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman cassur, from the Latin quassō (I shake, quake, wave, flourish), from quatiō (I shake, agitate), from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeh₁t- (to shake) [source].

Words from the same Latin roots include quash (to suppress, crush) in English, casser (to break) in French, and cascar (to crack, split, hit) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Brythonic *morθul = hammer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) morthol, morthwl, morthuyl, mwrthol, myrthwyl = hammer
Welsh (Cymraeg) morthwyl [ˈmɔrθuɨ̯l / ˈmɔrθui̯l] = hammer, mallet
morthwylio = to hammer, beat with a hammer, forge
morthwylwr = hammerer
morthwylfa = forge, smithy
morthwyl drws = door knocker
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) morthol = hammer
Cornish (Kernewek) morthol = hammer, beetle, maul
mortholya = to hammer
Middle Breton morzol = hammer
morzol dor = door knocker
Breton (Brezhoneg) morzhol = hammer
morzholad = hammer blow
morzholat = to hammer
morzholer = hammerer, horthumper
morzholig = hammer
morzhol-dor, morzhol an nor = door knocker

Etymology: from the British Latin *mortulus, from the Latin martulus (hammer), from marculus (small hammer), possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *melh₂tlo-, from *melh₂- (to grind) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Swans on Llyn Padarn / Elyrch ar Lyn Padarn

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blood

Words for blood and related things in Celtic languages.

Blood

Proto-Celtic *wolis, *weli- = blood
Old Irish (Goídelc) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fuil [fulʲ] = blood, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) fuil [fˠɪlʲ / fˠɨ̞lʲ] = blood
fuilaistriú = blood transfusion
fuilbheartach = sanguinary, bloody-minded
fuilchill = blood cell
fuilchíocrach = bloodthirsty
fuilchoirpín = blood corpuscle
fuildoirteadh = bloodshed
fuiligh, cuir fola = to bleed
cú fola = bloodhound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuil [ful] = blood, family, tribe, kindred
fuileachdach = bloody, bloodthirsty
fuil-mìos = menstruation, period
brùthadh-fala = blood pressure
cion-fala = anæmia
iomlaid fala = blood transfusion
marag-fhala = black pudding
ruith-fala = haemorrhage, haemorrhoids, piles
Manx (Gaelg) fuill [fuɪlʲ] = blood, breeding, kindred
fuill-vreck = bloodstained
coo folley = bloodhound
lhiggey fuill, roie folley = to bleed
mooinjer folley = blood relation
ym-roie folley = hemophilia
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gweli, gwely, gueli = wound, cut, gash
Welsh (Cymraeg) gweli [ˈɡwɛli] = (bleeding) wound, cut, gash, ulcer, sore
gweli angheuol mortal wound
gwelïaf, gwelïo = to wound, injure, hurt, exulcerate; to fester
gwelïog = fulls of wounds, sores, ulcers, wounded, bruised
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goly = wound, mark, hurt
guli = wound
Cornish (Kernewek) goli = injury, wound
goli bew/byw = ulcer
golia = to wound
goliesiges = casualty
Middle Breton gouli, goulyow = wound, injury
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouli = wound, injury

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to wound, strike) [source]. Words from the same root include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla [source].

Proto-Celtic *krū- = blood
*krowos = blood
*krowdi- = rude
Old Irish (Goídelc) crú = gore, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) cró [kɾˠoː / kɾˠɔː] = blood, gore
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crò [krɔː] = blood, gore, blood oath
crò-dhearg = crimson
Proto-Brythonic *krow = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) crev, creu = blood
Welsh (Cymraeg) crau [kraɨ̯ /krai̯] = blood, gore, carnage, bloody
creulon = bloody, cruel, fierce, brutal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crow = gore, blood, death
Cornish (Kernewek) krow = bloodshed, gore

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kréwh₂s (blood) [source]. English words from the same root include crude and raw [source].

Proto-Celtic *wayos = blood
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guayt, guaed, gwaet = blood. gore, juice, sap
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwaed [ˈɡwaːɨ̯d /ˈɡwai̯d] = blood. gore, juice, sap
gwaedlyf haemorrhage
gwaedlyd = bloody, sanguinary
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedogen = black pudding
gwaedlyn = lymph
gwaedu = to bleed
Old Cornish guit = blood
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gois, goys, goos, gos = blood
gosys = bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) goos [ˈɡuːz] = blood, bloodline
devera goos = to bleed, lose blood
gwaskedh goos = blood pressure
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwad [ˈɡwaːt] = blood, essence
gwadañ = to bleed
gwadegenn = black pudding, blood sausage
gwadgi = bloodhound
gwadorged = incest

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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