Rawness

Today we’re looking at the words for raw and related things in Celtic languages.

Raw

Proto-Celtic *omos = raw
Old Irish (Goídelc) om [oṽ] = raw, uncooked
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) om = raw, uncooked; crude, undigested, immature; rude, unrefined, barbarous
Irish (Gaeilge) amh [ˈavˠ / ˈaw] = raw, uncooked
amhábhar = raw material, staple
aimhe = rawness, crudeness
amhainse = sharpness, astuteness
amhainseach = sharp, astute
amhchaoin = rough, uncouth
amhola = crude oil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amh [af] = raw, uncooked; extra rare, blue (meat); uncouth, crude
amhachd [avəxg] = rawness
Manx (Gaelg) aw = crude, raw, uncooked, undressed
awid = crudeness, rawness, rareness
awaneagh = moron, oaf; oafish, raw, rude, uncivilsed, vain
feill aw = raw meat
ooill aw = crude oil
Proto-Brythonic *oβ̃ = raw
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) of = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) of [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = crude, untreated, uncooked, raw, bitter, sharp, nauseating, sickly
ofaf, ofi = to decompose, crumble, analyse

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour), probably from *h₂eh₃- (to be hot, burn) [source].

Words for copper and bronze in Celtic languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the word *omiyom [source].

The Greek word ὠμός [oˈmos] (raw, uncooked, crude, brutal) comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cri = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) cri [kriː] = raw, fresh, new, crude, coarse, unfulled (cloth), unleavened
bara cri = unleavened bread
defnyddiau cri = raw materials
teisen gri = griddle cake, Welsh cake
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) criv = rude, raw, green, newly made, unripe
Cornish (Kernewek) kriv = crude, fresh, raw, uncooked, unripe
krivder = rawness
gossen griv = raw umber
Middle Breton criz, cry = raw, crude, cruel, rough
Breton (Brezhoneg) kriz = raw, crude, cruel, rough
gopr kriz = gross salary
hollad kriz = gross total
obar kriz = act of barbarism

Etymology: possibly from the Latin crūdus (raw, bloody), from the Proto-Italic *krūros (bloody), from the Proto-Indo-European *kruh₂rós (bloody), from *krewh₂- (raw meat, fresh blood). The English words crude and cruel come from the same Latin root, and raw comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrwt = raw, uncooked
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrwd [ˈamrʊd] = raw, uncooked, unprocessed, undigested, crude, untreated, unrefined, rough, approximate

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *an (un-) and *brutus (boiling heat), from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to boil, brew) [source].

Other words from the Proto-Celtic root *brutus include brwd (eager, keen, passionate, zealous) and brwdfrydedd (enthusiasm) in Welsh, and bruth (heat, rash, eruption, nap, pile, surf) in Irish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bears

Words for bear in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *artos = bear
Noric *𐌀𐌓𐌕𐌄(𐌁𐌖𐌈𐌆) (Arte(budz)) = bear(?)
Gaulish *artio = bear
Old Irish (Goídelc) art [ar͈t] = bear, hero, warrior
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) art [ar̪ˠʃd] = bear (archaic), hero
Proto-Brythonic *arθ [arθ] = bear
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) arth [arθ] = bear
Welsh (Cymraeg) arth [arθ] = bear, fierce or rough person
Cornish (Kernewek) arth [ɒɹθ] = bear
Old Breton ard / arth = bear
Breton (Brezhoneg) arzh = bear

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) [Source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ursa [ur̪ˠsə] = bear
Cornish (Kernewek) ors = bear
Breton (Brezhoneg) ourz = ourz

Etymology: possibly from the Latin ursa (she-bear), from ursus (bear), from the Proto-Italic *orssos (bear), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) mathgamain [ˈmaθɣəṽənʲ] = bear
Irish (Gaeilge) mathúin [ˈmˠahuːnʲ] = bear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mathan [ˈmahan] = bear
Manx (Gaelg) maghouin = bear

Etymology: from the Old Irish math (good) and gamuin (calf) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

bears

Books

Words for book in Celtic languages:

Old Irish (Goídelc) lebor [ˈl͈ʲevor] = book
Irish (Gaeilge) leabhar [l̠ʲəuɾˠ / l̠ʲoːɾˠ] = book
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leabhar [l̪ʲo.ər] = book, volume, the Bible
Manx (Gaelg) lioar = book, tome, volume, folio
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyfr [ɬɨ̞vr / ɬɪvr] = book, volume
Old Cornish liuer = book
Cornish (Kernewek) levr = book
Old Breton librou = book
Breton (Brezhoneg) levr = book

Etymology: from the Latin liber (book, the inner bark of a tree), from Proto-Italic *lufros, from the Proto-Indo-European *lubʰrós, from *lewbʰ- (to peel, cut off, harm)[source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

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Doctor

Words for doctor in Celtic languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) dochtúir [d̪ˠɔxˈt̪ˠuːɾʲ / ˈd̪ˠʌxt̪ˠuɾʲ] = doctor
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dotair [dɔhdɛrʲ] = doctor, surgeon, physician
Manx (Gaelg) doghtoor = doctor

Etymology: from the Latin doctor (teacher, instructor), from doceō (teach), from the Proto-Italic *dokeō (tell, inform, teach, instruct), from the Proto-Indo-European *deḱ- (to take) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Dictionary of the Irish Language On-Line Manx Dictionary

Proto-Celtic *lī(φ)agi- = doctor
Old Irish (Goídelc) líaig = leech, doctor, physician
Irish (Gaeilge) lia = healer, physician
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lèigh [ʎeː] = physician, surgeon
lighiche [ʎi.ɪçə] = healer, physician, surgeon
Manx (Gaelg) (fer/ben) lhee = (male/female) doctor, physician

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European lēg(‘)- (doctor), the same root as the English word leech [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Proto-Celtic English Word List, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Dictionary of the Irish Language On-Line Manx Dictionary

Proto=Brythonic *meðïg = doctor
Welsh (Cymraeg) meddyg [ˈmɛðɪɡ / ˈmeːðɪɡ] = doctor
Cornish (Kernewek) medhek [mɛðɛk / ‘mɛðɐk] = doctor, physician
Breton (Brezhoneg) mezeg = doctor

Doctor

Etymology: from the Latin medicus (doctor), from medeor (I heal, cure, remedy), from the Proto-Italic *medēōr (to heal), from the Proto-Indo-European *med- (to measure, give advice, heal) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

To Write

Words for to write in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) scríbaid = to write
Irish (Gaeilge) scríobh [ʃcɾʲiːvˠ / ʃcɾʲiːw] = to write, fill in, fill out, compose
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgrìobh [sgrʲiːv] = to write, compose a book, record, engrave
Manx (Gaelg) screeu = to write, scribe, pen, document, inscribe
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgrifennu [əsɡrɪˈvɛnɨ̞ / əsɡrɪˈvɛni] = to write, note (down)
Cornish (Kernewek) skrifa [‘skrifa / ‘skrifɐ ] = to write
Breton (Brezhoneg) skrivañ = to write

Etymology: from Latin scrībō (I write), from Proto-Italic *skreiβō (to carve), from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kreybʰ- (to scratch, tear) [source].

Note: the Welsh word ysgrifennu is often abbreviated to sgrifennu or sgwennu is colloquial Welsh.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Teaglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau