Worms & Maggots

Today we’re looking at the words for worm, maggot and related things in Celtic languages.

Earth Worm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷrimis = worm
Old Irish (Goídelc) cruim [kruṽʲ] = maggot, worm
crumdoma = maggot heap
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) cruim, crúim = worm, maggot
crumach = full of reptiles
crumdoma = dunghill
cromóc = maggot
Irish (Gaeilge) cruimh = maggot, larva, grub, tiny insect, worm
crumhóg = maggot
cruimheach = maggoty
cruimheachán = venemous person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnuimh [krɯ̃ĩv] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimheach [krɯ̃ĩvəx] = maggoty
cnuimheag [krɯ̃ĩvag] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimhneag [krɯ̃ĩvn̪ˠʲag] = maggot, worm
Manx (Gaelg) crooag = (flesh) worm, grub, maggot, worm
crooagagh = maggoty, wormy
Proto-Brythonic *prɨβ̃ [ˈprɨβ̃] = worm
Old Welsh prem = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pryuet, pryf = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryuyedic = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Welsh (Cymraeg) pryf [prɨːv/priːv] = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryfedaf, pryfedu, pryfedo = to breed worms of maggots, to become infested with worms or maggots
pryfediad = worm or maggot infestation
pryfedig = wormeaten, maggoty
pryfeteg = entomology
pryfiedig = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pref, prêv, pryf = any small animal, a vermin, an insect, a worm, a reptile
Cornish (Kernewek) pryv, prev = crawling animal, grub, insect, worm, weevil
pryv del = caterpillar
pryv prenn woodworm
pryvladher = insecticide
Middle Breton (Brezonec) preff, preuet, prenvv = worm
Breton (Brezhoneg) preñv = worm
preñvedik = vermiculated
preñvek = vermicular, wormlike, wormy
eneppreñveg, eneppreñvek = wormable

Etymology: from PIE *kʷŕ̥mis (worm) [source]. Words from the same root include cirmenis (maggot, grub) in Latvian, kirmis (worm) in Lithuanian, käärme (snake) in Finnish, کرم (kerm – worm) in Persian, and červ (worm, maggot) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dorb = worm, larva
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorb = small insect or worm
Irish (Gaeilge) doirb [kɑbʲ/kabʲ] = water beelte
doirbeach = infested with water beetles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doirb [dɤrʲɤb] = unspecific term for a small/tiny/insignificant creature (e.g. minnow, worm, leech, small person)
Manx (Gaelg) durrag = cabbage worm, larva of cabbage moth

Etymology: unknown

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blindness

Words for blind, one-eyed and related words in Celtic languages.

One-eyed squirrel

Proto-Celtic *dallos = blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) dall = blind
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dall, dáll, = blind, dark, gloomy,
daillín = blind man
dalla(id) = to blind, deprive of sight, darken, obscure
dallóc = a little blind animal, mole, leech
Irish (Gaeilge) dall [d̪ˠaul̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑːl̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑl̪ˠ] = blind person, dull, uninformed person, dimness, gloom, obscurity, to blind, dazzle, daze, stupefy
dallacán = purblind person, dim-witted person, fool, mask
dallacántacht = purblindness, dim-wittedness
dallachar = dazzle
dalladh = blinding, dazzlement, plenty, lashings
dallaigeanta = dull-witted
dallamlán = stupid fool, dolt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dall [daul̪ˠ] = blind, obscure, blind person
dallaran = blind person
dalladh [dal̪ˠəɣ] = blinding, misleading
dall-bhrat = blindfold
dallanach = dark, gloomy, inebriated
dallta = blinded, deceived, mislead
Manx (Gaelg) doal = blind, sightless, unseeing
dallaghey = to befog, blind, daze, dazzle, glare
doallaghey, doalley, doallee = blind, blinding
Proto-Brythonic *dall [ˈdal͈] = blind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dall, dâll = blind, unseeing, dark, random
dallaf = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallineb, dallinep = blindness, folly, recklessness
Welsh (Cymraeg) dall [da(ː)ɬ] = blind, unseeing, dark, random, purblind, ignorant, rash, thoughtless, mistaken, blind person
dallaf, dallu = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallaidd = blindness, purblind
dallan = blind person
dalledig = blinded, darkened
dallineb = blindness, folly, recklessness
Old Cornish dal = blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dall = blind
dalla = to (make) blind
Cornish (Kernewek) dall = blind
dalla = to blind
dallhe = to blind, dazzle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dall, dal = blind, blunt, blinkered
dallaff, dallañ, dalliñ = to gouge out sb’s eyes, to blind, to fill a hole, to blunt, crumble
dallente, dallentez, dallezh = blindness
dallet = blinded
Breton (Brezhoneg) dall [ˈdalː] = blind, blunt, blinkered, dead end
dallentez, dallezh = blindness

Etymology: from PIE *dʰwl̥no-, from *dʰwolno (to dim, make obscure) [source].

Words from the same roots include dull and dwell in English, toll (great, nice, wonderful) in German, dol (crazy, silly, mad, mindless, irate) in Dutch, and dulls (crazy, mad) in Latvian.

Proto-Celtic *kaikos/*kayko- = one-eyed, blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáech [kaːi̯x] = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, blind creature
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cáech = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, dimsighted creature
cáiche = state of being one-eyed, blind in one eye
cáichén = an ignorant person
Irish (Gaeilge) caoch [keːx/kiːx] = blind, purblind person / creature, empty, closed up; to blind, daze, dazzle, close, become blocked, wink
caochadh = to wink, close
caochadóir = purblind creature
caochaíl = purblindness, blockage
caochán = purblind creature, mole
caochóg = purblind person, cubby-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoch [kɯːx] = empty, hollow, blind (creature)
caochag = empty / hollow object, dummy
caochadh [kɯːxəɣ] = blinking, shutting one eye, winking, peeping, ogling
bealach-caoch = cul-de-sac
Manx (Gaelg) kyagh = weak-eyed
kyaght = blindness
kyragh = blind
bollagh kyagh = cul-de-sac
Proto-Brythonic *koɨg = vain, empty, one-eyed, blind (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coeg, coec, koeg = vain, empty, false, deceitful; blind, one-eyed
koegi to deride, mock, deteriorate; become blind
koec ddall, koegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Welsh (Cymraeg) coeg [koːɨ̯ɡ/kɔi̯ɡ] = vain, empty, false, deceitful, mean, evil, good-for-nothing, arrogant, scornful, sarcastic; blind, one-eyed, squinting
coegaf, coegi = to deride, mock, lampoon, use sarcasm; to be(come) worthless, deteriorate; to become blind, have defective eyesight, darken
coegaidd = vain, empty, haughty, conceited, saucy
coegathrawgar = pedantic
coegathro = pedant
coegbeth = worthless thing, triviality, trifle, bauble
coegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Old Cornish cuic = one-eyed, blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cuic = blind in one eye
Cornish (Kernewek) koog = vain, worthless, barren, infertile

Etymology: from PIE *kéh₂ikos (one-eyed, blind) [source].

Words from the same roots include caecus (blind) and caecum (uncertainity, obscurity) in Latin, cécité (blindness) in French, ciego (blind, blind person, very drunk, caecum) in Spanish, and caecum (a part of the intestine) in English [source].

Incidentally, purblind means partially blind, dim-sighted, dim-witted, unintelligent, and used to mean blind or having one eye [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ferns and Bracken

Today we’re looking at the words for fern, bracken and related things in Celtic languages.

Maidenhair Spleenwort

Proto-Celtic *ɸratis, *frati- = fern, bracken
Gaulish ratis = fern, bracken
Old Irish (Goídelc) raithnech [ˈr͈aθʲnʲex] = fern, bracken
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) raith = fern, bracken
Irish (Gaeilge) raithneach = fern, bracken
raithneachán = ferny place
raithneachúil = ferny
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raineach [r̪ˠan̪ʲəx] = fern, bracken; hashish, weed
raith [r̪ˠɛ] = fern, bracken
raineachail = abounding in fern, ferny, like fern
Manx (Gaelg) renniagh = fern, bracken
renniaghoil = ferny
Proto-Brythonic *rrėdɨn = ferns, bracken
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rhedyn = ferns, bracken
retinoc, redinauc, rhydynog = ferny
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhedyn [ˈr̥ɛdɨ̞n / ˈr̥eːdɪn] = ferns, bracken
rhedynen = fern
rhedyn eryraidd = bracken
rhedyna = to gather ferms
rhedynaidd = ferny
rhedyneg = ferny ground
rhedynog = ferny (land), abounding with ferns, fern-like, made of fern
Old Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen, redanen = fern
Cornish (Kernewek) reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Breton reden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern
Breton (Brezhoneg) raden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *p(t)erH- (fern) [source].

The English word fern comes from the same PIE root, via the Old English fearn and the Proto-West-Germanic *farn [source].

Other words from the same PIE root include paparde (fern) in Latvian, paproć (fern) in Polish, and папрат (fern) in Bulgarian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Old

Words for old and related things in Celtic languages.

Old Irish Cottage & Out House

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *senos = old
Gaulish *senos = old
Old Irish (Goídelc) sen = old, ancester, old person,
sendatu = longevity, old age
senóir = elder, old person, senior
senórdacht = elderliness, old age
sentonn = old woman
sentu = old age
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sen = old, ancient, long-standing, ancestor
sendatu = old age, long life
senóir, seanóir = senior, elder, old person
senórdacht, senordacht = old age, seniority
sentonn, sentuinne, sentain = old woman
sentu = old age
Irish (Gaeilge) sean [ʃanˠ] = old, aged, mature; senior, ancestor; long-established, old fashioned; great, exceeding
seanaimsir = old times
seanaois = old age
seanársa = primitive
seanda = old, aged, ancient, antique, stale
seanóir = old person, senior, elder
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sean [ʃɛn] = old, aged, elderly; former
seanachd [ʃɛnəxg] = ancientness, oldness
seanair [ʃɛnɪrʲ] = grandfather, elder, ancestor
seanmhair [ʃɛnɛvɪrʲ] = grandmother, grandma
seannda [ʃãũndə] = ancient, old-fashioned
seanndaidh [ʃãũn̪ˠdɪ] = ancient, old-fashioned, infirm, frail
seantaidh [ʃan̪ˠdɪ] = primeval, primitive, shanty
Manx (Gaelg) shenn = old, stale, aged, former, time-fusty, inveterate, ancient, vintage, veteran, old-established, olden, antiquarian, worn, elderly, consecrated, archaic, ex, senile, long-standing
shennaghys = annals, antiquity, history, story-telling, tradition
shennayr, shaner = ancestor, father, forebear, grandfather
shenndeeagh = ancient, historical
Proto-Brythonic *hen = old
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hen = old
henadur, henadûr = alderman, elder, presbyter, (church) father, senior in rank
henv, henu, hena = to grow old or decrepit, weaken, deteriorate, fail
henaidd = oldish, old, aged, ancient, archaic, antiquated
heneint, henaint = old age, oldness, antiquity, the aged
Welsh (Cymraeg) hen [heːn] = old, aged; ancient, antique, pristine, former; inveterate, chronic; original; senior, elder; stale, mouldy, musty, fusty
henadur = alderman, elder, presbyter, (church) father, senior in rank
henaf, henu = to grow old or decrepit, weaken, deteriorate, fail
henaidd = oldish, old, aged, ancient, archaic, antiquated
henaint = old age, oldness, antiquity, the aged
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hen, hén, hên = old, ancient, antique
hendas = grandfather
hengog = great great grandfather
Cornish (Kernewek) hen [hɛ:n / he:n] = old, archaic, long-standing
henavek, henavoges = elder(ly), senior, older
hendas = ancestor, forefather
hendedhyow = the olden days
hendheskonieth = archaeology
henedh = generation
hengov = tradition
henlavar = proverb
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hen = old, ancient
henaff = elder, senior
henavelezh = birthright, right of primogeniture
Breton (Brezhoneg) hen = old, ancient
henadur = = archaism
henamzer = antiquity
henañ = elder, senior
henanded = primogeniture
henavelezh = birthright, right of primogeniture

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sénos (old) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include senate and senior in English, sens (ancient, old) in Latvian, sẽnas (old) in Lithuanian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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