Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Battle

Words for battle and related words in Celtic languages.

St Fagan's National Museum of Wales

Proto-Celtic *katus = battle
*Katutigernos = “battle lord/master” (male name)
*Katuwelnāmnos = “battle ruler” (male name)
Gaulish Katutigernos (male name)
Primitive Irish ᚉᚐᚈᚈᚒ (cattu) = battle
Old Irish (Goídelc) cath [kaθ] = battle, fight, troop, battalion
cathach = bellicose, warlike
cathaigecht = warfare
cathaige = warrior
cathaigid = to fight, give battle
cocad = war, conflict (from com (with) and cath)
Irish (Gaeilge) cath [kah] = battle, conflict, trial, battalion
cathach = battling, warlike
cathaí = battler, fighter
cathaigh to battle, fight, tempt
cogadh [ˈkɔɡə/ˈkʌɡu] = war, warfare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cath [kah] = battle, fight, contest, struggle, battalion, warfare
cathach = warlike
cath nan con = dogfight
cath-thuagh = battle axe
blàr-catha = battlefield
gairm-chatha = warcry
cogadh [kogəɣ] = war, fighting, warfare
Manx (Gaelg) cah = military action battle
crooseyr cah = battle-cruiser
caggey [ˈkaːɣə] = war, fight, scrap, combat, campaign, clash, battle
Proto-Brythonic *kad = battle
*Kadüdɨɣern (male name)
*Kaduwallọn (male name)
Old Welsh Categern, Catigern (male name)
Cadwallawn (male name)
Categern, Catigern (male name)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kad, kat = battle
Cattegirn (male name)
Catgollaun, Catguallaun, Katwallaun (male name)
Welsh (Cymraeg) cad [kaːd] = battle, conflict, war, strife, struggle, trouble, army, host, throng, multitude, band
cad ar faes = at loggerheads
cadfan = battlefield
Cadfan (male name) = 6th century Breton missionary to Wales [more details]
Cadeyrn (male name)
Cadwallon (male name)
Cornish (Kernewek) kas = armed conflict, battle
Kaswallawn (male name)
Old Breton Kaduuallon, Catuuallon (male name)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kad = battle
Kadwallawn (male name)

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *kéh₃tus (fight), which is also the root of the German words Hader (dispute, quarrel) and hadern (to bicker, quarrel, struggle) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Seasons

Words for seasons in Celtic languages.

Spring

Proto-Celtic *wesrakos / *wesantos = spring
Old Irish (Goídelc) errach [ˈer͈ax] = spring
Irish (Gaeilge) earrach [əˈɾˠax / ˈaɾˠəx / ˈaɾˠa(h)] = spring
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) earrach [jar̪ˠəx] = spring
Manx (Gaelg) arragh [ˈarax] = spring
Proto-Brythonic *wesantēnos = spring
Old Welsh guiannuin = spring
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwaeanhwyn / gwaeannwyn / gwannwyn = spring
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanwyn [ˈɡwanwɨ̞n / ˈɡwanwɪn] = spring, springtime
Old Cornish guaintoin = spring
Cornish (Kernewek) gwaynten = spring
Breton (Brezhoneg) nevez-amzer = spring

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *wósr̥ (spring) [source].

Spring Blossom / Blodau y Gwanwyn

Summer

Proto-Celtic *samos = summer
Gaulish samo- = summer
Old Irish (Goídelc) sam [saṽ] / samrad [ˈsaṽrað] = summer
Irish (Gaeilge) samhradh [ˈsˠəuɾˠə / ˈsˠəuɾˠuː / ˈsˠəuɾˠu] = summer, summer garland
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) samhradh [sãũrəɣ] = summer
Manx (Gaelg) sourey [ˈsaurə] = summer
Proto-Brythonic *haβ̃ = summer
Old Welsh ham = summer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) haf = summer
Welsh (Cymraeg) haf [haːv / haː] = summer
Old Cornish haf = summer
Cornish (Kernewek) hav = summer
Old Breton ham = summer
Middle Breton haff = summer
Breton (Brezhoneg) hañv = summer

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-h₂-ó- (summer) [source].

King John's Castle / Caisleán Luimnigh

Autumn

Old Irish (Goídelc) fogamar / fogomur [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = autumn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fogamur = harvest
Irish (Gaeilge) fómhar [ˈfˠoːɾˠ / ˈfˠoːvˠəɾˠ / ˈfˠɔːwəɾˠ] = autumn, harvest season, harvest
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foghar [fo.ər] = autumn, harvest, (act of) harvesting
Manx (Gaelg) fouyr = harvets, autumn
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heduref / heduueref = autumn
possibly from hydd (stag) &‎ bref (bellow)
Welsh (Cymraeg) hydref [ˈhədrɛ(v) / ˈhədra] = autumn, period of full maturity, rutting season, mating time
Cornish (Kernewek) hedra / kynnyay / kydnyadh = autumn
Breton (Brezhoneg) here / kozhamzer / diskar-amzer = autumn

Etymology (Goidelic languages), from the Proto-Celtic *wo-gamur (under winter) from *gamur (winter) [source].

autumn falls...

Winter

Proto-Celtic *gyemos / *gamur = winter
Gaulish giamos = winter (personal name)
Primitive Irish ᚌᚐᚋᚔ- (gami/gen) = winter
Old Irish (Goídelc) gam / gaim = winter, winter storm
gaimred [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = winter
Irish (Gaeilge) geimhreadh [ˈɟiːɾʲə / ˈɟiːvʲɾʲə / ˈɟɛvʲɾʲu] = winter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geamhradh [gʲãũrəɣ] = winter
Manx (Gaelg) geurey [ˈɡʲeurə / ˈɡʲuːrə] = winter
Old Welsh gaem = winter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gayaf = winter
Welsh (Cymraeg) gaeaf [ˈɡeɨ̯av / ˈɡei̯av] = winter
Old Cornish goyf = winter
Cornish (Kernewek) gwav / gwâv = winter
Old Breton guoiam = winter
Middle Breton gouaff = winter
Breton (Brezhoneg) goañv [ˈɡwãw / ˈɡwã] = winter

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰyem- (winter, year, frost, snow) [source].

Coed efo eira arno

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the seasons, days and seasons in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Crows and Ravens

Words for crow and raven in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *branos = crow, raven
Gaulish Branodūnon = place name
Primitive Irish ᚁᚏᚐᚅᚐ brana = crow, raven
Old Irish (Goídelc) bran [bran] = crow, raven
Irish (Gaeilge) bran = raven
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bran [bran] = raven (corvus corax)
Proto-Brythonic *bran = crow, raven
Welsh (Cymraeg) brân [braːn] = crow, rook, raven; warrior; crowbar
branos = little crows, young crows; warriors
cigfran = raven
Cornish (Kernewek) bran [bɹæːn] = crow
branvras = raven
Breton (Brezhoneg) bran = raven, crow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *werneh₂- (crow), from *wer- (to burn) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fennóc = a scald; royston crow (hooded crow)
Irish (Gaeilge) feannóg = (hooded) crow (corvus cornix)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feannag [fjan̪ˠag] = crow, rook
Manx (Gaelg) fannag = crow, crake

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *wesākos = raven, grebe
Old Irish (Goídelc) fiach, fíach [fʲi.əx] = raven
Irish (Gaeilge) fiach [ˈfʲiəx] = raven
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fitheach [fi.əx] = raven
Manx (Gaelg) feeagh = crake, raven
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyach [ɡʊɨ̯.aχ /ɡʊi̯.aχ] = grebe

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *wes- (to feed, feast) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Raven.

Hound Dogs

Words for dog in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *kū = dog, wolf
Gaulish cuna = dog
Primitive Irish ᚉᚒᚅᚐ (cuna) = hound, wolf
Old Irish (Goídelc) [kuː] = dog
Irish (Gaeilge) [kuː] = dog, hound, greyhound; wolf; hero, champion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [kuː] = dog, canine
Manx (Gaelg) coo [kuː] = dog, cur, hound, wolf-dog
Proto-Brythonic ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ci / ki = dog
Welsh (Cymraeg) ci [kiː] = dog, hound, cur
Old Cornish ci = dog
Cornish (Kernewek) ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Breton ci / qui = dog
Breton (Brezhoneg) ki [kiː] = dog

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog), which is also the root of the English words hound and canine [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) madrad, matrad = dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) matad = common dog, cur
Irish (Gaeilge) madra [ˈmˠad̪ˠɾˠə] / madadh [ˈmˠad̪ˠə / ˈmˠad̪ˠu] = dog, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) madadh [madəɣ] = dog, mastiff
Manx (Gaelg) moddey [ˈmɔːðə] = dog, tyke
Welsh (Cymraeg) madyn / madog = fox

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) gagar [ɡaɣər] = beagle, hunting dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gadar = beagle, hunting dog
Irish (Gaeilge) gadhar [ɡəiɾˠ] = (hunting) dog, harrier, beagle, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gadhar [gɤ.ər] = lurcher, mastiff, greyhound

Etymology: from the Old Norse gagarr [source].

Proto-Celtic *kulēnos = whelp
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuilén [ˈkulʲeːn] = puppy, cub, kitten
Irish (Gaeilge) coiléan [kɪˈlʲaːn̪ˠ] = pup, cub, whelp; youth, scion; trickster
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuilean [kulan] = puppy, whelp; cub; seal pup; darling, dear; short/small bone
Manx (Gaelg) quallian = puppy
Welsh (Cymraeg) colwyn [kiː] = whelp, puppy, cub; lap-dog; spaniel
Old Cornish coloin = puppy
Cornish (Kernewek) kolen [ˈkɔlɪn] = puppy, cub
Breton (Brezhoneg) kolen = puppy, fawn, rabbit

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Irish (Gaeilge) cana [ˈkanˠə] = cub, whelp; bardic poet of fourth order
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cana [kanə] = puppy, whelp
Welsh (Cymraeg) cenau / cenaw = cub, whelp, puppy, kitten; son, descendant, scion, young warrior; knave, imp, rascal; catkin, cat’s tail

Etymology: possibly from the Latin canis (dog), from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog) [source], or from the Proto-Celtic *kanawo (young animal).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Irish Wolfhounds

Badgers

Words for badger in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *brokkos = badger
Gaulish *broco / *brokkos = badger
Primitive Irish ᚁᚏᚑᚉᚔ (broci) = badger (genitive)
Old Irish (Goídelc) brocc [brok] = badger
Irish (Gaeilge) broc [bˠɾˠɔk / bˠɾˠʌk] = badger, dirty-faced person, short thick-set person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) broc [brɔxg] = badger, wolf (obselete)
Manx (Gaelg) brock = badger
Proto-Brythonic *brox = badger
Welsh (Cymraeg) broch [broːχ] = badger
Old Cornish broch = badger
Cornish (Kernewek) brogh [bɹoːx] = badger
Breton (Brezhoneg) broc’h [ˈbʁoːx] = badger, quarrel

Etymology: unknown, possibly cognate with Old High German braccho (sniffer dog) [Source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) mochyn daear / daearfochyn = badger

Etymology: from the Welsh mochyn (pig) and daear (earth, ground) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Badgers, Dinefwr Park, Llandeilo

Horses

Words for horse, stallion, mare and foal in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *kapallos = horse
Gaulish *caballos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) capall [ˈkapal͈] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) capall [ˈkapˠəl̪ˠ] = horse, mare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) capall [kahbəl̪ˠ] = mare, colt, horse, small horse
Manx (Gaelg) cabbyl = horse
Proto-Brythonic *kappilos = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keffyl, ceffyl = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceffyl [ˈkɛfɨ̞l / ˈkɛfɪl] = horse, nag, hobby
Middle Cornish cevil, kevil = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) kefel = horse

Etymology: uncertain – related to the Late Latin caballus (horse, nag), which is thought to come from the Gaulish caballos [source].

Proto-Celtic *markos = horse
Galatian *μάρκαν (márkan) = horse
Gaulish *markos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) marc [mark] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) marc [mˠaɾˠk] = horse (literary / archaic)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc [marxk] = charger (warhorse – literary)
Manx (Gaelg) mark-sleih = horseman
Proto-Brythonic *marx = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) march = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) march [marχ] = horse, stallion, war-horse, steed
Old Cornish march = horse
Middle Cornish march = horse
Cornish (Kernewek) margh [ˈmaɾx] = horse
Old Breton marh = horse
Middle Breton march = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’h [ˈmaʁχ] = horse, easel

Etymology: thought to be from the Proto-Indo-European *márkos, which is also the root of the English words mare and marshal, the French word maréchal (marshal), and related words in other languages [source].

Related words

Irish (Gaeilge) marcach = horseman, rider, jockey; cavalryman, Cavalier
marcachas = horsemanship
marchaigh = to ride
marcaíocht = riding, horsemanship, ride drive lift
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc-shluagh = horsemen, riders, cavalry
marchach = equestrian, mounted; riding
Welsh (Cymraeg) marchaidd = pertaining to a horse, horsy, horselike, equine
marchallu = horsepower
marchasyn = jackass, male donkey
marchdy = stable
marchfeddyg = horse doctor, farrier
marchfilwr = dragoon, cavalryman, cavalier, trooper
marchog = horseman, rider, jockey, mounted warrior, knight
Cornish (Kernewek) marghek = knight, rider
margh-leska = rocking horse
marghnerth = horsepower
marghogeth = to ride (a horse)
marghti = stable
horn margh = horseshoe
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’heg = knight
Proto-Celtic *ekʷos [ˈe.kʷos] = horse
Celtiberian ekua- = horse
Gaulish epos = horse
Primitive Irish *ᚓᚊᚐᚄ (*eqas) [exʷah] = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) ech [ex] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) each [ax] = horse (archaic)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) each [ɛx] = horse
Manx (Gaelg) agh [ax] = steed, riding horse
Proto-Brythonic *eb [ɛːb] = horse
Old Welsh eb = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ep, ebawl = colt, foal
Welsh (Cymraeg) ebol [ˈɛbɔl / ˈeːbɔl] = colt, foal, sucker
cyfeb = mare in foal
Middle Cornish ebol, ebel = foal, colt
Cornish (Kernewek) ebel = horse
Old Breton eb = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) ebeul [ˈe.bøl] = foal
keneb = mare in foal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁éḱwos, which is also the root of the Latin word for horse, equus, and the English word equine [source]. The horse goddess, Epona, may be related as well.

Proto-Celtic *uɸorēdos = horse
Gaulish *werēdos = horse
Proto-Brythonic *gworuɨð = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gorwydd = steed, horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) gorwydd = steed, horse

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (under) and *rēdo- (to ride; riding, chariot), from Proto-Indo-European *(H)reydʰ- (to ride) [source].

Proto-Celtic *(φ?)lārek- = mare
Old Irish (Goídelc) láir = mare
Irish (Gaeilge) láír [l̪ˠɑːɾʲ] = mare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làir [l̪ˠaːrʲ] = mare
Manx (Gaelg) laair = mare

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kankstikaā = mare
Welsh (Cymraeg) caseg [ˈkasɛg] = mare
Old Cornish cassec = mare
Cornish (Kernewek) kasek = mare
Breton (Brezhoneg) kazeg = mare

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱanḱest-/*kankest- (horse) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) serrach = colt, faol
Irish (Gaeilge) searrach = colt, faol
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searrach [ʃɛr̪ˠəx] = colt, faol, filly
Manx (Gaelg) sharragh = faol

Etymology: unknown [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Newborough beach

Bald & bare

Words for bald / bare in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *mailos = bald, bare
Primitive Irish ᚋᚐᚔᚂᚐᚌᚅᚔ (mailagni) = bald, bare
Old Irish (Goídelc) máel [maːi̯l] = bald, bare, shaved, shorn, tonsured; (of cattle) hornless; blunt, flattened, obtuse, pointless, exposed, defenceless
Irish (Gaeilge) maol [mˠeːl̪ˠ / mˠiːlˠ] = bald, bare, unprotected; flat (in music)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) maol [mɯːl̪ˠ] = bare, blunt, hornless, polled; easily deceived; dense, dull; flat (in music)
Manx (Gaelg) meayl = bald, hairless, bleak (place), hornless, obtuse; flat (in music)
Proto-Brythonic *moɨl = bold
Old Welsh mail = sea
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) moel = sea
Welsh (Cymraeg) moel [moːɨ̯l / mɔi̯l] = bald, bald-headed, crop-haired, tonsured, beardless; bare, barren, mere; unadorned, plain, discourteous, barefaced; empty (hands); hornless, earless; lacking a tower (of a castle), defective; (bare) mountain, (treeless) hill, top of a hill or mountain, summit, mound; heap
Cornish (Kernewek) mool = bald, bare
Middle Breton moel = bald, bare
Breton (Brezhoneg) moal = bald, bare, naked

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Proto-Germanic *maitaną (cut) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Sumburgh Head

Seas

Words for sea in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *mori = sea
Primitive Irish *ᚋᚑᚏᚔᚅ (*morin) = sea
Old Irish (Goídelc) muir = sea
Irish (Gaeilge) muir = sea
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muir [murʲ] = sea
Manx (Gaelg) mooir = sea
Proto-Brythonic *mor = sea
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mor = sea
Welsh (Cymraeg) môr [moːr] = sea, ocean, the deep; plenty, abundance, copiousness
Old/Middle Cornish mor = sea
Cornish (Kernewek) mor = sea
Old/Middle Breton mor = sea
Breton (Brezhoneg) mor = sea

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European móri (sea, standing water), from *mer- (sea, lake, wetland), which is also the root for the English word mere, as in Windermere [source].

In Welsh there is another word for sea: gweilgi, which also means ocean, the deep, flood or torrent. It comes from gwae (woe, great misery, affliction, distress, anguish, trouble, adversity) and ci (dog).

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Newquay

Names

Words for name in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *anman = name
Gaulish anuana = name
Primitive Irish ᚐᚅᚋ (anm) = name
Old Irish (Goídelc) ainmm, ainm [anʲmʲ] = name, reputation, repute, renown; noun
Irish (Gaeilge) ainm [ˈanʲəmʲ] = name, reputation, noun
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ainm [ɛnɛm] = name, denomination, title
Manx (Gaelg) ennym [ɛnɛm] = name, noun, epithet, designation, title of book, figurehead
Proto-Brythonic *anw [ˈanw] = name
Old Welsh anu = name
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) enw = name
Welsh (Cymraeg) enw [ˈɛnʊ / ˈeːnu] = name, appellation, appellative; title, denomination, term, name or title; noun
Cornish (Kernewek) hanow [‘hanɔʊ / ‘hænɔ] = name, noun, substantive
Middle Breton hanu, anff = name
Breton (Brezhoneg) anv [ˈɑ̃n.o] = name, noun

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁nómn̥ (name) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Useful phrases

What’s your name?

  • Irish: Cén t-ainm atá ort? Cad is ainm duit? C’ainm atá ort?
  • Scottish Gaelic: Dè an t-ainm a th’ort
  • Manx: Cre’n ennym t’ort?
  • Welsh: Beth ydy dy enw di?
  • Cornish: Pyth yw dha hanow?
  • Breton: Petra eo da anv? Pe anv out?

My name is …

  • Irish: Is mise … / Mise … / … is ainm dom
  • Scottish Gaelic: Is mise …
  • Manx: Ta’n ennym orrym … / Mish …
  • Welsh: … dwi / … ydw i
  • Cornish: Ow hanow yw …
  • Breton: … eo ma anv

More phrases in:
Irish, Scottish Gaelic, Manx, Welsh, Cornish, Breton