Horses

Words for horse, stallion, mare and foal in Celtic languages.

Ceffylau / Horses

Proto-Celtic *kapallos = horse
Gaulish *caballos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) capall [ˈkapal͈] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) capall [ˈkapˠəl̪ˠ] = horse, mare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) capall [kahbəl̪ˠ] = mare, colt, horse, small horse
Manx (Gaelg) cabbyl = horse
Proto-Brythonic *kappilos = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keffyl, ceffyl = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceffyl [ˈkɛfɨ̞l / ˈkɛfɪl] = horse, nag, hobby
Middle Cornish cevil, kevil = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) kefel = horse

Etymology: uncertain – related to the Late Latin caballus (horse, nag), which is thought to come from the Gaulish caballos [source].

Proto-Celtic *markos = horse
Galatian *μάρκαν (márkan) = horse
Gaulish *markos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) marc [mark] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) marc [mˠaɾˠk] = horse (literary / archaic)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc [marxk] = charger (warhorse – literary)
Manx (Gaelg) mark-sleih = horseman
Proto-Brythonic *marx = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) march = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) march [marχ] = horse, stallion, war-horse, steed
Old Cornish march = horse
Middle Cornish march = horse
Cornish (Kernewek) margh [ˈmaɾx] = horse
Old Breton marh = horse
Middle Breton march = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’h [ˈmaʁχ] = horse, easel

Etymology: thought to be from the Proto-Indo-European *márkos, which is also the root of the English words mare and marshal, the French word maréchal (marshal), and related words in other languages [source].

Related words

Irish (Gaeilge) marcach = horseman, rider, jockey; cavalryman, Cavalier
marcachas = horsemanship
marchaigh = to ride
marcaíocht = riding, horsemanship, ride drive lift
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc-shluagh = horsemen, riders, cavalry
marchach = equestrian, mounted; riding
Welsh (Cymraeg) marchaidd = pertaining to a horse, horsy, horselike, equine
marchallu = horsepower
marchasyn = jackass, male donkey
marchdy = stable
marchfeddyg = horse doctor, farrier
marchfilwr = dragoon, cavalryman, cavalier, trooper
marchog = horseman, rider, jockey, mounted warrior, knight
Cornish (Kernewek) marghek = knight, rider
margh-leska = rocking horse
marghnerth = horsepower
marghogeth = to ride (a horse)
marghti = stable
horn margh = horseshoe
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’heg = knight
Proto-Celtic *ekʷos [ˈe.kʷos] = horse
Celtiberian ekua- = horse
Gaulish epos = horse
Primitive Irish *ᚓᚊᚐᚄ (*eqas) [exʷah] = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) ech [ex] = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) each [ax] = horse (archaic)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) each [ɛx] = horse
Manx (Gaelg) agh [ax] = steed, riding horse
Proto-Brythonic *eb [ɛːb] = horse
Old Welsh eb = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ep, ebawl = colt, foal
Welsh (Cymraeg) ebol [ˈɛbɔl / ˈeːbɔl] = colt, foal, sucker
cyfeb = mare in foal
Middle Cornish ebol, ebel = foal, colt
Cornish (Kernewek) ebel = horse
Old Breton eb = horse
Breton (Brezhoneg) ebeul [ˈe.bøl] = foal
keneb = mare in foal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁éḱwos, which is also the root of the Latin word for horse, equus, and the English word equine [source]. The horse goddess, Epona, may be related as well.

Proto-Celtic *uɸorēdos = horse
Gaulish *werēdos = horse
Proto-Brythonic *gworuɨð = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gorwydd = steed, horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) gorwydd = steed, horse

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (under) and *rēdo- (to ride; riding, chariot), from Proto-Indo-European *(H)reydʰ- (to ride) [source].

Proto-Celtic *(φ?)lārek- = mare
Old Irish (Goídelc) láir = mare
Irish (Gaeilge) láír [l̪ˠɑːɾʲ] = mare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làir [l̪ˠaːrʲ] = mare
Manx (Gaelg) laair = mare

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kankstikaā = mare
Welsh (Cymraeg) caseg [ˈkasɛg] = mare
Old Cornish cassec = mare
Cornish (Kernewek) kasek = mare
Breton (Brezhoneg) kazeg = mare

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱanḱest-/*kankest- (horse) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) serrach = colt, faol
Irish (Gaeilge) searrach = colt, faol
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searrach [ʃɛr̪ˠəx] = colt, faol, filly
Manx (Gaelg) sharragh = faol

Etymology: unknown [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

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