Words for blind, one-eyed and related words in Celtic languages.

One-eyed squirrel

Proto-Celtic *dallos = blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) dall = blind
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dall, dáll, = blind, dark, gloomy,
daillín = blind man
dalla(id) = to blind, deprive of sight, darken, obscure
dallóc = a little blind animal, mole, leech
Irish (Gaeilge) dall [d̪ˠaul̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑːl̪ˠ/d̪ˠɑl̪ˠ] = blind person, dull, uninformed person, dimness, gloom, obscurity, to blind, dazzle, daze, stupefy
dallacán = purblind person, dim-witted person, fool, mask
dallacántacht = purblindness, dim-wittedness
dallachar = dazzle
dalladh = blinding, dazzlement, plenty, lashings
dallaigeanta = dull-witted
dallamlán = stupid fool, dolt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dall [daul̪ˠ] = blind, obscure, blind person
dallaran = blind person
dalladh [dal̪ˠəɣ] = blinding, misleading
dall-bhrat = blindfold
dallanach = dark, gloomy, inebriated
dallta = blinded, deceived, mislead
Manx (Gaelg) doal = blind, sightless, unseeing
dallaghey = to befog, blind, daze, dazzle, glare
doallaghey, doalley, doallee = blind, blinding
Proto-Brythonic *dall [ˈdal͈] = blind
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dall, dâll = blind, unseeing, dark, random
dallaf = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallineb, dallinep = blindness, folly, recklessness
Welsh (Cymraeg) dall [da(ː)ɬ] = blind, unseeing, dark, random, purblind, ignorant, rash, thoughtless, mistaken, blind person
dallaf, dallu = to blind, dazzle, deceive, darken
dallaidd = blindness, purblind
dallan = blind person
dalledig = blinded, darkened
dallineb = blindness, folly, recklessness
Old Cornish dal = blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dall = blind
dalla = to (make) blind
Cornish (Kernewek) dall = blind
dalla = to blind
dallhe = to blind, dazzle
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dall, dal = blind, blunt, blinkered
dallaff, dallañ, dalliñ = to gouge out sb’s eyes, to blind, to fill a hole, to blunt, crumble
dallente, dallentez, dallezh = blindness
dallet = blinded
Breton (Brezhoneg) dall [ˈdalː] = blind, blunt, blinkered, dead end
dallentez, dallezh = blindness

Etymology: from PIE *dʰwl̥no-, from *dʰwolno (to dim, make obscure) [source].

Words from the same roots include dull and dwell in English, toll (great, nice, wonderful) in German, dol (crazy, silly, mad, mindless, irate) in Dutch, and dulls (crazy, mad) in Latvian.

Proto-Celtic *kaikos/*kayko- = one-eyed, blind
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáech [kaːi̯x] = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, blind creature
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cáech = blind in one eye, empty
cáechaid = to blind
cáechán = one-eyed person, dimsighted creature
cáiche = state of being one-eyed, blind in one eye
cáichén = an ignorant person
Irish (Gaeilge) caoch [keːx/kiːx] = blind, purblind person / creature, empty, closed up; to blind, daze, dazzle, close, become blocked, wink
caochadh = to wink, close
caochadóir = purblind creature
caochaíl = purblindness, blockage
caochán = purblind creature, mole
caochóg = purblind person, cubby-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoch [kɯːx] = empty, hollow, blind (creature)
caochag = empty / hollow object, dummy
caochadh [kɯːxəɣ] = blinking, shutting one eye, winking, peeping, ogling
bealach-caoch = cul-de-sac
Manx (Gaelg) kyagh = weak-eyed
kyaght = blindness
kyragh = blind
bollagh kyagh = cul-de-sac
Proto-Brythonic *koɨg = vain, empty, one-eyed, blind (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coeg, coec, koeg = vain, empty, false, deceitful; blind, one-eyed
koegi to deride, mock, deteriorate; become blind
koec ddall, koegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Welsh (Cymraeg) coeg [koːɨ̯ɡ/kɔi̯ɡ] = vain, empty, false, deceitful, mean, evil, good-for-nothing, arrogant, scornful, sarcastic; blind, one-eyed, squinting
coegaf, coegi = to deride, mock, lampoon, use sarcasm; to be(come) worthless, deteriorate; to become blind, have defective eyesight, darken
coegaidd = vain, empty, haughty, conceited, saucy
coegathrawgar = pedantic
coegathro = pedant
coegbeth = worthless thing, triviality, trifle, bauble
coegddall = purblind, half-blind, shortsighted, one-eyed, squinting
Old Cornish cuic = one-eyed, blind
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cuic = blind in one eye
Cornish (Kernewek) koog = vain, worthless, barren, infertile

Etymology: from PIE *kéh₂ikos (one-eyed, blind) [source].

Words from the same roots include caecus (blind) and caecum (uncertainity, obscurity) in Latin, cécité (blindness) in French, ciego (blind, blind person, very drunk, caecum) in Spanish, and caecum (a part of the intestine) in English [source].

Incidentally, purblind means partially blind, dim-sighted, dim-witted, unintelligent, and used to mean blind or having one eye [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *