Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Order

Words for order and related words in Celtic languages.

Cystadleuaeth Athletau TYG 2015

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = order, sequence
ordaigidir = to order, ordain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ord, ordd, ort, órd = order, sequence, arrangement, state, way, course, procedure, degree, rank, dignity, ritual, office
ord(d)ad = ordering, arranging
ord(d)aigecht = dignity, nobility
ord(d)aigid(ir) = to order, ordain, institue, appoint
ord(d)aigthe = ordered, ordained, arranged
ord(d)an = dignity, honour, pre-eminence
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = order, sequence, arrangement
ordaigh = to order, command, prescribe, ordain, recommend
ordaiteach = imperative
ordaithe = ordered, stipulated
ordan = honour, dignity, rank, pre-eminence
ordanáilte = neat, ordered
ordú = to order, command
ordúil = orderly, neat, ordered
ordúilacht = orderliness, neatness, tidiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [or̪ˠd] = order
òrdach [or̪ˠdəx] = orderly, regular
òrdachadh [or̪ˠdəxəɣ] = commanding, ordering
òrdachail [or̪ˠdəxal] = prescriptive
òrdan [or̪ˠdan] = order, statute
òrdugh [or̪ˠdu] = order, prescription, command
Manx (Gaelg) oardyr, ordyr = order
oardagh = arrangement, array, commission, decree, directive, order, rite, ritual, sequence
oardee = to bid, command, order
oarderit = ordained, ordered, regulated
oardit = appointed, authorized, decreed, ordained, ordered
oardoil = orderly, oridinal
oardreilys = order, system
Proto-Brythonic *ʉrð = order
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) urd, urdd = holy orders, order
urdav, vrdav = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office
urdein, urtyein, urtdein, urtein, vrddain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urtas, vrdas, urdas = dignity, honour, nobility
vrddassav, urddasu, vrddassv = to dignify, honour, venerate
vrdasseyd, urdasseid, vrdasseid = dignified, honourable
urtassaỼc, urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Welsh (Cymraeg) urdd [ɨ̞rð / ɪrð] = holy orders, (religious, military, chivalric, taxonomic) order, dignity, honour, discipline, rule, control, manner
urddaf, urddo = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office, ordain, crown, dub (knight), honour, elevate, dignify, dedicate
urdd(i)ain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urddas = dignity, honour, nobility, (high) rank, reputation, status
urddasaf, urddasu = to dignify, honour, venerate, revere, elevate, ennoble
urddasaidd = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble, orderly
urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Cornish (Kernewek) urdh = order
urdhas = hierarchy
urdhya = to initiate
urdhyans = initiation
Middle Breton (Brezonec) eurz, urz, vrz = order, arrangement, command
Breton (Brezhoneg) urzh [yrs] = order, right, authorisation
urzhad [ˈyrzat] = (biological) order
urzhaz = hierarchy
urzhiadur = prescription, order, arrangment, ordination
urzhiañ [ˈyrzjã] = to order, arrange, organise
urzhiataer [yr.zja.ˈtɛːr] = computer

Etymology: from Latin ōrdō (order, row, series, class, condition, group), from Proto-Italic *ordō (row, order), probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂or-d-, from *h₂er- (to fit, fix, put together). Words from the same roots include arm, art, harmony, order, ordinary, ornate and reason in English, orden (order) in Spanish and Ordnung (arrangement, regulation) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Grave Ditches

Words for graves, ditches and related things in Celtic languages:

Llanfihangel Esglai, Swydd Henffordd ☩☩☩ Michaelchurch Escley, Herefordshire

Proto-Celtic *bodyom = grave, ditch
Celtiberian arkato-bezom = silver mine (?)
Proto-Brythonic *beð = grave
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bed, bet = grave, tomb
medraud, uedraut, bedraud = burial-place, grave, sepluchre, cemetery
Welsh (Cymraeg) bedd [beːð] = grave, tomb, gravestone, tombstone, interred
beddaf, beddu, beddo = to bury
bedd-dorrwr = gravedigger
beddfa = grave, tomb, mausoleum
beddfaen = gravestone, tombstone
beddrod = tomb, vault, grave, cemetery
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bedh = grave
bedhy = to bury
Cornish (Kernewek) bedh = grave, tomb
bedhros = graveyard
bedhskrif = epitaph
Middle Breton bez = tomb, tombstone
Breton (Brezhoneg) bez = grave, tomb, sepulchre

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰedʰ- (to dig, burrow). Words from the same PIE root include fossa (ditch, trench, moat, fosse, grave) in Latin, and possibly bed in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) úag = grave
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úag, úaig = grave
Irish (Gaeilge) uaigh [uəɟ/uə] = grave
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uaigh [uəj] = grave, tomb, sepluchre
uaigh staoin = shallow grave
uaigh-thrannsa = passage grave
uaigheach = sepulchral, abounding in graves
uaigheachd = (act of) burying, burial
Manx (Gaelg) oaie, oaye = grave, pit, sepulchre

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) reillic = grave
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) reilic = burial place, relics (of saints)
reilcech = containg cemeteries
Irish (Gaeilge) reilig [ˈɾˠɛlʲɪɟ/ˈɾˠɛlʲɪc/ˈɾˠɨ̞lʲɪɟ] = graveyard, burial ground; relics
reiligire = sexton, grave-digger
reiligireacht = caring for churchyard, grave-digging
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) réilig, réileag [r̪ˠeːlɪgʲ] = burial place, ossuary, stone chest
réilig-cloiche = ossuary, stone chest
réiligeach = like a churchyard, having a churchyard
Manx (Gaelg) ruillick, rhullick = burial ground, cemetery, graveyard, necropolis, churchyard
ruillick fo-halloo = catacombs
ruillick ny moght = paupers’ grave

Etymology: from the Latin rēliquiae (remains, relics, remnants, survivors), from relinquō (I abandon, relinquish, forsake, leave), from the Proto-Italic *wrelinkʷō, ultimately from the Proto-Indo-European *leykʷ (to leave) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include loan in English, лишать [lʲɪˈʂatʲ] (to deprive, rob, bereave) in Russian, and possibly dìleab (bequest, inheritance, legacy) in Scottish Gaelic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Prison

Today we’re looking at words for prisions and related things in Celtic languages.

Carchar Lisbon / Lisbon Prison

Old Irish (Goídelc) carcar [ˈkarkar] = prison, captivity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carcar = prison, captivity, bondage, strong-room
Irish (Gaeilge) carcair [ˈkaɾˠkəɾʲ] = prison, place of confinement; stall, pen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carcair [karxgɛrʲ] = prison, coffer, sink, sewer, hermit’s cell
Manx (Gaelg) carchyr = imprisonment, jail
carchyragh = gaolbird, prisoner
Proto-Brythonic *karxar = prison, jail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) karchar, carchar, carcar = prison, gaol
karcharaur, carcharawr = prisoner
Welsh (Cymraeg) carchar [ˈkarχar] = prison, gaol, pen, stable, bond, fetter, band, chain, hobble, restriction, obstruction, impediment, constipation
carcharbwll = dungeon, prison-pit
carchardy = prison house, gaol
carchardig = imprisoned, incarcerated, confined
carchardigaeth = imprisonment, confinement
carchargell = prison cell
carchariad = imprisonment, confinement
carchariad, carcharor = prisoner
carcharu = to imprison, impound, confine, shackle, fetter, hobble, restrict, obstruct
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carhar = jail, prison
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carchar, charc’har, karc’har = prison, jail
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment
Breton (Brezhoneg) karc’har = dungeon
karc’harel = prison
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment

Etymology: from Latin carcer (prison, jail, jailbird, beginning, starting gate), from Proto-Italic *karkos (enclosure, barrier), from PIE *kr̥-kr̥- (circular), a reduplication of *(s)ker- (to turn, bend) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include incarcerate in English, carcere (jail, prison, imprisonment) in Italian, cárcere (jail, prison) in Portuguese, kerker (dungeon) in Dutch, and карцер (lockup, punishment cell, sweatbox) in Russian [source].

English words from the same PIE roots include circle, circus, corona, crisp, cross, crown and ring [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) prísún, brísún = prison
prísúntacht = imprisonment
Irish (Gaeilge) príosún [ˈpʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ] = prison, imprisonment
príosúnach = prisoner
príosúnacht = imprisonment
príosúnaigh = to imprison
príosúnú = imprisonment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) prìosan [prʲiːsən] = prison, jail
prìosanach = prisoner
prìosanachadh = imprisoning, incarcerating
Manx (Gaelg) pryssoon = brig, gaol, glasshouse, jail, lock-up, penitentiary, prison, clink
pryssoonagh = captive, detainee, internee, prisoner
pryssoonaght = detention, imprisonment, incarceration
pryssooneyder = gaoler imprisoner
Cornish (Kernewek) prison = gaol, jail, prison
prisonya = to imprison, incarcerate
prisonyans = imprisonment
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniadur, prizonierezh = imprisonment
prizon(i)añ = to imprison
prizon(i)er = prisoner
Breton (Brezhoneg) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniañ = to imprison

Etymology: from the Middle English prisoun (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Anglo-Norman pris(o)un (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Old French prison (prison) from the Latin prehensiō (seizing, apprehending, arresting, capturing), from prehendō (to seize). The Breton probably comes directly from Old French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rawness

Today we’re looking at the words for raw and related things in Celtic languages.

Raw

Proto-Celtic *omos = raw
Old Irish (Goídelc) om [oṽ] = raw, uncooked
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) om = raw, uncooked; crude, undigested, immature; rude, unrefined, barbarous
Irish (Gaeilge) amh [ˈavˠ / ˈaw] = raw, uncooked
amhábhar = raw material, staple
aimhe = rawness, crudeness
amhainse = sharpness, astuteness
amhainseach = sharp, astute
amhchaoin = rough, uncouth
amhola = crude oil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amh [af] = raw, uncooked; extra rare, blue (meat); uncouth, crude
amhachd [avəxg] = rawness
Manx (Gaelg) aw = crude, raw, uncooked, undressed
awid = crudeness, rawness, rareness
awaneagh = moron, oaf; oafish, raw, rude, uncivilsed, vain
feill aw = raw meat
ooill aw = crude oil
Proto-Brythonic *oβ̃ = raw
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) of = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) of [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = crude, untreated, uncooked, raw, bitter, sharp, nauseating, sickly
ofaf, ofi = to decompose, crumble, analyse

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour), probably from *h₂eh₃- (to be hot, burn) [source].

Words for copper and bronze in Celtic languages possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the word *omiyom [source].

The Greek word ὠμός [oˈmos] (raw, uncooked, crude, brutal) comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cri = crude, uncooked, raw
Welsh (Cymraeg) cri [kriː] = raw, fresh, new, crude, coarse, unfulled (cloth), unleavened
bara cri = unleavened bread
defnyddiau cri = raw materials
teisen gri = griddle cake, Welsh cake
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) criv = rude, raw, green, newly made, unripe
Cornish (Kernewek) kriv = crude, fresh, raw, uncooked, unripe
krivder = rawness
gossen griv = raw umber
Middle Breton criz, cry = raw, crude, cruel, rough
Breton (Brezhoneg) kriz = raw, crude, cruel, rough
gopr kriz = gross salary
hollad kriz = gross total
obar kriz = act of barbarism

Etymology: possibly from the Latin crūdus (raw, bloody), from the Proto-Italic *krūros (bloody), from the Proto-Indo-European *kruh₂rós (bloody), from *krewh₂- (raw meat, fresh blood). The English words crude and cruel come from the same Latin root, and raw comes from the same PIE root [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrwt = raw, uncooked
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrwd [ˈamrʊd] = raw, uncooked, unprocessed, undigested, crude, untreated, unrefined, rough, approximate

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *an (un-) and *brutus (boiling heat), from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrewh₁- (to boil, brew) [source].

Other words from the Proto-Celtic root *brutus include brwd (eager, keen, passionate, zealous) and brwdfrydedd (enthusiasm) in Welsh, and bruth (heat, rash, eruption, nap, pile, surf) in Irish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bears

Words for bear in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *artos = bear
Noric *𐌀𐌓𐌕𐌄(𐌁𐌖𐌈𐌆) (Arte(budz)) = bear(?)
Gaulish *artio = bear
Old Irish (Goídelc) art [ar͈t] = bear, hero, warrior
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) art [ar̪ˠʃd] = bear (archaic), hero
Proto-Brythonic *arθ [arθ] = bear
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) arth [arθ] = bear
Welsh (Cymraeg) arth [arθ] = bear, fierce or rough person
Cornish (Kernewek) arth [ɒɹθ] = bear
Old Breton ard / arth = bear
Breton (Brezhoneg) arzh = bear

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) [Source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ursa [ur̪ˠsə] = bear
Cornish (Kernewek) ors = bear
Breton (Brezhoneg) ourz = ourz

Etymology: possibly from the Latin ursa (she-bear), from ursus (bear), from the Proto-Italic *orssos (bear), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂ŕ̥tḱos (bear) [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) mathgamain [ˈmaθɣəṽənʲ] = bear
Irish (Gaeilge) mathúin [ˈmˠahuːnʲ] = bear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mathan [ˈmahan] = bear
Manx (Gaelg) maghouin = bear

Etymology: from the Old Irish math (good) and gamuin (calf) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

bears

Books

Words for book and related things in Celtic languages:

The Library, Trinity College - Dublin, Ireland

Old Irish (Goídelc) lebor [ˈl͈ʲevor] = book
lebrán = little book, booklet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lebar, lebor = book, volume, treatise, charter
lebarda, lebur(da) = bookish, learned, lettered, of or belonging to books
lebarach = of or belonging to books, written
lebrán = little book, handbook, copy, transcript
lebróir = (book) peddlar, merchant
Irish (Gaeilge) leabhar [l̠ʲəuɾˠ / l̠ʲoːɾˠ] = book
leabharbhách = bibliophile
leabharbhoth = bookstall
leabhareolaí = bibliographer
leabharlann = library
leabharlannaí = librarian
leabharach = bookish
leabharagán = bookcase
leabharán = booklet
leabharóg = libretto
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leabhar [l̪ʲo.ər] = book, volume, the Bible
leabhar-lann = library
leabhar-lannaiche = librarian
leabhar-latha = diary, journal
leabhar-pòcaid = pocketbook, wallet
leabhar-chlàr = bibliography
leabhar-d = e-book
leabhar mór-eòlais = encyclopedia
Manx (Gaelg) lioar = book, tome, volume, folio
lioaran = booklet, brochure, pamphlet, tract
lioaragh = bookish, lettered, studious, booklearned, well-read
lioaraghan = bookcase
lioarlagh = collection of books
lioarlan(n) = library
lioarlannee = librarian
lioarvark = bookmark
Proto-Brythonic *llɨβr = book
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llyvir, llyther, llyuyr, llyvyr = book, volume
llyvran = small book, booklet, pamphlet
llyfrbry, llyvrbryv = bookworm
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyfr [ɬɨ̞vr / ɬɪvr] = book, volume
llyfraf, llyfro, llyfru = to book, enter in a book, record, register, enrol
llyfran = small book, booklet, pamphlet
llyfrbryf = bookworm
llyfrdy = library, study, collection of books, bookshop
llyfreugar = fond of books
llyfrgar = bookish, studious
llyfrgell = library, study, bookshop
llyfrgellydd = librarian, book collector
llyfrifwr = book-keeper
llyfrnod = bookmark
Old Cornish liuer = book
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) levar, liver, lyvyr = book
levarva = library, bookcase
Cornish (Kernewek) lyver, lever = book
lyver dedhyow = calendar
lyver kuntel = album
lyver termyn = magazine, periodical
lyverji = bookshop
lyverva = library
lyveras, lyverades = librarian
lyvrik, lyvryn = booklet
Old Breton libr = book
Middle Breton (Brezonec) leffr, leur, leufr, levvr, levr = book
levr-dourn = manual, handbook
Breton (Brezhoneg) levr = book
levr-dorn = manual, handbook
levr-skrid = manuscript
levraoua = to look for books
levraoueg, levrdi = library
levraouegour, levrdiour = librarian
levraouek = full of books
levraouer = bibliophile, book lover
levraouerezh = bibliophilia

Etymology: from the Latin liber (book, the inner bark of a tree), from Proto-Italic *lufros, from the Proto-Indo-European *lubʰrós, from *lewbʰ- (to peel, cut off, harm). Words from the same roots include libel, library, leaf and lobby in English, and librairie (bookshop, tobacconist’s) in French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Streets

Words for street in Celtic languages.

Bilingual sign

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) sráit [sraːdʲ] = street, road
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sráit [sraːdʲ] = street, road, path, way
Irish (Gaeilge) sráid [sˠɾˠɑːdʲ / sˠɾˠæːdʲ] = street, level (surfaced) ground around house, village
sráidbhaile = village
sráideánach = villager, townsman
sráidéigeas = street singer
sráideoireacht = street-walking, strolling
sráidí = street-walker, stroller, idler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sràid [sdraːdʲ] = street, lane
sràideachd [sdraːdʲəxg] = (act of) walking the streets, (act of) pacing
sràideag [sdraːdʲag] = small lane, skip, leap, short walk, street walker
sràideamaich [sdraːdʲəmɪç] = promenade, perambulate, saunter, stroll, lounge
sràidimeachd [sdraːdʲɪməxg] = promenading, perambulating, sauntering, strolling, lounging
sràidean [sdraːdʲan] = little street
sràidearachd [sdraːdʲərəxg] = (act of) sauntering, promenading
Manx (Gaelg) straid = street, farmyard, thoroughfare
straaid = street
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stryd, ystryd, ystryt = street, (main) road, highway
Welsh (Cymraeg) (y)stryd, (y)strŷt = street, (main) road, highway
strydgall = streetwise
stryd fawr = high street, main street
stryd unffordd = one-way street
Cornish (Kernewek) stret [strɛ:t / stre:t] = street
stret unfordh = one-way street
stretwikor, stretwikores = street-trader
stretyn = alley, little street
Middle Breton (Brezonec) strehet = alley, lane, road
Breton (Brezhoneg) straed [ˈstrɛːt] = alley, lane, road narrow path, throat
straed-dall = cul-de-sac

Etymology: from the Old Norse stræti (street) or the Old English strǣt (road, street), from the Proto-Germanic *strātō (street), both of which come from the Late Latin strāta (a paved road), from strātus (stretched out, spread out), from Proto-Italic *strātos, from PIE *str̥h₃tós (stretched, spread) [source].

From the same roots we get words such as stratum, stratus (cloud), and strategy in English, estrato (layer, stratum) in Spanish, στρατός [stɾaˈtos] (army) in Greek, and words for (flat) valley in Celtic languages, such as srath in Irish and Scottish Gaelic, and ystrad in Welsh [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Doctor

Words for doctor in Celtic languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) dochtúir [d̪ˠɔxˈt̪ˠuːɾʲ / ˈd̪ˠʌxt̪ˠuɾʲ] = doctor
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dotair [dɔhdɛrʲ] = doctor, surgeon, physician
Manx (Gaelg) doghtoor = doctor

Etymology: from the Latin doctor (teacher, instructor), from doceō (teach), from the Proto-Italic *dokeō (tell, inform, teach, instruct), from the Proto-Indo-European *deḱ- (to take) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Dictionary of the Irish Language On-Line Manx Dictionary

Proto-Celtic *lī(φ)agi- = doctor
Old Irish (Goídelc) líaig = leech, doctor, physician
Irish (Gaeilge) lia = healer, physician
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lèigh [ʎeː] = physician, surgeon
lighiche [ʎi.ɪçə] = healer, physician, surgeon
Manx (Gaelg) (fer/ben) lhee = (male/female) doctor, physician

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European lēg(‘)- (doctor), the same root as the English word leech [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Proto-Celtic English Word List, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Dictionary of the Irish Language On-Line Manx Dictionary

Proto=Brythonic *meðïg = doctor
Welsh (Cymraeg) meddyg [ˈmɛðɪɡ / ˈmeːðɪɡ] = doctor
Cornish (Kernewek) medhek [mɛðɛk / ‘mɛðɐk] = doctor, physician
Breton (Brezhoneg) mezeg = doctor

Doctor

Etymology: from the Latin medicus (doctor), from medeor (I heal, cure, remedy), from the Proto-Italic *medēōr (to heal), from the Proto-Indo-European *med- (to measure, give advice, heal) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau