Metal

Today we’re looking at the words for metal, ore, mines and related things in Celtic languages.

The cave at Parys mountain.

Proto-Celtic *mēnis = ore, metal, mine
Old Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
Middle Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
míanach = vein of ore, mine
míanaige = miner
Irish (Gaeilge) mianach = ore; stuff, material, substance, quality
mianadóir = miner
mianrach = mineral
mianreolaí = mineralogist
mianreolaíocht = mineralogy
mianadóireacht = mining; burrowing, excavating, digging deep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mèinn [mɛːn̪ʲ] = mine, ore
mèinnear, mèinneadair = miner
mèinnireach = mineral
mèinn-guail = coal mine, colliery
mèinn-talmhainn = landmine
mèinn salainn = salt mine
mèinneadh = mining
mèinnearach = mining
mèinn-eòlas = mineralogy
mèinneadh = mineralogical
mèinnearach = mineralogist
Manx (Gaelg) meain = ore, mine
meainagh = ore
meain-oayllys, meaineraght = metallurgy
meain-oaylee, meaineraght = mineralogist
meain arih = gold mine
meain argid = silver mine
meain chobbyr = copper mine
meain gheayil = coal mine, colliery
meain hollan = salt mine
meain leoaie = lead mine
Proto-Brythonic *muɨn = ore, metal, mine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mwyn, mŵn = mineral, ore, mine
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyn = mineral, ore, mine
mwynwr = miner, sapper
mwyn arian = silver ore, silver mine
mwyn aur = gold ore, gold mine
mwyn cellt = quartz
mwyn coch = red lead, red ochre, haematite, other red ores
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
mywn du = blacklead, graphite
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
mwyn haearn = iron ore
Cornish (Kernewek) moon = fusible metal mineral, mineral
Middle Breton *men = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) mengleuz = quarry, slate quarry, mine
mengleuzer = slate quarry worker
mengleuzerezh = mining industry
mengleuziañ = to mine
mengleuziek = mining
mengleuzier = quarryman

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *mēy(H)nis, from *(s)mēy(H)- (to cut, hew) [source].

The English word mine (an excavation from which ore or solid minerals are taken) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old French myne, mine, the Late Latin mina and Gaulish [source].

Middle Irish (Goídelc) mital(l) = metal
Irish (Gaeilge) miotal [ˈmʲɪt̪ˠəlˠ] = metal; mettle, spirit, hardihood
miotalach = metallic; mettlesome, spirited; hardy, wiry
miotalagrafaíocht = metallography
miotalóir = metallurgist
miotalóireach = metallurgic(al)
miotalóireacht = metal-work, metallurgy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotal, meiteal = metal
= miner
meatailteach = metallic
obair-mheatailtean, obair-mheatailt = metalwork, metallurgy
meatailt uasal = precious metal
Manx (Gaelg) metal = metal
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mettel = metal
Welsh (Cymraeg) metel, metal = metal, metal weapon or armour; substance, mettle, bravery, courage
metelaidd, metelig = metallic
meteleg = metallurgy
metelegol = metallurgical
metelegwr, metelegydd = metallurgist
Cornish (Kernewek) metol = metal
metolyek = metallic
Breton (Brezhoneg) metal = metal
metalerezh = metallurgy
metalour = metallurgist

Etymology (Welsh): from the Middle English metel(l), metal(l) (metal, ore), from the Old French metal (metal), from the Latin metallum (metal, precious metals, mine), from the Ancient Greek μέταλλον (métallon – metal, precious metals, mine) [source].

Etymology (Irish): from the Old French metal (metal), then as above [source].

The English word metal comes from the same roots, via Middle English, Old French, etc [source]. The word mettle (a quality of endurance and courage) was originally a variant of metal, and later came to have a figurative sense [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

italki - Win cash rewards for learning any language

Forks

Today we’re looking at words for fork, and related words, in Celtic languages.

A Fork In The Road

Proto-Celtic *gablā = fork
Gaulish gab(a)los = fork
Old Irish (Goídelc) gabul [ˈɡavul] = fork, branch, gallows, gibbet
Irish (Gaeilge) gabhal [ɡoːəl̪ˠ] = bifurcation, fork, crotch, junction
gabahlán = martin, fork
gabahlóg = fork, forked stick, forked implement
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gobahl [ɡoːəl̪ˠ] = bifurcation, fork, crotch, junction
gobahl-gleusaidh = tuning fork
gobahl-roinn = pair of compasses
gobahl-rathaid = road junction
Manx (Gaelg) goal = fork, branch, crotch, crutch, junction, perineum
goal twoaie = rainbow
Proto-Brythonic *gaβl [ˈɡaβl] =fork
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gafl, gauyl = fork
Welsh (Cymraeg) gafl [gafl] = fork, stride, lap, inner part of the thigh, groin, angle, nook
gaflach arrow, dart, lance, spear, javelin, sickle; fork, stride, hind-legs, groin
gaflachaf, gaflachu = to straddle, walk with the feet wide apart
gaflachog = armed with javelins or spears; astride, bandy-legged, furcated, forked
gaflaw = split open, cleft, forked, in two
gafliaf, gaflio = to straddle, place/sit with the legs wide apart
Cornish (Kernewek) gowl = crotch, fork
gowlek = forked
Old Breton gabl = fork
Breton (Brezhoneg) gaol = fork
gaoliek = forkful
gaoliañ = to mount, bestride, ride (a horse or bicycle)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʰeh₁bʰ- (to grab, take) [source]. The English word gable comes from the Gaulish wood gab(a)los (fork), via the Old French gable [source].

Proto-Celtic *awsetlo- = (flesh-)fork
Old Irish (Goídelc) áel [ɯːl] = trident, meatfork, flesh-fork
Irish (Gaeilge) adhal = fork, trident
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) adhal [ɤ.əl̪ˠ] = flesh-hook, flesh fork
Manx (Gaelg) aall = table fork, fleshhook

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ólos (awl) or *ēl- (awl, prong) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) forc [fork] = fork, pronged spear
Irish (Gaeilge) forc [fˠoɾˠk] = fork
forc éisc = fish fork
forc féir = hay-fork
forcáil = to fork
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) forca [ˈfɔr̪ˠxgə] = fork, cramp
forca-fheòir = hayfork
forca-spòlaidh = carving fork
Welsh (Cymraeg) fforc, fforch [fɔrk/fɔrχ]= (table) fork
fforc gig = carving-fork
fforc diwnio = tuning-fork
Cornish (Kernewek) forgh = fork
yn forgh = in fork (in good order = dry and work well – uesd in mining)
forghyes = forked
Breton (Brezhoneg) forc’h = fork
forc’had = gap, spread, distance
forc’hek = forked, bifurcated

Etymology: from the English fork, from the Middle English forke (fork, gallows), from the Old English forca (fork), from the Proto-West-Germanic *furkō (fork), from the Latin furca (fork). The Breton word comes directly from Latin [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Fingers and Toes

Words for fingers and toes in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *makro = finger
Old Irish (Goídelc) mér [mʲeːr] = finger, digit, toe
Irish (Gaeilge) méar [mʲeːɾˠ] = finger, digit, toe, leg (of crustaceans, mollusks, etc), arm (of a cuttle fish)
an mhéar thosaigh/cholbha = the forefinger, index finger
an mhéar fhada/láir/mheáin = (the) middle finger
méar an fháinne = ring finger
an mhéar bheag / lúidín / lúideog = (the) little finger
méar coise = toe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meur [miar] = finger, digit, branch (of an organisation/family), key (in music), point (of an antler), knot (in wood)
meur-meomhair = forefinger, index finger
meur-meadhain / (am) meur fada / (am) meur meadhanach = middle finger
màthair na lùdaige / mac an aba / am madadh fada = ring finger
meur beag an airgid / plaoisgeag = little finger
Manx (Gaelg) mair = finger, digit, prong, ray, (piano) key, hand (of clock), tributary (of river)
corrag / corvair = the forefinger, index finger
mair vooar = the middle finger
mair ny fainey = ring finger
mair veg = the little finger
mair chass / mair choshey = toe
mair choshey veg / mair veg ny coshey = little toe

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *mh₂ḱros (lean, meager), which is also the root of the English word meagre/meager, via Old French and Latin [source].

Proto-Celtic *bissī / *bistis = finger
Old Irish (Goídelc) biss = icicle
Welsh (Cymraeg) bys [bɨːs / biːs] = finger (of hand/glove), toe; medium, agency; hand (of clock); latch
bys bawd = thumb
bys blaen = forefinger, index finger
bys y cogwrn = middle finger (“knuckle finger”)
bys y gyfaredd = ring finger
bys bach = little finger, ear-finger; minute-hand
Old Cornish bis/bes = finger
Cornish (Kernewek) bys/bes = finger, digit
bys bras = thumb
bys rag = index finger
bys kres = middle finger
bys bysow = ring finger
bys byghan / bes bian = little finger
Breton (Brezhoneg) biz = finger, hand (of clock), tooth (of tool), leg (of anchor), tentacle, tendril
biz-meud = thumb
biz-yod = index finger
biz bras = middle finger
biz-gwalenn / biz bizou = ring finger
biz bihan / skouarnel = little finger

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷist- (twig, finger). The French word bijou (a piece of jewellry), comes from the same root, via the Breton bizoù (ring), from biz (finger). [source]

Proto-Celtic *māto = finger
Welsh (Cymraeg) bawd = thumb, big toe; claw (of crab), hoof
bawd troed = big toe
Cornish (Kernewek) meus = thumb
Breton (Brezhoneg) meud [ˈmøːt] = thumb

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mē-.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ordu = thumb, big toe
Irish (Gaeilge) ordóg [ˈəuɾˠd̪ˠoːɡ] = thumb, big toe, claw, pinces, bit, piece, fragment
ordóg coise = big toe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrdag [ɔːr̪ˠdag] = thumb, big toe
òrdag-coise / òrdag-mhór = big toe
òrdag-làimhe = thumb
òrdag bheag an airgid = little toe, little finger
Manx (Gaelg) ordaag = thumb
ordaag chass / ordaag choshey / ordaag vooar = big toe

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish ord/ordd (hammer, piece, fragment, stub), from the Proto-Celtic *ordos (hammer).

Irish (Gaeilge) ladhar [lˠaiɾˠ] = space between toes or fingers, toe, claw, prong, (clawed) hand
ladhar mhór = big toe
ladhar bheag = little toe
laidhricín = little toe, little finger
lúidín / lúideog = little finger, little toe
lúidín coise = little toe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ladhar [l̪ˠɤ.ər] = hoof, prong, toe, claw (of lobster)
ladhrag [l̪ˠɤːrag] = toe, prong, hoof
an ladhar mór = big toe
lùdag / lùdag bheag / lùdag dhubh na catha [l̪ˠuːdag] = little finger, hinge

Etymology: unknown

Laugh

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis

Salmon

Words for salmon in the Celtic languages. The species of salmon most common found around Celtic speaking lands is the Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Other species of salmon are available.

There are three words for salmon in Proto-Celtic: *esoxs / *esāk, *φenk-īnjo and *φorko. Only the first one has descendents in the modern Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *esoxs / *esāk = salmon
Gallaecian *īsis = salmon
Gaulish *esoks = salmon
Old Irish (Goídelc) eo [eːo̯] = salmon
Irish (Gaeilge) eo [oː / ɔː] = salmon; noble being, prince
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [jɔː] = salmon (archaic)
eog = salmon
Proto-Brythonic *esāx = salmon
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ehawc = salmon
Welsh (Cymraeg) eog [ˈɛ.ɔɡ / ˈeː.ɔɡ] = salmon, sea-trout, sewin, samlet
Old Cornish ehoc = salmon
Cornish (Kernewek) eghek = salmon
Middle Breton eheuc = salmon
Breton (Brezhoneg) eog = salmon

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *peysḱ- (fish).

Old Irish (Goídelc) bratán = salmon
Irish (Gaeilge) bradán [bˠɾˠəˈd̪ˠaːn̪ˠ / ˈbˠɾˠad̪ˠaːnˠ / ˈbˠɾˠɑd̪ˠɑnˠ] = salmon
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) braden [bradan] = salmon
Manx (Gaelg) braddan = salmon

Etymology: from the Old Irish brat (captivity, bondage, robbery) and án (diminutive suffix).

Welsh (Cymraeg) samon / samwn = salmon
Cornish (Kernewek) sowman = salmon
Breton (Brezhoneg) somon = salmon

Etymology: from the English salmon, from the Middle English samoun, samon, saumon (salmon), from the Anglo-Norman saumon (salmon), from the Old French saumon, from the Latin salmō (salmon), either from the Proto-Celtic *esoxs / *esāk, or from the Latin saliō (to leap).

Salmon Jumping Falls (NPS/D. Jacob)

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis

Rabbits

Words for rabbit in Celtic languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) coinín = rabbit
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coineanach [kɔn̪ʲanəx] = rabbit, bunny, coney
coinean [kɔn̪ʲan] = rabbit, bunny, coney
Manx (Gaelg) conning / conneeyn = rabbit, bunny, coney
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwningen [kʊˈnɪŋɛn] = rabbit, cony, hyrax
cwning [ˈkʊnɪŋ] = rabbit, cony, hyrax
Cornish (Kernewek) konin = rabbit
Breton (Brezhoneg) koulin / konifl / konikl = rabbit

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman conil/connil (rabbit, idiot), from Latin cunīculus (rabbit, rabbit burrow, mine, subterranean tunnel) [source]

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rabaid [r̪ˠabɪdʲ] = rabbit, bunny, coney

Etymology: from the English rabbit, from the Middle English rabet, rabette (rabbit), from the Old French rabbotte / rabouillet (baby rabbit), from the Middle Dutch robbe (rabbit, seal) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Rabbit

Sacks, bags & stomachs

Words for sack, bag, stomach in Celtic languages.

Belly up

Proto-Celtic *bolgos = sack, bag, stomach
Gaulish *bolgā = sack, bag, stomach
Old Irish (Goídelc) bolc = belly, stomach; bag, satchel; bellows
Irish (Gaeilge) bolg [ˈbˠɔlˠəɡ] = belly, stomach, abdomen; bag; bulge, broad part, middle; bellows
bolgach = big-bellied, bulging
bolgadán = corpulent person or animal
bolgán = bubble, bulb, air-bladder (of fish), puff-ball, windbag (of person)
bolgchaint = ventriloquism
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bolg [bɔl̪ˠɔg] = blister, bulge, (light) bulb
bolgach = abounding in bags/blisters, bellied, bulging, jutting, knobby
bolgadh = billowing, puffing up/out, ballooning, swelling
bolgan = (plant) bulb, lightbulb
Manx (Gaelg) bolg [bolɡ] = stomach, abdomen, belly, tummy, corporation, bilge, bowl (of lamp)
bolgagh = abdominal, bellied, billowy, blisterm bulging, puffy
bolgan = bladder, blister, sac, vesicle, bubble
Proto-Brythonic *bolɣ = sack, bag, stomach
Old Welsh bolg = belly, stomach
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bol, boly = belly, stomach
Welsh (Cymraeg) bol = belly, paunch, abdomen, stomach, bowels; tripe; appetite, desire, gluttony, liking; womb; swelling, bulge, surface, side
bolio = to gorge, belly, swell, bulge, swagger
boliog = (big-)bellied, corpulent, swollen, bulging, pregnant
Cornish (Kernewek) bolgh [bɔlx] = breach, gap, opening
bolghen = boll, capsule
Middle Breton bolc’h = flax pod
Breton (Brezhoneg) bolc’h = flax pod

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *bʰólǵʰ-os (skin bag, bolster), from *bʰelǵʰ- (to swell) [source].

English words from the same PIE root include bellows, belly, and bolster, via Old English and Proto-Germanic, billow via Old Norse and Proto-Germanic, foolish and folly via Old French and Latin [source], and bulge, budge and budget via Old French, Latin and Gaulish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Sweet

Words for sweet in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *melissis, *melisti = sweet
Old Irish (Goídelc) milis [ˈmʲilʲisʲ] = sweet
Irish (Gaeilge) milis [ˈmʲɪlʲɪʃ] = sweet, tender, tasty, fresh (water); honeyed (words), flattering
milisbhriathrach = sweet-spoken, honey-tongued
milisín = sweet morsel
militeach = honey-eating
miliúil = honey-like, honeyed
milseán = sweet, bonbon, candy; sweet dish, dessert
milseog = dessert; sweetheart, darling
milsigh = to sweeten
uisce milis = sweet/fresh water
chomh milis le míl = as sweet as honey
teange mhilis = flattering tongue
briathra milse = honeyed words
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) milis [milɪʃ] = sweet; melodious, musical; flattering
aran-milis = gingerbread
baine milis = sweet milk, condensed milk
buntàta milis = sweet potato, yam
coirce-milis = sweet corn, maize
slaman-milis = jelly
cho milis ris an t-siùcar / cho milis ris a’ mhil = as sweet as honey
Manx (Gaelg) millish = sweet, darling, sugary, dulcet, honeyed, luscious, fruity, balmy
bee millish = sweetmeat, sweet
feddan millish = recorder, fipple flute
focklyn millish = honeyed words
fooillagh millish = trifle
slumm millish = jelly
ushtey millish = fresh water
Proto-Brythonic *melɨs = sweet
Welsh (Cymraeg) melys [ˈmɛlɨ̞s/ˈmeːlɪs/ˈmɛlɪs] = sweet, pleasant-tasting, delicious, tasty; not salty, fresh (water); delightful, agreeable, pleasant, charming; sweet-sounding, euphonious, melodious; sweet-smelling, fragrant
dant melys = sweet tooth
pethau melys = sweets
tatws melys = sweet potato
Cornish (Kernewek) melys [‘mɛlɪs/’mɛləʃ] = very sweet, honeyed
kleves melys = diabetes

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *mélid (honey)), which is also the root of the English words mildew and mulch [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) chwech [χweːχ/hweːχ] = sweet
Cornish (Kernewek) hweg = sweet, dear, gentle, kind, nice, pleasant, pleasing
hweg-oll = darling, delightful, sweetest
ys hweg = sweetcorn, maize
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwek = delicate, tricky, sensitive, tactful, thoughtful, fussy, particular
mel c’hwek = sweet honey
gwin c’hwek = sweet wine

The usual Breton word for sweet is dous, which probably comes from the Old French dous (soft, tender), form the Latin dulcis (sweet, fragrant, melodious), from the Proto-Indo-European *dl̥kú- (sweet) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis