Meaty Flesh

Today we’re looking at the words for meat, flesh, breast and related things in Celtic languages.

MEAT

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kīkos = breast
Primitive Irish ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐ (ccica-) = breast
ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐᚋᚔᚅᚔ (ccicamini) = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) cích [kʲiːx] = breast
Cíchmuine [ˈkʲiːxmunʲe] = male given name
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cích [kʲiːx] = pap, breast, nipple, teat
cíchech, cīgech [ˈkʲiːxʲəx] = big-chested
Cichmuine, Cichmhuine, Cíchmaine = male given name
Irish (Gaeilge) cíoch [ciəx] = breast, pap, papilla, protuberance
cíochach = mammary
cíochbheart = bra(ssiere)
cíoch-chruthach = mammiform
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cìoch [kʲiəx] = breast, pap
cìochach [kʲiəxəx] = mammary, pertainning to breasts, ample-bosomed
cìochag
cìoch [kʲiəxag] = valve, small breast
cìocharan [kʲiəxan] = suckling infant
Manx (Gaelg) keeagh [kiːx] = breast, bud, nipple, pap, teat
keeaghagh = mammary
Proto-Brythonic *kig = meat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cic, kic = meat
cigva meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cicbran, cicuran, kigvrain, kicfran = raven
kicawc, kigawc = meaty, fleshy
kiccyd, kygyd, kigydd = butcher
Welsh (Cymraeg) cig [kiːɡ] = meat, flesh
cigaf, cigo = to fatten, become fleshy
cigaidd = meaty, fleshy, bloody, cruel, carnivorous,
cigfa meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cigfran = raven
cigog = meaty, fleshy
cigydd = butcher
Old Cornish cic, chic = meat, flesh
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cig, kig = meat, flesh
cigliu = flesh-coloured
cigver, kiguer = flesh-fork
Cornish (Kernewek) kig = meat, flesh
kiger, kigores = butcher
kigereth = butchery, slaughterhouse
kigliw = flesh (colour), pink
kigti, kigva = butcher’s, butchery, slaughterhouse
Old Breton cic = meat, flesh
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quic = meat, flesh
quicguec = fleshy, muscled
Breton (Brezhoneg) kig [kiːk] = meat, flesh
kigder = overweight
kigek = fleshy, muscular, plump
kigenn [ˈkiːɡɛn] = complexion, muscule
kigennan, kigennañ = to build muscule, to heal
kigennek [kiˈɡɛnːek] = muscule
kiger [ˈkiːɡɛr] = butcher
kigerezh [ki.ˈɡɛː.rɛs] = butcher’s shop

Etymology: assumed to be of expressive/imitative origin [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) brollach = breast, bosom, chest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brollach, brothlach = breast, bosom, chest
Irish (Gaeilge) brollach [bˠəɾˠˈl̪ˠax/ˈbˠɾˠɔl̪ˠəx] = breast, bosom, front, beginning, preface, prologue
brollaiocht = close wrestling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brollach [brɔl̪ˠəx] = bosom, breast, bust, chest, brisket
Manx (Gaelg) brollagh = bosom, breast

Etymology: related to the Old Irish bruinne (breast) and brú (belly) [source]. See also the post about Hills

Proto-Celtic *weɸolis = flesh, meat (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) feóil, féuil [fʲeːu̯lʲ] = flesh, meat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) feóil, feól = flesh, meat
feólaigid = to make or form flesh
feólairecht = butchery, slaughter
feólamail = the flesh, worldly
feólmar = fleshy
Irish (Gaeilge) feoil [fʲoːlʲ/fʲɔːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feoilteach = carnivorous
feoilteoir = carnivore
feoilséantóir = vegetarian
feoilaire = butcher
feoilmhar = fleshy, fat, flabby
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feòil [fjɔːl̪ˠ] = flesh, meat
feòil-itheach [fjɔːl̪ˠ içəx] = carnivorous
feòil-itheadair [fjɔːl̪ˠ içədɪrʲ] = carnivore
feòil-sheachnair = vegetarian
Manx (Gaelg) feill [feːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feillagh = fleshy, meaty
feill-eeagh = carnivorous
feilleyder = butcher
feill-haghnagh = vegetarian (adj)
feill-haghneyder = vegetartian (person)

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cnes = skin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cnes, cnis, cneis, cneas = skin, surface, body, flesh, bosom, breast
Irish (Gaeilge) cneas [cnʲasˠ/cɾʲasˠ] = skin, good appearance
cneasach = covered with skin, cutaneous
cneasaí = close companion, spouse, healer
cneasaigh = to cicatrize, heal
cneasluiteach = skintight
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cneas [krʲẽs] = skin, bosom
cneasachadh [krʲesəxəɣ] = (act of) squeezing, tightening, pressing, making slender, curing, healing
Proto-Brythonic *knōto- = flesh (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) knaud, cnaut, knaỽt, knawt = flesh
knowdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
knaỽtaỽl, knaỽdaỽl, knoawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnawd [knau̯d] = flesh
cnawdaidd = pertaining to the flesh, carnal
cnawd(i)edig = fleshy, carnal
cnawdiad = incarnation, putting on of flesh
cnawdiaf, cnawdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
cnawdig = fleshy, carnal, fat, plump
cnawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Cornish (Kernewek) kneus = skin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kneud = carnality, fleshliness (?)

Etymology: possibly from PIE *kneu-t- [source].

More Celtic words for breast and meat can be found on the posts about Hills, Central Hearts, Baskets, Wings, Bones, Fatty Lard and Food

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ceilidh Companions

Words for companion, ceilidh and related things in Celtic languages.

Cèilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
Ceilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig in the Isle of Skye / Cèilidh aig Sabhal Mòr Ostaig san Eilean Sgitheanach

Proto-Celtic *kēlyos = companion, servant
Primitive Irish ᚉᚓᚂᚔ (celi) = follower, devotee (genitive)
Old Irish (Goídelc) céile [ˈkʲeːlʲe] = client, companion, husband, liege, servant, spouse, subject, vassal
céilide [ˈkʲeːlʲiðʲe] = visit, visiting
coicéile = companion, comrade, friend, friendship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) céile, ceile, céli = servant, bondsman, vassal, subject, fellow, companion, husband
céileachas = adultery
céilide = visit, act of visiting
coicéile, cocéle, coceli = vassal, bondsman, companion, fellow, friend
coicéilsine, cocéilsine, cocélsine = fellowship, clientship
Irish (Gaeilge) céile [ˈceːlʲə] = companion, spouse
céileachas = companionship, cohabitation, copulation
céilí = friend call, visit, social evening, Irish dancing session
céilíoch = person fond of social visits, sociable person
céilíocht = sociableness, companionableness
céiliúil = companionable
coigéile = mate, companion
coigéilsine = fellowship, companionship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cèile [kʲeːlə] =fellow, partner, significant other, spouse, counterpart
cèile-còmhraige = opponent, antagonist
cèile-pòsta = married partner (husband or wife)
cèileach [kʲeːləx] = entertaining
cèileachadh [kʲeːləxəɣ]= participating/sharing in, twinning, partnering (of a city)
cèiliche [kʲeːlɪçə] = visitor
cèilidh [kʲeːlɪ] = ceilidh, visit, (act of) visiting
cèilidheach [kʲeːlɪjəx] = companionable, fond of company, sociable
Manx (Gaelg) keilley = match
dy cheilley = joined, together
e cheilley = fellow
ry-cheilley =en masse, together, with each other
kaylee = ceilidh
Proto-Brythonic *kuɨlð = servant, companion
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cilit, cilid, kilid, kilyd = servant, companion
Welsh (Cymraeg) cilydd [ˈkɪlɨ̞ð/ˈkiːlɪð] = fellow, companion, neighbour, enemy, other
cilyddol = reciprocal, mutual
at ei gilydd = together
gyda’i gilydd = together
ei gilydd = each other
o bryd i’w gilydd = from time to time
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cele = companion, fellow, one of two
Cornish (Kernewek) kila = companion
Old Breton kiled = friend
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kile = the other (one), friend
Breton (Brezhoneg) kile = associate, stooge, colleague, sidekick

Etymology: possibly the Proto-Celtic word originally meant ‘wayfarer’, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱey- (to settle, to be lying down) [source].

The English word ceilidh [ˈkeɪli] (an informal social gathering where traditional Irish or Scottish folk music is played, with dancing and storytelling; a ceilidh dance; to dance a ceilidh) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic and/or from Irish [source]. Someone who attends a ceilidh is apparently a ceilidher [source].

The Welsh equivalent of a ceilidh is a twmpath, which also meanings hillock, knoll, mound, pile, gathering or assembly. It’s also a known as a twmpath dawns (folk-dance, barn dance, public dance) or noson lawen (“merry/joyful evening”). In Cornish a ceilidh is a troyll, which also means spiral or swirl, and in Breton they are known as fest-noz [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Battle

Words for battle and related words in Celtic languages.

St Fagan's National Museum of Wales

Proto-Celtic *katus = battle
*Katutigernos = “battle lord/master” (male name)
*Katuwelnāmnos = “battle ruler” (male name)
Gaulish Katutigernos (male name)
Primitive Irish ᚉᚐᚈᚈᚒ (cattu) = battle
Old Irish (Goídelc) cath [kaθ] = battle, fight, troop, battalion
cathach = bellicose, warlike
cathaigecht = warfare
cathaige = warrior
cathaigid = to fight, give battle
cocad = war, conflict (from com (with) and cath)
Irish (Gaeilge) cath [kah] = battle, conflict, trial, battalion
cathach = battling, warlike
cathaí = battler, fighter
cathaigh to battle, fight, tempt
cogadh [ˈkɔɡə/ˈkʌɡu] = war, warfare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cath [kah] = battle, fight, contest, struggle, battalion, warfare
cathach = warlike
cath nan con = dogfight
cath-thuagh = battle axe
blàr-catha = battlefield
gairm-chatha = warcry
cogadh [kogəɣ] = war, fighting, warfare
Manx (Gaelg) cah = military action battle
crooseyr cah = battle-cruiser
caggey [ˈkaːɣə] = war, fight, scrap, combat, campaign, clash, battle
Proto-Brythonic *kad = battle
*Kadüdɨɣern (male name)
*Kaduwallọn (male name)
Old Welsh Categern, Catigern (male name)
Cadwallawn (male name)
Categern, Catigern (male name)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kad, kat = battle
Cattegirn (male name)
Catgollaun, Catguallaun, Katwallaun (male name)
Welsh (Cymraeg) cad [kaːd] = battle, conflict, war, strife, struggle, trouble, army, host, throng, multitude, band
cad ar faes = at loggerheads
cadfan = battlefield
Cadfan (male name) = 6th century Breton missionary to Wales [more details]
Cadeyrn (male name)
Cadwallon (male name)
Cornish (Kernewek) kas = armed conflict, battle
Kaswallawn (male name)
Old Breton Kaduuallon, Catuuallon (male name)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kad = battle
Kadwallawn (male name)

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *kéh₃tus (fight), which is also the root of the German words Hader (dispute, quarrel) and hadern (to bicker, quarrel, struggle) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Seasons

Words for seasons in Celtic languages.

Spring

Proto-Celtic *wesrakos / *wesantos = spring
Old Irish (Goídelc) errach [ˈer͈ax] = spring
Irish (Gaeilge) earrach [əˈɾˠax / ˈaɾˠəx / ˈaɾˠa(h)] = spring
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) earrach [jar̪ˠəx] = spring
Manx (Gaelg) arragh [ˈarax] = spring
Proto-Brythonic *wesantēnos = spring
Old Welsh guiannuin = spring
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwaeanhwyn / gwaeannwyn / gwannwyn = spring
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanwyn [ˈɡwanwɨ̞n / ˈɡwanwɪn] = spring, springtime
Old Cornish guaintoin = spring
Cornish (Kernewek) gwaynten = spring
Breton (Brezhoneg) nevez-amzer = spring

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *wósr̥ (spring) [source].

Spring Blossom / Blodau y Gwanwyn

Summer

Proto-Celtic *samos = summer
Gaulish samo- = summer
Old Irish (Goídelc) sam [saṽ] / samrad [ˈsaṽrað] = summer
Irish (Gaeilge) samhradh [ˈsˠəuɾˠə / ˈsˠəuɾˠuː / ˈsˠəuɾˠu] = summer, summer garland
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) samhradh [sãũrəɣ] = summer
Manx (Gaelg) sourey [ˈsaurə] = summer
Proto-Brythonic *haβ̃ = summer
Old Welsh ham = summer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) haf = summer
Welsh (Cymraeg) haf [haːv / haː] = summer
Old Cornish haf = summer
Cornish (Kernewek) hav = summer
Old Breton ham = summer
Middle Breton haff = summer
Breton (Brezhoneg) hañv = summer

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *sm̥-h₂-ó- (summer) [source].

King John's Castle / Caisleán Luimnigh

Autumn

Old Irish (Goídelc) fogamar / fogomur [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = autumn
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fogamur = harvest
Irish (Gaeilge) fómhar [ˈfˠoːɾˠ / ˈfˠoːvˠəɾˠ / ˈfˠɔːwəɾˠ] = autumn, harvest season, harvest
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) foghar [fo.ər] = autumn, harvest, (act of) harvesting
Manx (Gaelg) fouyr = harvets, autumn
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heduref / heduueref = autumn
possibly from hydd (stag) &‎ bref (bellow)
Welsh (Cymraeg) hydref [ˈhədrɛ(v) / ˈhədra] = autumn, period of full maturity, rutting season, mating time
Cornish (Kernewek) hedra / kynnyay / kydnyadh = autumn
Breton (Brezhoneg) here / kozhamzer / diskar-amzer = autumn

Etymology (Goidelic languages), from the Proto-Celtic *wo-gamur (under winter) from *gamur (winter) [source].

autumn falls...

Winter

Proto-Celtic *gyemos / *gamur = winter
Gaulish giamos = winter (personal name)
Primitive Irish ᚌᚐᚋᚔ- (gami/gen) = winter
Old Irish (Goídelc) gam / gaim = winter, winter storm
gaimred [ˈɡʲaṽʲrʲəð] = winter
Irish (Gaeilge) geimhreadh [ˈɟiːɾʲə / ˈɟiːvʲɾʲə / ˈɟɛvʲɾʲu] = winter
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geamhradh [gʲãũrəɣ] = winter
Manx (Gaelg) geurey [ˈɡʲeurə / ˈɡʲuːrə] = winter
Old Welsh gaem = winter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gayaf = winter
Welsh (Cymraeg) gaeaf [ˈɡeɨ̯av / ˈɡei̯av] = winter
Old Cornish goyf = winter
Cornish (Kernewek) gwav / gwâv = winter
Old Breton guoiam = winter
Middle Breton gouaff = winter
Breton (Brezhoneg) goañv [ˈɡwãw / ˈɡwã] = winter

Etymology, from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰyem- (winter, year, frost, snow) [source].

Coed efo eira arno

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The names of the seasons, days and seasons in Celtic languages

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Crows and Ravens

Words for crow and raven in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *branos = crow, raven
Gaulish Branodūnon = place name
Primitive Irish ᚁᚏᚐᚅᚐ brana = crow, raven
Old Irish (Goídelc) bran [bran] = crow, raven
Irish (Gaeilge) bran = raven
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bran [bran] = raven (corvus corax)
Proto-Brythonic *bran = crow, raven
Welsh (Cymraeg) brân [braːn] = crow, rook, raven; warrior; crowbar
branos = little crows, young crows; warriors
cigfran = raven
Cornish (Kernewek) bran [bɹæːn] = crow
branvras = raven
Breton (Brezhoneg) bran = raven, crow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *werneh₂- (crow), from *wer- (to burn) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fennóc = a scald; royston crow (hooded crow)
Irish (Gaeilge) feannóg = (hooded) crow (corvus cornix)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feannag [fjan̪ˠag] = crow, rook
Manx (Gaelg) fannag = crow, crake

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *wesākos = raven, grebe
Old Irish (Goídelc) fiach, fíach [fʲi.əx] = raven
Irish (Gaeilge) fiach [ˈfʲiəx] = raven
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fitheach [fi.əx] = raven
Manx (Gaelg) feeagh = crake, raven
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyach [ɡʊɨ̯.aχ /ɡʊi̯.aχ] = grebe

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *wes- (to feed, feast) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Raven.

Hound Dogs

Words for dog in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *kū = dog, wolf
Gaulish cuna = dog
Primitive Irish ᚉᚒᚅᚐ (cuna) = hound, wolf
Old Irish (Goídelc) [kuː] = dog
Irish (Gaeilge) [kuː] = dog, hound, greyhound; wolf; hero, champion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [kuː] = dog, canine
Manx (Gaelg) coo [kuː] = dog, cur, hound, wolf-dog
Proto-Brythonic ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ci / ki = dog
Welsh (Cymraeg) ci [kiː] = dog, hound, cur
Old Cornish ci = dog
Cornish (Kernewek) ki [kiː] = dog
Middle Breton ci / qui = dog
Breton (Brezhoneg) ki [kiː] = dog

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog), which is also the root of the English words hound and canine [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) madrad, matrad = dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) matad = common dog, cur
Irish (Gaeilge) madra [ˈmˠad̪ˠɾˠə] / madadh [ˈmˠad̪ˠə / ˈmˠad̪ˠu] = dog, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) madadh [madəɣ] = dog, mastiff
Manx (Gaelg) moddey [ˈmɔːðə] = dog, tyke
Welsh (Cymraeg) madyn / madog = fox

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) gagar [ɡaɣər] = beagle, hunting dog
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gadar = beagle, hunting dog
Irish (Gaeilge) gadhar [ɡəiɾˠ] = (hunting) dog, harrier, beagle, cur
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gadhar [gɤ.ər] = lurcher, mastiff, greyhound

Etymology: from the Old Norse gagarr [source].

Proto-Celtic *kulēnos = whelp
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuilén [ˈkulʲeːn] = puppy, cub, kitten
Irish (Gaeilge) coiléan [kɪˈlʲaːn̪ˠ] = pup, cub, whelp; youth, scion; trickster
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuilean [kulan] = puppy, whelp; cub; seal pup; darling, dear; short/small bone
Manx (Gaelg) quallian = puppy
Welsh (Cymraeg) colwyn [kiː] = whelp, puppy, cub; lap-dog; spaniel
Old Cornish coloin = puppy
Cornish (Kernewek) kolen [ˈkɔlɪn] = puppy, cub
Breton (Brezhoneg) kolen = puppy, fawn, rabbit

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cana [ˈkana] = cub, puppy
Irish (Gaeilge) cana [ˈkanˠə] = cub, whelp; bardic poet of fourth order
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cana [kanə] = puppy, whelp
Welsh (Cymraeg) cenau / cenaw = cub, whelp, puppy, kitten; son, descendant, scion, young warrior; knave, imp, rascal; catkin, cat’s tail

Etymology: possibly from the Latin canis (dog), from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱwṓ (dog) [source], or from the Proto-Celtic *kanawo (young animal).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Irish Wolfhounds

Badgers

Words for badger in Celtic languages.

Badgers, Dinefwr Park, Llandeilo

Proto-Celtic *brokkos = badger
Gaulish *broco / *brokkos = badger
Primitive Irish ᚁᚏᚑᚉᚔ (broci) = badger (genitive)
Old Irish (Goídelc) brocc [brok] = badger
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brocc, broc = badger, brock
broclas = brock-holes
brocnait = she-badger
broic(th)enach = badger-warren, haunt of badgers
Irish (Gaeilge) broc [bˠɾˠɔk / bˠɾˠʌk] = badger, dirty-faced person, short thick-set person
brocach = badger’s burrow, fox’s earth
brocaire = terrier
brocaireacht = (act of) badger-baiting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) broc [brɔxg] = badger, brock, grumpy/surly person
brocair [brɔxgɛrʲ] = badger/fox hunter
broc-lann [brɔxgl̪ˠən̪ˠ] = badger’s den/sett
broclach = (badger / fox) warren, messy area, rubbish, messy person
brocach [brɔxgəx] = badger-like, pertaining to or abounding in badgers, black-faced, stinking, squalid, filthy, odious
brocail [brɔxgal] = badger-like, pertaining to badgers
Manx (Gaelg) broc(k) = badger
brockagh = badger’s den
Proto-Brythonic *brox = badger
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) broch = badger, brock
brochwart = badger ward, keeper of a badger
Welsh (Cymraeg) broch [broːχ] = badger, brock
brochwart = badger ward, keeper of a badger
Old Cornish broch = badger
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) broch, bróch = badger
Cornish (Kernewek) brogh [bɹoːx] = badger
broghki = dachsund
Middle Breton (Brezonec) broch, broh, broc’h = badger
Breton (Brezhoneg) broc’h [ˈbʁoːx] = badger
broc’heta = to hunt badgers

Etymology: unknown, possibly cognate with Old High German braccho (sniffer dog). Words from the same Celtic roots include brochure, brooch and brock (male badger – northern England) in English, brock (badger) in Scott, broche (brooch, spit, spike, peg, pin) in French, brocco (thorn, stick) in Italian, and broco (having long projecting horns; bad-tempered) in Galician [Source].

Proto-Celtic *taskos = badger
Gaulish *tasgos = badger
Galatian τασκός (taksos) = badger

Etymology: unknown [Source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) mochyn daear / daearfochyn = badger

Etymology: from the Welsh mochyn (pig) and daear (earth, ground) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s a tune I wrote in 2017 called The Unexpected Badger / Y Mochyn Daear Annisgwyl

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Horses

Words for horse, stallion, mare, foal and related things in Celtic languages.

Ceffylau / Horses

Note: the commonly-used words for horse in each Celtic language are: capall in Irish, each in Scottish Gaelic, cabbyl in Manx, ceffyl in Welsh, margh in Cornish, and marc’h in Breton.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kaballos, *kapallos, *kappilos = horse
Gaulish *caballos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) capall [ˈkapal͈] = horse
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) capall, capail = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) capall ˈkapˠəl̪ˠ] = horse, mare
capallach = equine
capaillín = pony
capall maide = wooden, vaulting horse, hobby-horse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) capall [kahbəl̪ˠ] = mare, colt, horse, small horse
capall-aibhne = hippopotamus
capall-coille = capercaillie
capall-mara = seahorse
capallach [kahbəl̪ˠəx] = pertaining to or abounding in mares/colts
capallan [kahbəl̪ˠan] = small horse, pony
Manx (Gaelg) cabbyl = horse, mount
cabbyl awin = hippopotamus
cabbyl assylagh = mule
Proto-Brythonic *kėfɨl = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keffyl, ceffyl = horse
keffylyn = little horse, nag, pony
cavall, cauall = horse, steed
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceffyl [ˈkɛfɨ̞l / ˈkɛfɪl] = horse, nag, hobby
ceffyl yr afon = hippopotamus
ceffylaf, ceffylu = to put on horseback, put one to ride the high horse, extol
ceffylaidd = pertaining to horses, equine, horsy
ceffylan = little horse, nag
ceffyles = mare
ceffylyn = little horse, nag, pony
cafall = horse, steed
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cevil, kevil = horse
Old Breton (Brethonoc) cefel = horse

Etymology: uncertain – related to the Late Latin caballus (horse, nag) and Ancient Greek καβάλλης (kabállēs – nag) and maybe Persian کول (kaval – second class horse of mixed blood). Possibly ultimately from PIE *kebʰ- (worn-out horse, nag). Words from the same roots include cheval (horse) in French, cavalier in English and caballo (horse) in Spanish [source].

The Breton word kefeleg (woodcock) comes from the same Proto-Brythonic root, as does kevelek (woodcock) in Cornish and cyffylog (woodcock) in Welsh [source].

Proto-Celtic *markos = horse
Galatian *μάρκαν (márkan) = horse
Gaulish *markos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) marc [mark] = horse
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) marc = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) marc [mˠaɾˠk] = horse (literary / archaic)
marcach = horseman, rider, jockey; cavalryman, Cavalier
marcachas = horsemanship
marchaigh = to ride
marcaíocht = riding, horsemanship, ride drive lift
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc [marxk] = charger (warhorse – literary)
marc-shluagh = horsemen, riders, cavalry
marchach = equestrian, mounted; riding
Manx (Gaelg) mark = horse
mark-sleih = horseman
markiagh = to ride, riding, cavalier, equestrian, horseman, jockey, rider
markiaghey = riding
markiaght = drive, equitation, horsemanship, (horse) riding, lift, rider
Proto-Brythonic *marx = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) march = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) march [marχ] = horse, stallion, war-horse, steed
marchaidd = pertaining to a horse, horsy, horselike, equine
marchallu = horsepower
marchasyn = jackass, male donkey
marchdy = stable
marchfeddyg = horse doctor, farrier
marchfilwr = dragoon, cavalryman, cavalier, trooper
marchog = horseman, rider, jockey, mounted warrior, knight
Old Cornish march = horse
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) march = horse
Cornish (Kernewek) margh [ˈmaɾx] = horse
marghek = knight, rider
margh-leska = rocking horse
marghnerth = horsepower
marghogeth = to ride (a horse)
marghti = stable
Old Breton (Brethonoc) marh = horse
Middle Breton (Brezonec) march = horse
marcheg, marhec = horseman, rider, knight
marecat = to ride (a horse)
marheguez = to ride (a horse), to dominate
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’h [marx] = horse, easel
marc’h-tan [marxˈtãː.n] = motorbike
marc’heg [ˈmar.ɣɛk] = horseman, rider, knight
marc’hegkaat [mar.ɣe.ˈkɑːt] = to ride (a horse)
marc’hegañ =
marc’hegezh [marˈɣeːɡɛs] = to ride (a horse), to dominate
marc’hegiezh = chivalry, cavalry

Etymology: thought to be from the Proto-Indo-European *márkos, which is also the root of the English words mare and marshal, the French word maréchal (marshal), and related words in other languages [source].

Proto-Celtic *ekʷos [ˈe.kʷos] = horse
Celtiberian ekua- = horse
Gaulish epos = horse
Primitive Irish *ᚓᚊᚐᚄ (*eqas) [exʷah] = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) ech [ex] = horse
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ech = horse
airech = packhorse
Irish (Gaeilge) each [ax] = horse, steed (archaic)
eachach = abounding in horses
eachaí = horseman, jockey, equine
eachaire = horse-attendant, groom
each-chumhacht = horse-power
eachmharcach = horseman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) each [ɛx] = horse
each-aibhne = hippopotamus
each-coimhlinge = racehorse
eachach [ɛxəx] = pertaining to or abounding in horses, horsy
eachaire [ɛxɪrʲə] = equerry
eachan [ɛxan] = small horse, yarnwindle
eachlach [ɛxl̪ˠəx] = horse groom, jockey
Manx (Gaelg) agh [ax] = steed, riding horse
aghee = equine
aghlagh, aghragh = equestrian
eagh = horse, racehorse, riding horse, steed
eagh marrey = sea horse
eagh-veg = hobbyhorse
Early Brittonic *epālos = foal
Proto-Brythonic *eb [ɛːb] = horse
*ebọl [ɛˈbɔːl] = foal
Old Welsh eb = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ep, ebawl = colt, foal
ebawluarch, ebolfarch, ebawlfarch = colt, young horse
ebolyauc, eboliauc = in foal, capable of bearing a foal
Welsh (Cymraeg) ebol [ˈɛbɔl / ˈeːbɔl] = colt, foal, sucker
eboles [ɛˈbɔlɛs] = filly, foal
ebolaidd = coltish, frisky, playful, wanton
ebolfarch = colt, young horse
cyfeb = mare in foal
ebolig = coltish
eboliog = in foal, capable of bearing a foal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ebel = foal, colt
Cornish (Kernewek) ebel = horse
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ebol = horse
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ebeul = foal, filly
Breton (Brezhoneg) ebeul [ˈe.bøl] = foal
ebeulan, ebeuliañ = to foal
ebeulez = filly
keneb = mare in foal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁éḱwos, which is also the root of the Latin word for horse, equus, and the English word equine, and related words in English and other languages [source]. The horse goddess, Epona, may be related as well.

Proto-Celtic *uɸorēdos = horse
Gaulish *werēdos = horse
Proto-Brythonic *gworuɨð = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) goruytaur, goruit, gorwyd , gorŵydd = steed, horse
gorwyddfarch = (war-)horse, steed
Welsh (Cymraeg) gorwydd = steed, horse
gorwyddfarch = (war-)horse, steed

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (under) and *rēdo- (to ride; riding, chariot), from Proto-Indo-European *(H)reydʰ- (to ride). Words from the same Celtic roots include palfrey (a small horse with a smooth, ambling gait), Pferd (horse) in German, and vereda (path, lane) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *(φ?)lārek- = mare
Old Irish (Goídelc) láir = mare
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láir, lair = mare
Irish (Gaeilge) láír [l̪ˠɑːɾʲ] = mare
An Láír Bhán = the Milky Way
láír bhán = hobby-horse
láíreog = little mare, young mare, filly, well-built girl, woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làir [l̪ˠaːrʲ] = mare
Manx (Gaelg) laair = mare
laaireen = small mare

Etymology: possibly from PIE *pōlH- (animal young), which is also the root of pony and foal in English, pollo (chicken) in Spanish, and poule (hen) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanxstikā = mare
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cassec, kassec = mare
Welsh (Cymraeg) caseg [ˈkasɛg] = mare
Old Cornish casec, cassec, casac = mare
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) casek = mare
Cornish (Kernewek) kasek = mare
Middle Breton (Brezonec) casec, casecq = mare
Breton (Brezhoneg) kazeg [ˈkɑː.zek] = mare

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱonḱ- (horse) [source]. Words from the same root possibly include henchman in English, hengst (stallion) in Dutch, and häst (horse, knight) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *stirrākos = small animal, chick
Old Irish (Goídelc) serrach = colt, faol
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serrach = colt, faol
Irish (Gaeilge) searrach = colt, faol
searrachúil = foal-like, lively, flighty
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searrach [ʃɛr̪ˠəx] = colt, faol, filly
searrachan [ʃɛr̪ˠəxan] = little foal
searrach-ruadh = buzzard
Manx (Gaelg) sharragh = faol
sharraghoil = faol-like

Etymology: from PIE *stirp- (progeny). Words from the same root possibly include estirpe (lingeage) in Spanish, and sterpo (dry twig or branch, brushwood) in Italian [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bald & bare

Words for bald / bare in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *mailos = bald, bare
Primitive Irish ᚋᚐᚔᚂᚐᚌᚅᚔ (mailagni) = bald, bare
Old Irish (Goídelc) máel [maːi̯l] = bald, bare, shaved, shorn, tonsured; (of cattle) hornless; blunt, flattened, obtuse, pointless, exposed, defenceless
Irish (Gaeilge) maol [mˠeːl̪ˠ / mˠiːlˠ] = bald, bare, unprotected; flat (in music)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) maol [mɯːl̪ˠ] = bare, blunt, hornless, polled; easily deceived; dense, dull; flat (in music)
Manx (Gaelg) meayl = bald, hairless, bleak (place), hornless, obtuse; flat (in music)
Proto-Brythonic *moɨl = bold
Old Welsh mail = sea
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) moel = sea
Welsh (Cymraeg) moel [moːɨ̯l / mɔi̯l] = bald, bald-headed, crop-haired, tonsured, beardless; bare, barren, mere; unadorned, plain, discourteous, barefaced; empty (hands); hornless, earless; lacking a tower (of a castle), defective; (bare) mountain, (treeless) hill, top of a hill or mountain, summit, mound; heap
Cornish (Kernewek) mool = bald, bare
Middle Breton moel = bald, bare
Breton (Brezhoneg) moal = bald, bare, naked

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Proto-Germanic *maitaną (cut) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

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