Sticks and Rods

Today we’re looking at words for sticks, rods and related things in Celtic languages.

Plaster lath

Proto-Celtic *slattā = staff, stalk
Old Irish (Goídelc) slat = rod, lath, twig; ceremonial rod, staff; branch of a tree; scion, youth, stripling; yard (measure of length)
Irish (Gaeilge) slat [sˠl̪ˠɑt̪ˠ/sˠlˠat̪ˠ] = rod, slender stick, cane, switch, wand, yard, outskirts
slatach = rodlike, made of rods, wickered
slatáil = beat with a switch or birch
slataire = slip (of a person), sapling, tall supple youth
slatamáil = (act of) birching
slatfhear = slender supple man
slatóg = small rod, twig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slat [sl̪ˠahd] = long stick, rod, yard (measure), penis
slatag = small branch, twig
slat Ghàidhealach = Highland yard (8′)
slat-tomhais = standard, yardstick
slatan-draoidheachd = magic wand, fairy wand
Manx (Gaelg) slat(t) = batten, birch, cane, mace, rail, rod, slat, stem, switch, verge, wand
slat hendreil = lightning-rod
slat hows(h)e = criterion, yardstick
slat hummee = dipper, dipstick
slattag = perch, small rod, small stick, stripe, swizzle stick, twig
Proto-Brythonic *llaθ = rod, staff, stick, spear, beam, rafter, pole
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lath = rod, staff, wand, stick
Welsh (Cymraeg) llath [ɬaːθ] = rod, staff, wand, stick, lath, spear, lance, spar, rafter, beam, offshoot, descendant
llath Gymreig = Welsh yard (about 40 inches)
llathaid = yard’s length, yardstick, length of rod, pole or perch, square yard
lathen = rod, wand, staff, stick, lath
llathennaf, llathennu = to measure, be critical (of)
hudlath = magic wand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lath = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) lath = stick, staff, yard
Old Breton lath = pole, rod
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lazh, laz, lah = pole, rod
Breton (Brezhoneg) lazh = slat (of a plough), board, batten

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a substrate language of northwestern Europe [source].

Words that may be related include lath (a thin, narrow strip, fastened to the rafters) in English, Latte (batten, lath, slat) in German, lat (slate, lath, ruler, yardstick) in Dutch, and lata (can, tin, plate) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bareness

Words for bare, naked and related things in Celtic languages.

A view from Inis Mór

Old Irish (Goídelc) lomm [l͈om] = bare, naked, smooth, exact, threadbare, exact, script, pure, unadulterated, clear (sounds), unlenited
Irish (Gaeilge) lom [l̪ˠɑumˠ/l̪ˠoumˠ/l̪ˠʌmˠ] = bare, thin, close; to lay bare, strip, denude, become bare
lomadh = baring, shearing, stripping, denudation, improveishement, fleecing
lomair = to shear, fleece, denude, despoil
lomaire = shearer, fleecer, shark
lomairt = shearing, clip, denudation, spoliation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lom [l̪ˠɔum] = bare, naked, nude, bleak, plain, unadorned, defenceless, destitute, gaunt, meagre, threadbare, leafless, net (weight)
lomnochd = nakedness, nudity, bare, naked
lomradh = denuding, fleecing, shearing, fleece
lomadair = shearer, shaver, barber
lomadh = shaving, shearing, shave, making bare, stripping
moir lom = smooth / calm sea
Manx (Gaelg) lhome = arid, bald, bare, fleshless, leafless, meagre, naked, nude, scraggy, severe, spare, unset, unvarnished, open, neat
lhoamid = smoothness, nakedness
lommyrt = clipping, shear, (sheep-)shearing
lhomeyder = plunderer, shearer, stripper
loamreyder = fleecer, shearer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llum, llwm, llom = wave
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwm [ɬʊm] = bare, barren, naked, threadbare, worn, ragged; destitute, needy, poor, plain, simple, humble, empty
llwmder = poverty, nakedness, bareness
llwmhau = to denude, lay bare, despoil, impoverish, deprive
llwmedafedd, llwm ei gotwm = threadbare
y llety llwm = poor place or situation, state of starvation, destitution
troednoeth = barefoot
Cornish (Kernewek) lomm = bare, naked
lommder = bareness
lommas = area of unprofitable farmland
lommhe = to bare, strip bare

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *pleus- (plucking, peeling, feathers, fleece) [source].

Proto-Celtic *noxtos = naked
Old Irish (Goídelc) nocht [n͈oxt] = naked, bare, uncovered
Irish (Gaeilge) nocht [n̪ˠɔxt̪ˠ] = naked, bare, exposed; to bare, strip, uncover
nochtach = naked person
nochtachas = nudity
nochtadh = baring, exposure, disclosure, revelation, appearance
nochtaine = nakedness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nochd [n̪ˠɔ̃xg] = naked person, nakedness
Proto-Brythonic noeth = wave
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) noɨθ = naked, bare
Welsh (Cymraeg) noeth [noːɨ̯θ/nɔi̯θ] = naked, nude, undressed, stripped, bare, ill-clad; bare, exposed, bleak, uncovered, bald, hairless, blank
noethi = to bare, undress, denude, remove from, strip, uncover, expore, go bald, deprive, lay bare
noethlun = a nude (in art), destitute
noethlwm = naked, unclothed, ill-clad, bare, bleak, desolate
noethlymunwr = nudist, naturist, stripper, streaker
noethni = nakedness, nudity, barrenness, bleakness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) noath = naked, bare
noatha = nakedness
noeth = bare, uncovered, void, destitute
Cornish (Kernewek) noth = bare, naked, nude
nothedh = nudity
Old Breton noit = nude, green
Breton (Brezhoneg) noazh = nude, green
noazhkorfer = nudist
noazhkorferezh = nudism

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *nogʷtos from *negʷ- (bare, naked) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include gymnasium, naked and nude in English, naakt (nude, naked, bald) in Dutch, and nacht (naked, bare) in German [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sailing

Words for sail and related things in Celtic languages.

sailing ship

Proto-Celtic *siglom = sail, course, run
Old Irish (Goídelc) séol [sʲeːu̯l] = sail
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) séol = sail
séolaid = to sail
Irish (Gaeilge) seol [ʃoːl̪ˠ/ʃɔːlˠ] = sail; covering, canopy; drift, tend, course, direction, flow, motion
seoladh = to sail, sailing; course, direction, guidance, dispatch
seoladóir = shipper
seoladóireacht = shipping
seolchrann = mast
seoltóir = sailor, sender, remitter, drover, (electrical) conductor
seoltóireacht = sailing
long seol = sailing ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seòl [ʃɔːl̪ˠ] = sail; navigate, direct, guide, govern, regulate
seòlaid = shipping route, passage, sway(ing), nervous movement
seòl-mara = tide
seòladair = sailor
seòladaireach = nautical
Manx (Gaelg) shiauill = sail, navigate,
shiauilley = to sail, navigate, sailing
shiauilteyr = ferryman, sailor, seafarer, seaman
shiaulteyragh = nautical
Proto-Brythonic *hɨɣl = sail, course, run
Old Welsh huil = sail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwyl, hvyl, huyl = sail
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwyl [huːɨ̯l/hʊi̯l] = sail, sheet, covering, pall; journey, progress, revolution, orbit, course, route, career, rush, assault; hilarity, jollity, mirth, amusement, fun, humour
hwylbawl, hwylbolyn = boom, bowspirt
hwylbren = mast, flagstaff
hwyldroaf, hwyldroi = to tack, change course, veer
hwylfa = way, narrow road or street, lane, path, alley, voyage
hwylfwrdd = sailboard, windsurfer
hwylfyrddio = to sailboard, windsurf
hwylio = to sail, embark, set out on a voyage or journey, navigate
hwyliwr = navigator, mariner, sailor, leader, organizer
Old Cornish guio = sail
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) gol, goyl, guil = sail (of a ship)
gwelan gôl = sail yard
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = sail
golya = to sail
skath-wolya = sailing boat
gorhel golyow = sailing ship
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = sail
gouelier = to sail
gouelierezh = sailmaker

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly from the Old English seġ(e)l (sail), from the Proto-Germanic *segl (sail), from *seglą (sheet, sail), the origins of which are uncertain. Possibly cognate with the Latin sagum (coarse woolen coat), from the Gaulish *sagos (wool cloak). Related words include sail in English, zeil (sail, tarpaulin) in Dutch, Segel (sail) in German, and sejl (sail) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Here’s Leis an Lurgainn, a song in Scottish Gaelic about sailing:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lamentation

Words for lamentation and related things in Celtic languages:

Lament

Proto-Celtic *kiyeti = to fall, cry
Old Irish (Goídelc) caí = weeping, lamentation
ciïd [ˈkʲi.ɨðʲ] = to lament, weep
caínid [ˈkoːi̯nʲiðʲ] = to lament, mourn, keen, regret, deplore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) caí = weeping, wailing, lamentation
ciïd = to cry, weep, lament, mourn
caínid = lament
Irish (Gaeilge) caí = lament, lamentation
caoin [kiːnʲ] = to keen, lament, cry, weep
caoineadh = to keen, lament, crying weeping, elegy
caoineachán = crying, mewling, lamentation
caointeach = plaintive, mournful
caointeachán = whimperer, crier
caointeoir = mourner, crier
caointeoireacht = lamenting, crying, lamentation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoidh [kɤj] = lamenting, bewailing, lamentation, mourning, grieving
caoin [kɯːn̪ʲ] = to weep, wail, deplore, howl, regret
caoineach = mournful, mourning
caoineadh = weeping for, mourning, crying, lamenting, wailing
caoineag, caointeach = wailing women (foretells death)
caoineadh cù Chaluim = crocodile tears
Manx (Gaelg) coe = weep, mourn, weeping, woe
keayney = weep. weeping, cry, crying, greet, keening, lament, lamentation, mourn, mourning, wail, wailing, deplore
keaynoil = lamentable, mournful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kwyn, cwyn, cŵyn = complaint, greivance, lament
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn [kuːɨ̯n/kʊi̯n] = complaint, greivance, lament, grief; sympathy, commiseration
cwyno [ˈkʊɨ̯nɔ / ˈkʊi̯nɔ] = to complain, lament, bemoan, mourn, condole with, pity, take legal action
cwynfannu = to complain, lament, moan, groan, mourn for; lamentation, groan, moan, mourning
cwynfanllyd = moanful, querulous, grumbling, peevish
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cyny, kyny = to mourn, lament, weep
Cornish (Kernewek) kyni = to lament, moan, mourn, wail
kynvan = lament, lamentation, moan, mourning
Middle Breton (Brezonec) keinal, keinat, keiniñ = to complain
Breton (Brezoneg) keuziañ = to deplore, bemoan
keuziadenn = lament

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷey- (to lament, complain) [source]. Words from the same root include ween (to weep, wail) in Scots, wenen (to cry, weep) in Dutch, weinen (to weep, cry) in German, and kveina (to wail, cry, lament) in Icelandic, via the Proto-Germanic *kwainōną (to lament) [source].

The English word keen (to mourn, utter with a loud wailing voice or wordless cry) was borrowed from the Irish caoin [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lead (Metal)

Today we’re looking at the words for lead (metal) and related things in Celtic languages.

Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Wales.
Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Ceredigion, Cymru

Proto-Celtic *ɸloudom = lead (metal)
Gaulish *laudon = lead (metal)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lúaide = lead (metal)
Irish (Gaeilge) luaidhe [ˈl̪ˠuːiː] = lead (metal), (sounding-) lead, plummet, (fishing) sinker
luaidhiúil = lead-like, leaden
luaidhnimh = lead-poisoning
peann luaidhe = pencil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luaidhe [l̪ˠuəjə] = lead (metal), leaden
luaidheach = leaden
peann-luaidhe = pencil
Manx (Gaelg) leoaie = lead (metal), leaden, sounding lead
penn leoaie = pencil

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plewd- (to fly, flow, run), from *plew- (to fly, flow, run), from the Proto-West Germanic *laud [source].

Some words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood and pneumonia in English, vlieten (to flow) in Dutch, fließen (to flow) in German, flyte (to float, flow) in Swedish [source].

The English word lead comes from the Middle English le(e)d (lead) from the Old English lēad (lead) from the Proto-West-Germanic *laud (lead), from the Gaulish *laudon (lead) [source], and words for lead in other Germanic language languages come from the same root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *plum = lead (metal)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pluum, plwm = lead (metal)
Welsh (Cymraeg) plwm [plʊm] = lead (metal); mass or ball of lead, plumb, plummet, straight(ness), vertical(ness)
plymaidd = leaden, lead-like, heavy, oppressive, worthless
plymen = lead weight, plummet, sheet, of lead
plymio = to sound (for depth), fathom, dive, plunge, plummet; to cover or solder with lead, line (pottery) with lead, glaze
plymwr = plumber, dealer/worker in lead, plunger, diver
plymliw = lead-coloured, blackish-blue, greyish blue, pale blue
Cornish (Kernewek) plomm, plobm = lead (metal)
plommer = plumber
plommwedhek = vertical
pyncel plomm = pencil
Breton (Brezhoneg) plom = lead (metal)
plomek = lead(en)
plomer = plumber
plomerezh = plumbing

Etymology: from the Latin plumbum (lead, pencil), may be borrowed from Etruscan, Iberian or some other pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate language [source].

Some words from the same Latin root include plumb (truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line) in English, piombo (lead, grey, bullet) in Italian, plomb (lead, fuse, sinker) in French, and Plombe (seal, filling) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hard Steel

Today we’re looking at the words for steel and related things in Celtic languages.

Steel

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúr = hard, hardy, resolute, rigid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dúr = rigid, hard, solid; difficult; hard to bear; strict, austere; hardy, resolute; unfeeling, dour, obdurate
Irish (Gaeilge) dúr = hard, rigid, solid; dour, grim, obstinate; dense, stupid, blunt, insensitive; sluggish
dúramán = dull-witted, stupid person
dúramánta = dull-witted, stupid
dúranta = dour, grim, morose, sullen
dúrantacht = dourness, sullenness
dúrapóg = surly person
dúrchroí = hard heart, hardness of heart
dúrchroíoch = hard hearted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dùr [duːr] = stubborn, intractable; obstinate, dull, stupid; persevering
durganta = rigid, stiff, hardened; robust, rigorous; obstinate, dogged; sullen, morose; grim, forbidding
Manx (Gaelg) douyr = mournful, uncomfortable, unhappy, afflicting
Proto-Brythonic *dʉr = hard, hard metal, steel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dur = steel
Welsh (Cymraeg) dur [dɨːr / diːr] = steel, steel weapon; hard, cruel
duraidd = steely, hard, faithful, true
durawdr = steel sword or lance
dur bwrw = cast steel
edau ddur = wire
fel y dur = true as steel, like steel
llifddur = file, rasp
Cornish (Kernewek) dur = steel
dur dinamm = stainless steel
Breton (Brezhoneg) dir = steel
dir disvergi = stainless steel
kazeg-dir = bicycle (“steel mare”)

Etymology from the Latin dūrus (hard, rough, harsh), from the Proto-Indo-European *drew- (hard, fast), from *dóru (tree) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include the Scots word dour (hard, stern, severe, relentless), possibly via Middle Irish, which was also borrowed into English and means stern, harsh or forbidding; the French word dur (hard, tough, harsh), the Italian word duro (hard, tough, harsh), and the Spanish word duro (hard, form, solid) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include Celtic words for oak (tree), and the English words true, trough and trim [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachghreanadóireacht = steel-engraving
cruachobair = steelwork
cruachphláta = steel-plate
cruachphlátáilte = steel-plated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
Manx (Gaelg) creoighey = steel

Etymology from the Irish crua (hard), from the Old Irish crúaid (hard, hardy, harsh, stern, strict), from the Proto-Celtic *kroudis (rude), possibly from *krū- (blood), from the Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂-. (blood) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stàilinn [sdaːl̪ʲɪn̪ʲ] = steel
clòimh-stàilinn = steel wool
obraiche-stàilinn = steelworker
ionad-stàilinn = steelworks
Manx (Gaelg) staillin, steillyn, steillin = steel
staillinagh = steel-maker, steel
obbyr staillinagh = steelwork
ollan staillinagh = steel wool
snaie staillinagh = steel wire
towse staillinagh = steelyard

Etymology from the Old Norse stál (steel, sword), from the Proto-Germanic stahlą (steel), from the Proto-Indo-European *stek- (to be firm, stand fast) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include steel in English, staal (steel) in Dutch, Stahl (steel) in German, and stål (steel, tool) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Doors

Today we’re looking at the words for door and related things in Celtic languages.

Priory Church of St Mary in Chepstow, Wales

Proto-Celtic *dwār = door
Gaulish *durom = door – was borrowed into Latin and appeared in placenames such as Augustodurum (now Bayeux), and Nemetodurum (now Nanterre)
Proto-Brythonic *dor = door
Old Welsh dor = door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dor = door
Welsh (Cymraeg) dôr [druːs] = door; defence, refuge, shield; opportunity; protector, defender, chief, leader
dôr blyg(edig) = folding door
dôr ddyrchafad = portcullis
Middle Breton dor = door
Breton (Brezhoneg) dor = door
dor a-dreñv = rear door
dor a-raok = front door
dor emgefre = automatic door
dor greñvaet = fortified gate
dor harz tan = fire door
dor-borzh = gate (of a courtyard)
dor brenestr = French window
dor dal = front door, portal
gwir treuz-dor = doorstep

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *dʰwṓr (door), from *dʰwer- (doorway, door, gate) [source].

Words from the sane Proto-Indo-European root include: door and forum in English, deur (door) in Dutch, Tür (door, doorway) in German, dehors (outside) in French, fuori (outside) in Italian, and fuera (outside) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *dworestus = door
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Irish (Gaeilge) doras [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəsˠ] = door, doorway
doras isteach = entrance
doras amach = exit
doras tosaigh / béil = front door
doras cúil / thiar = backdoor
doirseach = having doors, open, accessible, gaping (wound)
doirseoir = door-keeper, (hall) porter
doirseoireacht = occupation of door-keeper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dorus [dɔrəs] = door, valve
dorus-beag = back door, inner door
dorus-mór = front door, main entrance
doras a-mach = exit
àrd-doras = lintel
ath-dhoras = next door
deoch an dorais = stirrup cup, one for the door/road, Jock and Doris
Manx (Gaelg) dorrys = door, doorway, gate, portal; back (of cart), fly (of tent)
dorrys doont = back door
dorrys toshee = front door
dorrys egin = emergency exit, exit
jough yn dorrys = parting drink, stirrup cup
sole y dorrys = doorstep, threshold
Proto-Brythonic *drus = doorway, entrance, door
Old Welsh drus = doorway, entrance, door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) drus, drvs, drws = doorway, entrance, door
Welsh (Cymraeg) drws [druːs] = doorway, entrance, door, pass, estuary, opening, opportunity, facility
drws codi/cudd = trap-door
drws nesaf = next door (to), very near (to), bordering (on)
wrth y drws = at hand, close, near
o ddrws = from before
drysaf, drwsaf, dryo, drwso = to mind a door (in a coal-mine)
dryswr, drwswr = door-boy (in a coal-mine)
drysor = doorkeepr, janitor, porter
Middle Cornish daras, darat = door
darador = doorkeeper
Cornish (Kernewek) daras = door
darasik = wicket
penn/pedn daras = lintel

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *dwār (door) – see above [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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