Long Distance

Words for long, far, distant and related things in Celtic languages.

A White Rumped Shama male in the hot sun

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīros = long
Gaulish siros = long
Old Irish (Goídelc) sír [sʲiːr] = lasting, constant
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sír = long, lasting, constant
Irish (Gaeilge) síor- [ʃiːɾˠ / ʃiəɾˠ] = perpetual, continual, ever-
síoraí = eternal, perpetual, unceasing, continual, constant, perservering
síoraigh = to perpetuate
síoraíocht = eternity, permanence, lastingness, constancy
síorchaint = talking continually, never-ending talk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìor- [ʃiər̪] = continual(ly), perpetual(ly), incessant
sìorrachd [ʃiərˠ̪əxg] = eternity
siorraidh [ʃiər̪ʲɪ] = eternal, everlasting
Manx (Gaelg) sheer- = continuous, perennial, endless, permanent, ever, continual, consant
sheeraghey = to perpetuate
sheer dy sheer = continually
sheer-riaght = eternity
Proto-Brythonic *hit [ˈhiːr] = long, tall
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hir = long
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hir, huy, hwy = long, tall, lenghty, extensive, tedious
hiraeth, hyreyth = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia
hiraethu, hiraethav = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirfaith, hirveith, hirueith, hir vaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
Welsh (Cymraeg) hir [hiːr] = long, tall, lenghty, extensive
hiraeth [ˈhɪraɨ̯θ/ˈhiːrai̯θ] = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia, wistfulness, homesickness, earnest desire
hiraethaf, hiraethu = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirder = length, longitude
hirhaf, hirhau = to lengthen, prolong, extend
hirfaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
hirian = lanky person, tall slim fellow, gangrel, long, tall
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hir, hŷr = long, tall, prolix, tedious, dilatory
hirenath = a length of time, a long time, duration
hireth, hyreth = longing, an earnest desire, regretting, regret
hirgorn = trumpet
Cornish (Kernewek) hir = long, tall
hirder = length, tallness
hireth = homesickness, longing, loneliness, nostalgia, yearning
hirthek = homesick, longing, lonely, yearning
hirhe = to lengthen
hirneth = a very long time, tedium
hirwelyek = long-sighted
Middle Breton hyr, hir, hirr = long, far
hirder = length, anxiety
Breton (Brezhoneg) hir [ˈhiːr] = long, more
hiraat [hiˈrɑːt] = to lengthen, lie down
hiraezh [hi.ˈrɛːs] = impatience, haste, nostaligia, melancholy
hiraezhus [hiˈrɛːzys] = impatient, nostaligic
hirded [ˈhir.det] = length
hirder [ˈhirdɛr] = length, anxiety
hirnezh [ˈhirnəs] = length, boredom, melancholy
hirvoudus [hirˈvuːdys] = lamentable, moaning, plaintive

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-ró-s, from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include menhir (a single tall standing stone as a monument) in English and French (borrowed from Breton maen-hir), soir (evening) in French, sedert (since) in Dutch, seit (since, for) in German, and hidas (slow, stupid) in Finnish [source].

Proto-Celtic *siti- = length
Old Irish (Goídelc) sith- = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sith- = long
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hit = length
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hyt, hyd = length, height, duration
hyduod = continuance, continuation
Welsh (Cymraeg) hyd [hɨːd / hiːd] = length, height, duration, until, throughout, during
hydaeth = length, longitude
hydfod = continuance, continuation
hydiog = lengthy, long, tall
hydol = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hes, hês, heys, hŷs = longitude, length, duration
Cornish (Kernewek) hys, hes = extent, length
hys-ha-hys = altogether, end to end
a-hys = along
dhe-hys = at length
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hit = length
Middle Breton (Brezonec) het = length
Breton (Brezhoneg) hed [ˈheːt] = length, longitude, ordered
hedan, hedañ = to lengthen
a-hed = along, throughout
hed-ha-hed = all along

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-tó- (lengthened), from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fota [ˈfoda] = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fota, fata = long, enduring
Irish (Gaeilge) fad [fˠɑd̪] = length, distance, duration, extent
fada [ˈfˠɑd̪ˠə / ˈfˠad̪ˠə] = long, far
fadáil = delaying, lingering, dilatoriness
fadáoch = tall man, long fellow
fadáocht = lengthiness, longsomeness
fadálach = slow, tardy, dilatory, lingering, tedious
fadálacht = tardiness, tediousness
fadó = long ago
fadó fadó = once upon a time
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fad [fad] = length, duration
fada [fadə] = long, far, lanky, tall
fadachadh [fadəxəɣ] = elongating, lengthening
fadachd [fadəxg] = longing, yearning, length
fadal [fadəl̪ˠ] = delay, tediousness, longing
fadalach [fadəl̪ˠəx] = late, tardy, tedious, wearisome
fada air ais = backward, oldfashioned, uncool
fada air astar = far off / away
o chionn fhada = a long time ago, for a long time
Manx (Gaelg) foddid = distance, remoteness
foddey = afar, distance, far, markedly, remote(ly), long
foddey er-dy-henney = long ago, long since
foddey ersooyl = far afield, far away, outlying
foddey-hannaghtyn = lingering, long-distance
foddeeaght = distance, fervent desire, homesickness, longing, nostalgia

Etymology: from Old Irish fot (length), from PIE *wasdʰos (long, wide), from *h₁weh₂- (empty, wasted). Words from the same roots include waste and vast in English, and vaste (profound) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *kēnos = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) cían [kʲiːa̯n] = distant, far, lasting, long, since
cíana = distance, length, long time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cían = long, enduring, far, distant
cíana = length, distance
Irish (Gaeilge) cian [ciənˠ] = length of time, age, distance, distant time, long, distant
cianaimsir = a long time
cianaistear = long, tedious, journey
cianamharc = distant view
cianaois = old age
cianaosta = long-lived, very old, pristine, primeval
cianda = distant, remote
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cian [kʲian] = distant, far off, faraway, long, tedious, weary
cian-aimsir = antiquity
cian-chonaltradh = telecommunication(s)
cian-fhada = extremely long distance

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷello- = far
Gaulish pelignos = stranger, foreigner, born far away
Old Welsh (Kembraec) pel = far, distant, remote
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pell = far, distant, remote
bellbell, bell-bell, pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig, pelledic = far (off), remote
pellynnic, pellennic = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellau, pellav = to go far
pellter, pellder, pelther = (great) distance, remoteness
Welsh (Cymraeg) pell [pɛɬ / peːɬ] = far, far-off, far-away, distant, remote, far-reacing, long (time), far (in the past of future), late
pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig = far (off), remote
pelledd = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
pellennig, pellynnig = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellhaf, pellhau = to go far (from), distance oneself (from), to cause (sb/sth), to be far (from), to postpone
pellter = (great) distance, remoteness, length (of time), distant place
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = farther, longer
pellder = distance, remoteness
pellear = a long time
pelly = to render distant, to remove far off, to drive away
Cornish (Kernewek) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = extreme, farther, farthest, further, furthest, utmost, moreover
pellder = distance, long time, remoteness
pellgomunyans = telecommuication
pellgowsel, pellgowser = (tele)phone
pellgowsell = mobile-phone
pellhe = to banish, move away, send away
pellskrifen = fax telegram
pellweler = telescope
pellwolok = television
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pell = distant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pell = distant
pellhat = to get away from
Breton (Brezhoneg) pell [pɛlː] = far, long, late
pellaat [pɛˈlɑːt] = to move away
pellad = long time
pelladur, pellded = distance
pellder = distant, length of time
pellgemenn = remote control
pellgomz [ˈpɛl.ɡɔ̃ms] = telephone
pellidigezh = distance
pellwel = television

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kʷel-so- from *kʷel- (to turn, revolve around, sojourn). English words beginning with tele-, such as telescope and telephone, come from the same PIE roots [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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A Bit of Bitterness

Words for bitter, sour and related things in Celtic languages.

A pint at Cafe Cargo

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *swerwos = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) serb [sʲerv] = bitter, bitterness
serbae = bitterness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serb = bitter, hurtful, grievous, disagreeable, harsh, discordant
serbae, seirbe = bitterness, asperity
Irish (Gaeilge) searbh [ˈʃaɾˠəvˠ / ˈʃarˠu(ː)] = bitter, sour, acid
searbhaigh = to sour, embitter, become bitter
searbhán = bitter person, bitter herb, bitters
searbhánta = bitter, acrid
searbhas = bitterness, sourness, acidity
searbhasach = bitter, acrimonious
searbhóg = bitter person, bitter woman, bitter drink
searbhú = embitterment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searbh [ʃɛrɛv] = bitter, sour, tart, disagreeable, acidic
searbh-chainnt = sarcasm
searbh-ghlòr = cacophony
searbh-nhilis = bitter-sweet
duine searbh = disagreeable person
fion searbh geal = dry white wine
leann searbh = bitter (ale)
’s searbh an fhirinn = the truth hurts
Manx (Gaelg) sharroo = acid, acrid, acrimonious, bitter, cutting, embittered, sardonic, sour, tart, unpalatable, vitriolic
sharrooaghey = to embitter
sharrooane = bitters
sharrooid = bitterness
lhune sharroo = bitter (ale/beer)
Proto-Brythonic *hwerw = bitter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chuerv, chuerw, chwerw, chuero, chỽerw = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh
chwerwy, cwherwa = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwder, chweruder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwed, chỽerỽed = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwerw [ˈχwɛru/ˈχweːru] = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh, rough, severe, sharp, surly, hurtful, angry, irate, spiteful, cross, cruel, sorrowful
chwerwaf, chwerwi = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwaidd = bitter, sharp
chwerwder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwedd = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) chuero, wherow = bitter, cruel, hardhearted
Cornish (Kernewek) hwerow = bitter, harsh, sharp
hwerowder = acrimony
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hueru = bitter
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hueru, fero, huerhue = bitter
hueruentez = bitterness
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwerv [χwɛʁw] = bitter
c’hwervaat = to make or become bitter
c’hwervded, c’hwervder, c’hwerventez, c’hwervoni = bitterness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *swer- (to ache, to fester, wound, injury). Words from the same root include sword in English, chwarren (gland, knot in wood, boil, ulcer) in Welsh, zweren (to swear, pledge, declare under oath) in Dutch, and schwären (to fester, hurt, suppurate) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷereti, gʷorti- = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) goirt [ɡor͈ʲtʲ] = bitter, salty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) goirt = hungry, starved, bitter, sour, salt, sharp, keen
Irish (Gaeilge) goirt [ɡʌɾˠtʲ / ɡɔɾˠtʲ] = salt, saline, salted, bitter
goirte = saltiness, salinity, brackishness, bitterness
goirteamas = saltiness, bitterness, salt food
goirtigh = to salt, pickle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goirt [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲ] = sore, painful, sour, salted
goirteas [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəs] = pain, ache, painfulness
goirtear [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲər] = miser, mean/stingy person
goirte [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲə] = soreness, painfulness, sourness, acerbity, saltiness
goirteachadh [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəxəɣ] = hurting, afflicting, acidifying, making sour, leavening
Manx (Gaelg) gort = acid, bitter, brackish, rank, vinegarish, vinegary, sour, hurt, poignant, acrid, acrimony
gortaghey = hurt, hurting, maim, pain
gortagh = beggarly, frugal, grudging, hurt, meagre, miser

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷorti-, from *gʷʰer- (warm, hot). Words from the same root include barmy, furnace, gore, thermal and warm in English, and garstig (rude, nasty, beastly, foul) in German [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sure, Certainly

Words for sure, certain and related words in Celtic languages.

Sure, Certainly

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *derwos = firm (as an oak), oak
Old Irish (Goídelc) derb = sure, certain, fixed, certainty
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove
derbda = certain, fixed
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derb = sure, certain, fixed, determinate, reliable, genuine
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove, attest
derbda(e) = certain, fixed
Irish (Gaeilge) dearbh [ˈdʲaɾˠəvˠ] = sure, certain
dearbhaigh = to declare, affirm, confirm, attest, prove
dearbháil = to test, check
dearbhú = declaration, affirmation, attestation, confirmation
dearfa = attested, proved, sure, certain
dearfach = affrimative, positive
dearfacht = positiveness, certainty
deartháir = brother (“certain brother” from derb & bráthair [brother])
deirfiúr = sister (“certain sister” from derb & siur [sister])
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearbh [dʲɛrɛv] = ceratin, sure, positive
dearbh-aithne = identity, indentification
dearbhaich [dʲɛrɛvɪç] = prove, attest, verify, demonstrate
dearbhadh [dʲɛrɛvəɣ] = proving, attesting, verifying
dearbhachd [dʲɛrɛvəxg] = proof, experience, assurance
dearbhair [dʲɛrɛvɛrʲ] = affirmer, checker
dearbhte [dʲɛrɛvdʲə] = ascertained, confirmed, proved
dearbhach [dʲɛrɛvəx] = sure, affirmative, positive
dearbhachail [dʲɛrɛvəxal] = conclusive, decisive
Manx (Gaelg) jarroo = absolute, actual, even, explicit, express, identical, indubitable
jarrooagh = affirmative, categorical, confirmative, definitive, positive
jarrooid = positiveness
dy jarroo = actually
Old Welsh ceintiru = first cousin (male)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keuynderv, keuyndyru, keuynderw = first cousin (male)
cyfnitherw, kefnithderw, cyvnither = first cousin (female)
Welsh (Cymraeg) derw = sure, true (only appears in words below)
cefnder(w) = first cousin (male)
cyfnither(w) = first cousin (female)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) handeru = first cousin
Cornish (Kernewek) kenderow, keniterow = cousin
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quenderu = cousin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kenderv = cousin (male)
keniterv = cousin (female)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *drewh₂- (steady, firm), from *dóru (tree), which possibly related to *deru-/*drew- (hard, firm, strong, solid) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for oak trees in Celtic languages, and tar, tree, trough and trim in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *kengeti =to step
Old Irish (Goídelc) cingid [ˈkʲiŋʲɡʲiðʲ] = to step, proceed
do·cing = to advance, step forward
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cingid, cinnid, cinnit = to step, pace, proceed, go, overcome, surpass, excel, exceed
do-cing, to-cing = to step, stride forward, advance, come
Irish (Gaeilge) cinn [cəiɲ / ciːnʲ] = to fix, determine, decree, decide
cinnte = certain, definite, mean, stingy, constant
cinnteach = fixed, definite, definitive
cinnteachaí = determinist
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteacht = certainty, stinginess, limitation
cinntigh = to make certain, confirm, assure
cinntiú = confirmation, determination
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cinnt [kʲĩːn̪ʲdʲ] = certainty
cinnteach = certain, definite, sure, accurate
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteachd = certainty, actuality, assurance
cinnteachadh = checking, confirming, determining
cinntich = (to) check, confirm, determine, ascertain
Manx (Gaelg) kinjagh = constant, continual, continuous, definite

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)keng- (limp) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for step in Celtic languages, shank in English, hinken (to limp, hobble) in Dutch and German [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyogel, diogel = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelu = to make save, secure
diogelhay = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd, diogelrỼyd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr = defender, protector
Welsh (Cymraeg) diogel [dɪˈɔɡɛl/dɪˈoːɡɛl] = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelaf, diogelu = to make save, secure, assure, confirm
diogeldeb, diolgelder = safety, security
diogelfa = safe place, fortress, stronghold, place of refuge
diogelhaf, diogelhau = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr, diogelydd = defender, protector
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diogel, dyowgel, dyogel, diûgel, diougel = unexposed, secure, safe, certain
Cornish (Kernewek) diogel = certain, reliable, secure, sure
diogeldeh = security
diogeli = to safeguard, secure
Middle Breton (Brezonec) diouguel, dioguel, dyougel = certain, sure, surely, security, safety
diouguelhat = to defend, guard, protect
diouguelroez, dyouguelroez = security, protection
Breton (Brezhoneg) diogel [diˈoːɡɛl] = size, dimension, measure, format
diougelaat = to defend, guard, protect
diougeladur = affirmation, assertion
diougeler = protecter
diogeliñ = to assert
diogelroez = security, protection
diogelus = affirmative

Etymology: from di- (intensifying prefix) and gogel (to guard), from Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (sub-, under) and *kelo (to hide), from PIE *ḱel (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include Celt(ic), heel and occult in English [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sicir [ʃiçgʲɪrʲ] = shrewd, acute, accurate, sure
sicireachd [ʃiçgʲɪrʲəxg] = shrewdness, acuteness, accurateness, sureness
Manx (Gaelg) shickyr = certain, confident, definite, firm
shickyraghey = to ensure, ratify, verify, affirmation
shickyrys = assurance, certainty, security, stability
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) sicr, sikr = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
sickrwydd, sicrwydd, siccrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siwr, sywr = sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
Welsh (Cymraeg) sicr [ˈsɪkɪr] = sure, certain, inevitable, secure, safe
sicrhau = to ensure, make certain, fasten, secure
sicrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siŵr, siwr [ʃuːr]= sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
siwr(i)af, siwr(i)o = to assure, ensure
siwrans, siwrens = certainity, assurance
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) secer = secure
secerder = security
Cornish (Kernewek) sur = certain(ly), sure(ly)
surhe = to assure, ensure, insure
surheans = insurance
surneth = certainity
surredi = certainly, surely
Middle Breton (Brezonec) sigur = sure, certain, assured
Breton (Brezhoneg) sygur, sigur [ˈsiːɡyr] = sure, certain, assured
siguriñ = to generalize, pretext

Etymology: from Middle English siker (safe, secure), from Old English sicor (secure, safe, sure), from Proto-West Germanic *sikur (secure, safe, sure, certain), from Latin sēcūrus (worryless; carefree; secure), from sē- (without) and cūra (care); [source].

Note: the Welsh word sikr comes from Middle English siker, while siŵr/siwr comes from modern English sure. They both come from the same ultimate roots. Similarly, the Middle Cornish secer comes from Middle English, while sur in modern Cornish comes from modern English. I’m not sure if the Breton words are related, or what their etymology is.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Size & Quantity

Words for size, amount, quantity and related things in Celtic languages.

Size & Quantity

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mantī = size, quantity
Old Irish (Goídelc) méit [mʲeːdʲ] = amount, extent, greatness, quantity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) méit, mét = greatness, magnitude
méite, méte, méide = size, amount, extent
Irish (Gaeilge) méid [mʲeːdʲ] = amount, quantity, extent, degree, number; size, magnitude
ainmhéid = hugeness, overgrowth
cóimhéid = equal size or amount
gearrmhéid = fair size
gháthmhéid = ordinary, average, size
lánmhéid = full size
meánmhéid = medium size
ollméid = great, size, hugeness, immensity
méadaigh = to increase, multiply, enlarge, augment
méadail = paunch, stomach
méadaíocht = grown state, increase, growth, self-importance, friendship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meud [miad] = size, largeness, amount, quantity, dimension
meudmhor = ample, sizeable
meudachd = dimension, bulk, greatness, magnitude, size, scale
meudachadh = increasing, expanding, augmenting
meudaichte = increased, expanded, augmented
làn-mheud = full size
mòr-mheud = great size
ro-mheud = excessive size / amount
Manx (Gaelg) mooad = amount, quantity
mooadys = amount, amplitude, augmentation, capacity, dimension
mooadagh = bulky, expansionist, large, sizeable
mooadaghey = aggravation, amplify, augment, develop, developing, enlarge
mooad-vaghteyr = quantity surveyor
Proto-Brythonic *mėnt = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) meint, meynt, mint = size, stature, amount
kymeint, kemeint, cymain = as great, as large, as big
meintholy, meynholy, meintoli = to specify an amount, measure
Welsh (Cymraeg) maint [mai̯nt] = size, dimension, magnitude, stature, amount, sum, number, quantity, the whole, all, as many, such
maintiol(i)aeth = size, dimension, measure, quantity
cymaint = as great, as large, as big, as many, as much
(pa) faint? = how many? how many?
meintiol = quantitative
mein(ti)olaf, meint(i)oli = to specify an amount, measure, quantify, value
meint(i)oliad = quantification
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mens, mŷns = magnitude, greatness, quantity
Cornish (Kernewek) myns, mens = amount, quantity, as many as
mynsek, mensek = considerable, sizeable
mynsonieth, mensonieth = geometry
Old Breton ment, mint =
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ment, mænt, men = size, dimension
Breton (Brezhoneg) ment [ˈmɛnt/ˈmẽnt] = size, dimension, measure, format
mentad = measure
mentadañ = to measure, format
mentadur = quantification
mentel [ˈmẽntɛl] = dimensional, quantitative

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *mh₁-nt-, from *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include immense, meal, measure, meter / metre, metronome and probably moon and month in English, vermaren (to make famous) and maal (meal, time, turn) in Dutch, and mærð (flattery, praise) in Icelandic [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Haughty Pride

Words for pride, arrogance, vanity and related things in Celtic languages.

Gay Pride

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *auberos = vain
Old Irish (Goídelc) úabar = pride, arrogance
úabrige = pride, arrogance
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úabar = pride, arrogance, vanity, confidence
úabrach = proud, haughty
úabrigidir = to treat insolently, profane, mock
óbar = vain-glory
anúabar, anuabhar = inordinate pride
comúabar = great pride
Irish (Gaeilge) uabhar = pride, arrogance, spiritedness, exuberance, frolicking, frolicsomeness, rankness, luxuriance, eeriness, feeling of loneliness
anuabhar = overweening pride, excess (of grief, weeping)
aingeal an uabhair = fallen angel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhar [uəvər̪] = pride, insolence
uabharra [uəvər̪ˠə] = proud, haughty
uaibhreach [uəivr̪ʲəx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
an-uaibhreach = humble
uaibhreas = arrogance, haughtiness
uaibhridh = haughty, proud, arrogant
ro sgrios thig uabhar = pride goes/comes before a fall
Proto-Brythonic *ọβer = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ofer, ouer = worthless, vain, useless
ofêra, ouera, ofera = to behave frivolously
overaidd = vain, frivolous
oferbeth, obherbeth = worthless or pointless thing
ofered, oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel, ofer-goel = superstition, vain belief
overwr, ouerwr, oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofer [ˈɔvɛr / ˈoːvɛr] = worthless, vain, useless, unnecessary, futile, wasteful, prodigal, unprofitable, frivolous
ofera(f) = to behave frivolously, live dissolutely, trifle, idle, laze, loiter, waste, squander
oferaidd = vain, frivolous, unprofitable, worthless
oferbeth = worthless or pointless thing, trifle, bauble
oferdod = vanity, dissipation, frivolousness
oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel = superstition, vain belief, false religion
oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) evereth, ufereth = vanity, idleness, frivolity
Cornish (Kernewek) euver = valueless, worthless
euvergryjyk = superstitious
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euver = bland, insipid, flavourless
Breton (Brezhoneg) euver = bland, spineless(ness), damage

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *aw- and *ber-o- (to carry), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti (to carry, bear, flow), *bʰer- (to bear, carry) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include beir (to bear, give birth to, lay, bring, take) in Irish, beir (to bear, give birth to) in Scottish Gaelic, behr (to bear, give birth to) in Manx, bairn (child) in Scots, and bear (to carry), bier, birth, burden, ferret, and fortune in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *balkos = strong
Gaulish balco- = strong (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) balc = robust, strong, sturdy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) balc, bailc = stout, strength, sturdy, firm, vigorous, powerful, strength, firmness, vigour
Irish (Gaeilge) bailc = strong, stout
bailcbhéim = strong, heavy, blow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bailc [balçgʲ] = strong, bold, daring
bailc uisge = sudden, heavy shower
bailceach [balçgʲəx] = stout/strong person
bailceata [balçgʲən̪ˠdə] = stout, strong, boastful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) balch, bỽlch, beilch = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave
balchav = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
bylchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
strong>ualchder, balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
ualchdet, balchet = pride, arrogance
Welsh (Cymraeg) balch [balχ] = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain, pompous
balchâf, balcháu = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
balchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
balchded = pride, arrogance
balchus = proud, vain
balchwedd = pride, conceit, lofty
belchyn = proud, pompous or self-important person, prig
Cornish (Kernewek) balgh = arrogant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) balc’h = haughty, proud, arrogant
Breton (Brezhoneg) balc’h [ˈbalx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
ambalc’h = reserved, timid
balc’haat = to make or become haughty
balc’hded = superb, arrogance
balc’hder = = pride, arrogance, audacity

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (to blow, swell, inflate). A word from the same Proto-Celtic root is balca (bulrush, cattail) in Catalan and Occitan [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bold in English, boud (bold, brave) in Dutch, and bald (soon, almost) in German [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrth [ɡʊrθχ] = opposition, objection, resistance, contast, opposite
gwrthâd = taunt, light censure, upbraiding, remorse, conviction
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goth = pride
gothus, gothys = proud
Cornish (Kernewek) gooth = pride
gothus = proud, arrogant
gorth = obstinate, perverse, stubborn, uppity
gorthus = proud

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) blad = fame, renown
bladach = famous, renowned, splendid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blad, bladh, blath = fame, renown, glories, triumphs
bladach, bladaig = famous, renowned, splendid
bladaigid = praises, extols
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth = pride
Manx (Gaelg) blaa = heyday, pride

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) borr = huge, large, proud, swollen, thick, vast
borrfadach = bold, high-spirited, proud
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) borr, bórr = big, large, great, vast, mighty, strong, puffed-up, proud
borrach = a proud, pretentious person
borra(i)d = swelling, maturing, blooming, springing, swells, becomes swollen, bloated
Irish (Gaeilge) borr = puffed (up with), proud, luxuriant; to swell, grow
borrach = proud, arrogant person; swollen, proud, arrogant
borrachas = pride, arrogance
borradh = swelling, growth, surge, expansion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòrr [bɔːr̪ˠ] = puffed up, swollen, grand, splendid, haughty
borrail = swaggering, boastful
borranachadh = swelling up, puffing up, frothing at the mouth
borraganta = swelling, fierce

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) sturd = pride, haughtiness; angry look, menacing look
styrdalys = stateliness
styrdalaght = pride, stateliness

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) moyrn = pomp, pride, self-conceit
moyrnagh = haughty, proud, vain, pompous
moyrnee = proud

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blindness

Words for blind, one-eyed and related words in Celtic languages.

One-eyed squirrel

Proto-Celtic *dallos = blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) dall = blind
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dall, dáll, = blind, dark, gloomy,
daillín = blind man
dalla(id) = to blind, deprive of sight, darken, obscure
dallóc = a little blind animal, mole, leech
Irish (Gaeilge) dall [d̪ˠaul̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑːl̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑl̪ˠ] = blind person, dull, uninformed person, dimness, gloom, obscurity, to blind, dazzle, daze, stupefy
dallacán = purblind person, dim-witted person, fool, mask
dallacántacht = purblindness, dim-wittedness
dallachar = dazzle
dalladh = blinding, dazzlement, plenty, lashings
dallaigeanta = dull-witted
dallamlán = stupid fool, dolt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dall [daul̪ˠ] = blind, obscure, blind person
dallaran = blind person
dalladh [dal̪ˠəɣ] = blinding, misleading
dall-bhrat = blindfold
dallanach = dark, gloomy, inebriated
dallta = blinded, deceived, mislead
Manx (Gaelg) doal = blind, sightless, unseeing
dallaghey = to befog, blind, daze, dazzle, glare
doallaghey, doalley, doallee = blind, blinding
Proto-Brythonic *dall [ˈdal͈] = blind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dall, dâll = blind, unseeing, dark, random
dallaf = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallineb, dallinep = blindness, folly, recklessness
Welsh (Cymraeg) dall [da(ː)ɬ] = blind, unseeing, dark, random, purblind, ignorant, rash, thoughtless, mistaken, blind person
dallaf, dallu = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallaidd = blindness, purblind
dallan = blind person
dalledig = blinded, darkened
dallineb = blindness, folly, recklessness
Old Cornish dal = blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dall = blind
dalla = to (make) blind
Cornish (Kernewek) dall = blind
dalla = to blind
dallhe = to blind, dazzle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dall, dal = blind, blunt, blinkered
dallaff, dallañ, dalliñ = to gouge out sb’s eyes, to blind, to fill a hole, to blunt, crumble
dallente, dallentez, dallezh = blindness
dallet = blinded
Breton (Brezhoneg) dall [ˈdalː] = blind, blunt, blinkered, dead end
dallentez, dallezh = blindness

Etymology: from PIE *dʰwl̥no-, from *dʰwolno (to dim, make obscure) [source].

Words from the same roots include dull and dwell in English, toll (great, nice, wonderful) in German, dol (crazy, silly, mad, mindless, irate) in Dutch, and dulls (crazy, mad) in Latvian.

Proto-Celtic *kaikos/*kayko- = one-eyed, blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáech [kaːi̯x] = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, blind creature
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cáech = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, dimsighted creature
cáiche = state of being one-eyed, blind in one eye
cáichén = an ignorant person
Irish (Gaeilge) caoch [keːx/kiːx] = blind, purblind person / creature, empty, closed up; to blind, daze, dazzle, close, become blocked, wink
caochadh = to wink, close
caochadóir = purblind creature
caochaíl = purblindness, blockage
caochán = purblind creature, mole
caochóg = purblind person, cubby-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoch [kɯːx] = empty, hollow, blind (creature)
caochag = empty / hollow object, dummy
caochadh [kɯːxəɣ] = blinking, shutting one eye, winking, peeping, ogling
bealach-caoch = cul-de-sac
Manx (Gaelg) kyagh = weak-eyed
kyaght = blindness
kyragh = blind
bollagh kyagh = cul-de-sac
Proto-Brythonic *koɨg = vain, empty, one-eyed, blind (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coeg, coec, koeg = vain, empty, false, deceitful; blind, one-eyed
koegi to deride, mock, deteriorate; become blind
koec ddall, koegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Welsh (Cymraeg) coeg [koːɨ̯ɡ/kɔi̯ɡ] = vain, empty, false, deceitful, mean, evil, good-for-nothing, arrogant, scornful, sarcastic; blind, one-eyed, squinting
coegaf, coegi = to deride, mock, lampoon, use sarcasm; to be(come) worthless, deteriorate; to become blind, have defective eyesight, darken
coegaidd = vain, empty, haughty, conceited, saucy
coegathrawgar = pedantic
coegathro = pedant
coegbeth = worthless thing, triviality, trifle, bauble
coegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Old Cornish cuic = one-eyed, blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cuic = blind in one eye
Cornish (Kernewek) koog = vain, worthless, barren, infertile

Etymology: from PIE *kéh₂ikos (one-eyed, blind) [source].

Words from the same roots include caecus (blind) and caecum (uncertainity, obscurity) in Latin, cécité (blindness) in French, ciego (blind, blind person, very drunk, caecum) in Spanish, and caecum (a part of the intestine) in English [source].

Incidentally, purblind means partially blind, dim-sighted, dim-witted, unintelligent, and used to mean blind or having one eye [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Spears and Javelins

Words for spear, javelin and related things in Celtic languages:

BXP135630

Proto-Celtic *gaisos = spear
Gaulish *gaisos = spear
*Ariogaisos = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) gae [ɡai̯] = javelin, spear, penis
gae cró = gush of blood, haemorrhage, unhealed wound
gae gréne = sunbeam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gae, ga = spear, javelin; ray, beam
ga-ín = little javelin
gaíde = armed with a spear
Irish (Gaeilge) ga [ɡa/ɡaː/ɡah] = spear, dart, sting, ray (of light), radius, suppository, (fishing) gaff
ga-chatóideach = cathode ray
ga-gréine = sunbeam
ga-gealaí = moonbeam
ga-shiméadracht = radial symmetry
gáma-gha = gamma ray
X-gha = X-ray
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gath [ɡah] = dart, beam, ray (of light), sting, barb, knot (in wood), shooting pain, sprout
gath-gealaich, gath-luain = moonbeam
gath-grèine = sunbeam
gath-leusair = laser beam
gath-x, gath-òmair = X-ray
gath cathod = cathode ray
gath-solais = ray of light, light beam
Manx (Gaelg) goull = beam, dart, ray
goull eayst = moonbeam
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guaew, gvoev, gwaew, gwayw = lance, spear, javelin
gwaewdwnn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwaew ffon, gwaiw ffon = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwayw [ɡweɨ̯.ʊ/ˈɡwei̯.u] = lance, spear, javelin; shooting pain, stab, stitch, pang
gwaywawr, gwaywor = spearman, lancer, pikeman
gwaywdwn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwayw-fwyell = halberd
gwaywffon [ˈɡweɨ̯wfɔn/ˈɡwei̯wfɔn] = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Old Cornish (hoch-)wuyu = spear
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guw = spear. lance, javelin
Cornish (Kernewek) guw = spear
guwa = to spear
Old Breton (guu)goiou = spear
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goaff, goaf, goao, gwaf = spear, stamen, boat hook
Breton (Brezhoneg) goaf = spear, pike, javelin, stamen

Etymology: from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz [ˈɣɑi̯.zɑz] (spear, pike, javelin), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰoysós (throwing spear), from *ǵʰey- (to throw, impel) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gezi [ɡe̞.s̻i] (arrow) in Basque (via Latin and Gaulish), գայիսոն [ɡɑjiˈsɔn/kʰɑjiˈsɔn] (sceptre) in Armenian (via Ancient Greek), gaesum (a Gaulish javelin) in Latin, and γαῖσος [ɡâi̯.sos] (a Gaulish javelin) in Ancient Greek [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include garfish (any fish of the needlefish family Belonidae) in English [source], geer (spear) in Dutch, Ger (spear) in German, geir (spear) in Icelandic, keihäs (spear, javelin, pike) in Finnish, [source].

My surname, Ager, possibly comes from the same Proto-Germanic root as well, via the Old English name Ēadgār, from ēad (happiness, prosperity), and gār (spear) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Roots

Words for roots and related things in Celtic languages.

Tree roots in Eaves Wood. Silverdale, Lancashire

Proto-Celtic *wridmā, *wridā = root
Old Irish (Goídelc) frém [fʲrʲeːṽ] = root
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) frém, prém = root, source, origin, rootstock, race
frémach, prémach = roots, genealogical stock, abounding roots
frémaigid = intransitive, takes root
frémamail = radical, primary
Irish (Gaeilge) fréamh [fʲɾʲeːvˠ] = root, source, origin, rootstock, race, radical (in linguistics and chemistry)
fréamhach = roots, having roots, rooted, established
fréamhaí = derivative, radical
fréamhaigh = to root, spring, descend (from), derive (from)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) freumh [frʲɪəv] = root, source, derivation
freumhagach = pertaining to or abounding in small roots, fibrous
freumhag = small root, rootlet, fibre
freumhach = rooted, abounding in roots, steady, fundamental
freumhaichte = rooted, derived
freumhachadh = rooting, taking root, deriving, derivation, etymology
Manx (Gaelg) fraue [freːw] = bulb, derivation, radical, root
frauaghey = to root
frauee = derivative, primitive
fraueit = grafted, rooted
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gureid, gwreid = root
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwraidd [ɡwrai̯ð] = root, bottom, base, foundation, source, origin, ancestry
gwreiddiadur = etymological dictionary
gwreiddiaf, gwreiddio = to root, grow roots, take root, become ingrained or established, be rooted, be derived, ground, found, secure, establish
gwreiddiog = having roots, rooted, ingrained
gwreiddiol = original, primitive, innate, initial, established, hereditary
gwreiddyn = root, beginning, origin, source, nucleus, essence, foundation, reason, stock, pedigree
Old Cornish grueiten = root
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwredh, gwreydh, gwreidhen = root
gwredhan = a single root
gwrydhye = to take root, to be rooted
Cornish (Kernewek) gwrydhen = root
gwreydhek = original
gwreydhyel = radical
gwreydhyoleth = radicalism
Old Breton uraed = root
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gwrizienn, gruyzyenn, gruyzienn, grizyen = root
gwriziaouiñ gwriziañ, gwriziennañ = to take root, put down roots
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwrizienn = root, origin, base
gwriziañ = to take root, put down roots, ingrained

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wr̥h₂d-/*wréh₂ds (root). Words from the same roots include root, radish and wort (a liquid extracted from mash when making beer or malt liquor) in English, rot (root, source) in Swedish, rod (root) in Danish, wortel (carrot) in Dutch, Wurzel (root) in German, raíz (root, origin) in Spanish, raíz (root, origin) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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