Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Through and Through

Here are some words for through, across, over and related things in Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trē = through
Old Irish (Goídelc) tre [tʲrʲe] = through
trium = through me
triut = through you (sg)
triit = through him
tree = through her
triunn = through us
triib = through you (pl)
treu, tréu = through them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tri, tre, tré, trí [tʲrʲe] = through, along, across, by means of
tríom(sa) = through me
triut, tréot = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trethe, trithe = through her
trínn(e) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Irish (Gaeilge) trí [tʲɾʲiː] = through, within, throughout, on account of, by mean of
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tre [edər] = through
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Manx (Gaelg) trooid = through, betwixt
my hrooid = through me
dty hrooid = through you (sg)
e hrooid = through him
e trooid = through her
nyn drooid = through us / you (pl) / them
Proto-Brythonic *truɨ = through
Old Welsh troi = through
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trui, trwy, drỽy = through
trwof, drwof = through me
trwot, drwot = through you (sg)
trwyddo, drwyddo = through him
trwyddi, drwyddi = through her
trwom, drwom = through us
trwoch, drwoch = through you (pl)
trwyddynt, drwyddynt = through them
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwy, drwy [truːɨ̯/trʊi̯] = through(out), from end to end, over, across, along, while, by (means of), according to, because of
trwyddo (f)i = through me
trwyddot ti = through you (sg)
trwyddo fe/fo = through him
trwyddi hi = through her
trwyddon ni = through us
trwyddoch chi = through you (pl)
trwyddyn nhw = through them
trwyenaf, trawenu = to go (over, through), cross, bring through
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre = through
Cornish (Kernewek) dre = through via, by means of , per
dredhov = through me
drehos = through you (sg)
dredho = through him
dredhi = through her
dredhon = through us
dredhowgh = through you (pl)
dredha = through them
dre bub rann/radn = throughout
dre happ = by chance, by the way, incidentally
dre wall = accidentally, by accident
drefen = because of, on account of
Old Breton (Brethonoc) dre = through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dre, der, tre = through
dreizoff = through me
drezoude = through you (sg)
dreizaff = through him
drezi, dredi = through her
dré-omb = through us
dreizoch = through you (pl)
drezo, drede, dreze = through them
Breton (Brezhoneg) dre [dreː] = through, by, with
drezon = through me
drezout = through you (sg)
drezañ = through him
drezi = through her
drezomp = through us
drezoc’h = through you (pl)
drezo, dreze = through them
dre gant = percent
dre guzh = in secret
dre zegouezh = by chance, by accident

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-/*ter- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include thorough and through in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *taras = through, across
Old Irish (Goídelc) tar = across, over, through
thorum(sa) = over me
torut(su) = over you (sg)
tarais = over him
tairse = over her
torunn(i) = over us
toraib = over you (pl)
tairsiu = over them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tar = over, across, covering
torum, torom, toram = over me
torut, torot, thorad = over you (sg)
tarais, taris, tairis = over him
tarsi, tairs = over her
torunn, torund = over us
toraib thoruibh = over you (pl)
tairis, tairise = over them
Irish (Gaeilge) thar [haɾˠ/hæɾʲ] = over, above, across, by, past, through, beyond, more than
tharam(sa) = over/beyond me
tharat(sa) = over/beyond you (sg)
thairis(-sean) = over/beyond him
thairsti(se) = over/beyond her
tharainn(e) = over/beyond us
tharaibh(se) = over/beyond you (pl)
tharstu(san) = over/beyond them
thar bord = overboard
thar sáile = overseas
thar téarma = overdue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) thar [har] = across, over
tharam(sa) = over me
tharad(sa) = over you (sg)
thairis(-san) = over him
thairte(se) = over her
tharainn(e) = over us
tharaibh(se) = over you (pl)
tharta(san) = over them
thar bòrd/stoc = overboard
thar chnoc is sloc fuar fad ás = over the hills and far away
thar chuain = overseas, across the sea
thar tomhais = beyond measure
Manx (Gaelg) har [har] = across, beyond, former
harrish = above, across, beyond, bygone, over, trans
harrym(s) = over me
haryd(s) = over you (sg)
harrish(yn) = over him
harree(ish) = over her
harrin(yn) = over us
harriu(ish) = over you (pl)
harroo(syn) = over them
har cheer = overland
har mooir = oveasea
harrish as tarrish = over and over
harrish boayrd = overboard
harrish shen = furthermore, moreover
harrish yn traa = overdue
Proto-Brythonic *tra(ns) = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Welsh (Cymraeg) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond, the other side of, over, across, more than, above
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tra, tre = beyond, over
Cornish (Kernewek) dres = beyond, during, in the course of, over, past, through
dres an gwartha = over the top
dres mor = overseas
dres nos = overnight
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tra = through, across, by means of
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tra = through, across, by means of
Breton (Brezhoneg) tra [tʁa] = while
tramor [traˈmoːr] = overseas

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *térh₂-t (to get through, cross over) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include trans- in English, très (very) in French, tras (behind, after) in Galician, and tras (afterm behind, beyond) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *trāns(s) = across
Old Irish (Goídelc) trá [traː] = then, therefore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trá, tra, thra = then, therefore, so, however, but, on the other hand
Irish (Gaeilge) trá = then, indeed, however
Proto-Brythonic *trọs = strong, powerful, potent, mighty (?)
Old Welsh traus = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) traỽs, traus, traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
artraus, ar traỽs. ar y draỽs, ar traws = across, over, upon, about
trowsi = to move/cut across, cross
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
Welsh (Cymraeg) traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty, cruel, oppresive, cross, transverse, oblique, slanting
ar draws = across, over, upon, about
traws(i)af, trawsu, traws(i)o = to move/cut across, cross, turn sideways
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
trawseddaf, trawseddu = to offend, transgress
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tres = adverse, cross, forward
adres = across
Cornish (Kernewek) treus = pass
treusfurvyaz = transform
a-dreus = across
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tros = traverse, distance
Middle Breton (Brezonec) treuz, treus, trez = traverse, distance
Breton (Brezhoneg) treuz [trøːs] = traverse. distance, height
a-dreuz = across, traverse
treuzer = ferry
treuzerezh = crossing
treuzfurmin = to transform
treuzkas = to transmit
treuzkaser = transmitter
treuzlat = transfer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Modestly Humble

Words for modest and related things in Celtic languages.

Modestly Humble

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *wēlos = modest
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíal [fʲiːa̯l] = becoming, generous, genteel, seemly, well-bred
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fíal = decorous becoming, seemly (of conduct or behavious), modest, chaste, well-bred, honourable, noble
fíalmar = noble-natured, generous
Irish (Gaeilge) fial [fʲiəlˠ] = seemly, proper, noble, generous, hospitable
fialmhaireacht = open-handedness, generosity
fialmhaitheas = goodness of heart, generosity
fialmhar = open-handed, generous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fial [fiəl̪ˠ] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fial-chridheachd = altruism
fial-inntinneach = open-minded, liberal-minded
fialach [fiəl̪ˠəx] = generous, unstinting, liberal, open-handed, bountiful, hospitable
fialachd [fiəl̪ˠəxg] = generosity, liberality
fialaiche = provider of hospitality
Manx (Gaelg) feoilt = benevolent, bountiful, generous, munificent
feoiltagh = benevolent, bounteous, free, lavish, liberal, unselfish
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guiled = shame
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guyl, gwyl, gŵyl = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive
guilat, gwylat = merry, glad, lively
gwylder = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gvilet, gwylet, gwyled = modesty, humility, gentleness, shame
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl = [ɡuːɨ̯l/ɡʊi̯l] = modest, bashful, unassuming, unobstrusive, mild, tender, gentle, gracious, joyous, glad, generous, kind
gwylad = merry, glad, lively
gwyldeb = modesty, bashfulness
gwylader, gwyldra = modesty, bashfulness, humility, feeling faint
gwyledd = modesty, humility, gentleness, meekness, courtesy, graciousness, joy, shame

Etymology: possibly from the PIE *wey- (turn) or *wāg- (to be bent), which is related to vagus (wandering, roaming) in Latin, from which we get the English words vague and vagabond [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) umal [ˈuṽal] = humble, obedient
umaldóit = humility
umlaigid = to humble
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) umal = humble, obedient, submissive
umaldóit, omaldóit, umallóit = humility
uimligid, huimligte, umlaigid = to humble
Irish (Gaeilge) umhal [uəl̪ˠ/uːlˠ] = humble, submissive, lithe, supple, plant
umhlaigh = to humble, bow, submit, obey, stoop
umhlaíocht = humility, submission, obedience, dutifulness, respect
umhlóid = humility, submission, lowly service, attendence, ministration, suppleness, pliancy
umhlú = genuflection, curtsey, obesiance, submission
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umhal [ũ.əl̪ˠ] = submissive, obedient, humble, lowly, meek
Manx (Gaelg) imlee = humble, lowly, menial, simple
imlagh = humble, humbling
imlaghey = humble, stoop
Old Welsh (Kembraec) humil = humble
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) huvyll, uvell = merry, glad, lively
uỽyl, vffil = humble, meek, submissive
ufullder, uvyllder = humility
uỽyltaỽd, uvylldaỽt, vuildaud, vffyldaud = humility
Welsh (Cymraeg) ufyl = humble, meek, submissive
ufyllter, ufullter = humility
ufylltod, ufulltod, ufelltod, hufylltod = humility
hyful = humble
Old Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huvel, hyvbl, evall = humble, lowly
huveldot = hunility
hyvla = tp be humble, to be obedient, to obey
Cornish (Kernewek) uvel = humble, lowly, modest
uvelder = humility
Middle Breton vuel, uuel = humble, meek, lowly
uffuelhat = to humiliate (oneself)
vuelaff, uvelañ = to humble oneself
vueldet, vuheltet = humility, humbleness, meekness
vulder, vuelder, uffuelter = humility, humbleness
Breton (Brezhoneg) uvel [ˈyː.vɛl] = humble, meek, lowly
uvelded, uvelder = humility, humbleness, meekness
uvelaat = to humiliate

Etymology: from the Latin humilis (low, lowly, small, slight, shallow), which is also the root of the English word humility, the French humilité (humility), and the humildad (humility, humbleness) [source].

The Cornish word klor means meek, mild, moderate, modest and klorder means modesty. Their origins are not known

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Barnacles & Limpets

Words for barnacle, limpet and related things in Celtic languages.

Limpet Family at Sunny Cove

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *barinākos = barnacle, limpet
Gaulish *barinākā = barnacle, limpet
Old Irish (Goídelc) *bairnech = limpet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) bairnech, báirnech = limpet(s)
Irish (Gaeilge) bairneach [ˈbˠɑːɾˠn̠ʲəx] = limpet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàirneach [baːr̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = barnacle, limpet
Manx (Gaelg) baarnagh, barnagh, bayrnagh = barnacle
guiy bayrnag = barnacle goose
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brennik = limpets
Welsh (Cymraeg) brennig = limpets
brenigen = limpet
Middle Cornish brennic = limpets
brennigen = limpet
Cornish (Kernewek) brennik = limpets
brenigen, bernigen = limpet
Middle Breton brennik = limpet
Breton (Brezhoneg) brennig [ˈbrɛ.nːik] = barnacles, limpets
brennigenn = barnacle, limpet
brennika = to fish for limpets
brennikaer = limpet fisherman

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *barinā (rocky ground), and *-ākos (involved with, belonging to) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via the Gaulish *barinākā and the Latin barnēca (barnacle goose, barnacle, limpet), include bernache (barnacle) in French, barnacle in English, barnacla (brent/brant goose – Branta bernicla) in Spanish [source].

Barnacle Geese

Old Irish (Goídelc) gigrann = barnacle goose
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) gigrann, giugrann = wild goose, barnacle goose
Irish (Gaeilge) giúrann = barnacle, shipworm, barnacle (goose)
giúrannach = encrusted with barnacles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) giùran [gʲuːran] = barnacle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyran = barnacle goose, barnacles
Old Breton (Brethonoc) goirann = barnacle goose, barnacles

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *gezdā (goose) – probably of imitative origin [source]. For more details of words for goose in Celtic languages, this post.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flowing Slowly

Words for slow and related things in Celtic languages.

sloth

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *malnos/*mallo- = slow, lazy
Old Irish (Goídelc) mall [mal͈] = slow, tardy, late
utmall = unsteady, restless
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mall = slow, sluggish
mallaigid = to make slow, retard
maill, moill = tardiness, delay
maillech = slowly-moving, leisurely, gentle
admall = very slow, dilatory
immall = very slow, wearisome, sad, sluggish
utmall = unstable, fickle, restless
Irish (Gaeilge) mall [mˠɑul̪ˠ/mˠɑːl̪ˠ/mˠal̪ˠ] = slow, late
mallachar = slowness, dullness, dimness
mallacharach = slow, dim
mallaibh = of late, lately
udhmhall = unstable, restless, unceratin, nimble, quick
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mall [maul̪ˠ] = slow, deliberate, placid
mallan [mal̪ˠan] = sluggard, slowcoach
mallanach [mal̪ˠanəx] = slow, dilatory
Manx (Gaelg) moal = slow, sorry, tardy, unimpressive, backward, deliberate, dull, feeble, gradual, meagre

Etymology: possibly from PIE *mel- (to be late, hesitate) and *-nós (creates verbal adjectives) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) slaet = heap, layer, pile
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) slaet = a swathe, layer, pile, illness, disease
slaetach, slaebach = in layers, sweeping (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) slaod = swath, layer, flowing mass, prostration, stupefication, float, raft; to mow down, lay low, flow, drag, trail, trudge
slaodach = in swaths, in layers, flowing, prostrating, heavy, oppressive, viscous
slaodacht = viscosity
slaodaí = trudger, slowcoach, lazy-bones
slaodaíocht = trudging, slowness, laziness
slaodchiallach = slow-witted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slaod [sl̪ˠɯːd] = raft, float, sledge, tow, drag, sluggard, slowcoach
slaodach [sl̪ˠɯːdəx] = slow, sluggish, dilatory, dragging, pulling, awkward, clumsy
slaodachadh [sl̪ˠɯːdəxəɣ] = dragging, hauling, slowing down
slaodachd [sl̪ˠɯːdəxg] = slowness, drowsiness, awkwardness
Manx (Gaelg) sleayd = dredge, trail, sledge, trailer
sleaydagh = trailing
sleayder = lug, trailing

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *aramo- = quiet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) araf, arav [ˈarav] = slow, leisurely, calm, quiet
arafu = to be(come) or make slow, slow down
arafaidd, arauaidd = slow, gradual, mild, gentle
arafhau = to make or become quiet or calm,
Welsh (Cymraeg) araf [ˈarav] = slow, gradual, tedious, tiresome, mild, meek, gentle, tender
arafu = to be(come) or make slow, slow down, retard
arafaidd = slow, gradual, mild, gentle, lovely, pleasant
arafedd = slowness, gentleness, tenderness
arafhau = to make or become quiet or calm, ease, abate, moderate
arafol = slow, gradual, slowing, delaying

Etymology: from PIE *h₁r̥h₃-mo-, from *h₁reh₃- (rest). Words from the same roots include Ruhe (calm, quietness, rest) in German, ro (calmness) in Danish, ro (peace, quiet, tranquility) in Swedish, and unruly in English [source].

Proto-Brythonic *segʉr = idle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) segur = idle
segyra, segura, seguru, segvro = to (be) idle
segyrllyt, segurllyd = idle, lazy, sluggish, slothful
Welsh (Cymraeg) segur [ˈsɛɡɨ̞r / ˈseːɡɪr] = idle, unoccupied, inactive, lazy, slothful, disused, idle
seguro = to (be) idle, laze, linger, lounge around, rest
segurdod = idleness, laziness
segurllyd = idle, lazy, sluggish, slothful
segurwr = idler, lazy person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) sigyr, zigyr = sluggish, lazy
Cornish (Kernewek) syger = idle, lazy, lethargic, slow
sygera = to seep, trickle
sygerans = seep(age)
sygerneth = idleness, laziness, lethargy
sygerus = at leisure, leisurely

Etymology: from Latin sēcūrus (careless, carefree, negligent, safe, secure), from sē- (without) and‎ cūra (care). Words from the same root include secure and sure in English, sicuru (safe, secure, sure) in Italian, seguro (secure, safe, sure) in Spanish and säker (safe, secure, sure, certain) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *uɸostatos = stable
Old Irish (Goídelc) fossad = firm, steady
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fossad, fossud = stationary, fixed, firm, steady, steadfast, consistent, flat surface, level place, stopping-place, abode
Irish (Gaeilge) fosadh = stop, stay, rest, stable position, steadiness, stability
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fosadh [fɔsəɣ] = cessation, desisting, recess, respite, (act of) abiding
Proto-Brythonic *gwostad = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwastat, guastat = flat, level, smooth
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwastad [ˈɡwastad] = flat, level, smooth, even, horizontal, continual, constant, quiet, peaceful, gentle, plain, level
Cornish (Kernewek) gwastas = flat, open, plain, smooth
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goustat, goustadic, goustadec, goustadic = gently, slowly
Breton (Brezhoneg) gou(e)stad = slow, slowly
doustadik = slow, slowly

Etymology: unknown [source].

Another word for slow in Cornish is lent, and lenthe means to slow down. This is possibly from (Old) French lent (slow), or from Latin lentus (sticky, slow, flexible).

In Middle Cornish the word hel means slow or tardy, and cosel/kozal means soft, quiet, slow or sluggish, which became kosel (calm, quiet, restful, still, tranquil) in revived Cornish.

Another Proto-Celtic word for slow is *dwāyo-. This became doé / doe (slow, sluggish) in Old Irish and Middle Irish, but has no descendents I can find in the modern Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Order

Words for order and related words in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = order, sequence
ordaigidir = to order, ordain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ord, ordd, ort, órd = order, sequence, arrangement, state, way, course, procedure, degree, rank, dignity, ritual, office
ord(d)ad = ordering, arranging
ord(d)aigecht = dignity, nobility
ord(d)aigid(ir) = to order, ordain, institue, appoint
ord(d)aigthe = ordered, ordained, arranged
ord(d)an = dignity, honour, pre-eminence
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = order, sequence, arrangement
ordaigh = to order, command, prescribe, ordain, recommend
ordaiteach = imperative
ordaithe = ordered, stipulated
ordan = honour, dignity, rank, pre-eminence
ordanáilte = neat, ordered
ordú = to order, command
ordúil = orderly, neat, ordered
ordúilacht = orderliness, neatness, tidiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [or̪ˠd] = order
òrdach [or̪ˠdəx] = orderly, regular
òrdachadh [or̪ˠdəxəɣ] = commanding, ordering
òrdachail [or̪ˠdəxal] = prescriptive
òrdan [or̪ˠdan] = order, statute
òrdugh [or̪ˠdu] = order, prescription, command
Manx (Gaelg) oardyr, ordyr = order
oardagh = arrangement, array, commission, decree, directive, order, rite, ritual, sequence
oardee = to bid, command, order
oarderit = ordained, ordered, regulated
oardit = appointed, authorized, decreed, ordained, ordered
oardoil = orderly, oridinal
oardreilys = order, system
Proto-Brythonic *ʉrð = order
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) urd, urdd = holy orders, order
urdav, vrdav = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office
urdein, urtyein, urtdein, urtein, vrddain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urtas, vrdas, urdas = dignity, honour, nobility
vrddassav, urddasu, vrddassv = to dignify, honour, venerate
vrdasseyd, urdasseid, vrdasseid = dignified, honourable
urtassaỼc, urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Welsh (Cymraeg) urdd [ɨ̞rð / ɪrð] = holy orders, (religious, military, chivalric, taxonomic) order, dignity, honour, discipline, rule, control, manner
urddaf, urddo = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office, ordain, crown, dub (knight), honour, elevate, dignify, dedicate
urdd(i)ain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urddas = dignity, honour, nobility, (high) rank, reputation, status
urddasaf, urddasu = to dignify, honour, venerate, revere, elevate, ennoble
urddasaidd = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble, orderly
urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Cornish (Kernewek) urdh = order
urdhas = hierarchy
urdhya = to initiate
urdhyans = initiation
Middle Breton (Brezonec) eurz, urz, vrz = order, arrangement, command
Breton (Brezhoneg) urzh [yrs] = order, right, authorisation
urzhad [ˈyrzat] = (biological) order
urzhaz = hierarchy
urzhiadur = prescription, order, arrangment, ordination
urzhiañ [ˈyrzjã] = to order, arrange, organise
urzhiataer [yr.zja.ˈtɛːr] = computer

Etymology: from Latin ōrdō (order, row, series, class, condition, group), from Proto-Italic *ordō (row, order), probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂or-d-, from *h₂er- (to fit, fix, put together). Words from the same roots include arm, art, harmony, order, ordinary, ornate and reason in English, orden (order) in Spanish and Ordnung (arrangement, regulation) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Rewarding Gifts

Words for prize and related things in Celtic languages.

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Proto-Celtic *uɸo-kʷrinati = reward (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fochraic [ˈfoxriɡʲ] = reward, recompense
terḟochraic, terfhochraic = buying, payment, reward
crenaid = to buy, sell
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) fochraic, fochricc = reward, recompense, payment, fee, hire, rent, compensation
fochrach = a hireling, mercenary
fochricnet = a little reward
terḟochraic, terochraic, turfhochraic = reward, recompense, price, payment, present or payment made by a bridegroom to a bride or her relations
Irish (Gaeilge) fochraig = reward, stipend, fee
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwobr, gwobyr = reward, prize
gwobr-wŷr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gober, gobruy, gobrwy, gobyr = reward, payment, fee,
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwobr/gwobrwy [ˈɡwɔbr] =reward, prize, desert, recompense, benefit, gift, tip, fee, hire, bribe
gwobrwy = fee, fine
gwobraf, gwobri, gwobru, gwobro = to reward, recompense, compensate, bribe, corrupt
gwobrwr = rewarder, giver or taker of bribes, briber
gwobrwyad = a rewarding, remuneration, bribery
gwobrwyaf, gwobrwyo = to award a prize, reward, recompense, acknowledge
gobr/gobrwy = reward, payment, fee, wages, recompense, gift, merit, desert, bribe
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gober, gobar, gobyr = recompense, reward, fee, wagews, stipend, hire
goberna = to hire
Cornish (Kernewek) gober = earnings, income, pay, remuneration, reward, salary, wage
gober dilavur/diweythieth = unemployment benefit
gober ispoyntel = minimum wage
gober kleves = sick pay
gober omdednans = pension
gobra = to remunerate, reward
gobrena = to rent
gobrener, gorenores = tenant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gopr, gobr = wage, salary
gopra = to bet, wager
gopraer, gopraër = mercenary, tenant, lodger
gopraff, gôbret = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate
Breton (Brezhoneg) gopr = salary, wages, pay, fee
gopra = to bet, wager, pay, hire
goprad = salary
gopradenn = recompense
goprañ = to put on payroll, give a salary, remunerate

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic from *uɸo (under) and *kʷrināti (to buy) [source]. Some words for to buy in Celtic languages come from the Proto-Celtic root *kʷrināti (to buy)

Proto-Celtic *dānus / *dānus = gift
Gaulish Danomaros = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) dán [daːn] = art, gift, poem, skill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dán = gift, bestowal, endowment, present, skill, poem, song, verse, rhyme
Irish (Gaeilge) dán [d̪ˠɑ̃ːn̪ˠ/d̪ˠaːn̪ˠ] = gift, offering, craft, calling, art, faculty, art of poetry, poem, lot, fate
dánaigh = to give, bestow
dánlann = art gallery
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dàn [daːn] = poem, song, work, effort
dàn-mòr = epic poem
dàn-molaidh = eulogy
dàn-liriceach = lyric
dàn-fhacal = epigram
dànach = poetic, metric
dànachd = poetry
Manx (Gaelg) daan = poem
daan mooar = epic
daan moyllee = hymn
Proto-Brythonic *dọn = gift, blessing
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) daun, davn, dawn = gift, talent
dawnget, dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth, down-goeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnha = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
donnwy, donyer, donya = to endow, bless, give, present
donyauc, donyawc, doniog = gifted, endowed, talented
Welsh (Cymraeg) dawn [dau̯n] = faculty, intellectual gift, talent, genius, humour, wit, grace, benefit, blessing, favour, reward, present, donation
dawnaf, dawno = to fare, get on
dawnaidd = gifted, endowed with or showing ability
dawnedigaeth = gift, a giving or conferring, endowment, grace
dawnged = gift, benefit, favour
dawngoeth = finely gifted or endowed
dawnhaf, dawnhau = to endow with a gift or benefit, to bless
doniaf, donio = to endow, bless, give, present
doniog = gifted, endowed, talented, bountiful, liberal, fortunate, advantageous
doniol = gifted, talented, endowed, eloquent
Middle Breton (Brezonec) donaison, donaeson, donaezon = gift, talent, donation
donaesonaff = to donate
donaesonner, donaesoner = donor
Breton (Brezhoneg) donezon = gift, talent, donation
donezoner = donor
donezoniñ = to donate, present, reward, gratify

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *déh₃nom (gift), from *deh₃- (to give) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include date, donate, dose and vend in English, don (gift, talent, knack) in French, dom (talent) in Portuguese, and don (gift, present, talent, knack) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúas = reward, gift
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dúas, dúáis, duais = gift, reward (esp. a recompense give to poets)
dúasach = reward- or gift-bestowing, munificent, gift-bestower, rewarder
dúasad = act of benefiting, rewarding
frithdúas = a counter-reward, the payment made to the receiter
Irish (Gaeilge) duais = gift, reward, prize, stake, prize, prize-winning
duaisbhanna = prize-bond
duaiseach = bountiful, generous
duaiseoir = prizewinner
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) duais [duəʃ] = prize, bonus, reward, purse (in sports)
duais-bhrathaidh = bribe (reward for betrayal)
duais-roinn = dividend
duais-earrainn = dividend
duais-airgid = (monetary) prize
duais-barrachd = premium
duaiseachadh [duəʃəxəɣ] = awarding, gratifying, gratification
duaismhor duəʃ(v)ər] = liberal, bountiful

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *deh₃- (to give) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Impeccable Peccadillos

Words for sin, fault, crime and related things in Celtic languages.

Somebody looks guilty.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kariyā = mistake, sin
Old Irish (Goídelc) caire [ˈkarʲe] = crime, fault, sin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) caire, cair, coire = crime, fault, sin
cairech = criminal, guilty, sinful
cairigid = rebukes, accuses, blames
cairthech = criminal, guilty
Irish (Gaeilge) coir [kɛɾʲ/kɪɾʲ] = crime, offence; fault, transgression
coireach = offender, transgressor; wicked, sinful, guilty
coireacht = wickedness, guiltiness
coiriú = censure
coireolaí = criminologist
coiritheoir = accuser, incriminator
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coire [kɔrʲə] = blame, fault, offence, wrong
coireach [kɤrʲəx] = culprit; guilty, to blame, faulty, responsible
coireachd [kɔrʲəxg] = culpability
Proto-Brythonic *kareð [kaˈrɛːð] = mistake, sin
Old Welsh cared = transgression, sin, crime
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cared, karet = transgression, sin, crime
karedus = sinful, evil
Welsh (Cymraeg) caredd [ˈkarɛð] = transgression, sin, crime, lust, love
careddus = sinful, evil
careddwr = accuser, evil-doer
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cara = to correct, chastise
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carez, garé = blame, reprimand
carez = to blame, accuse
Breton (Brezhoneg) karez = blame, incrimination
kareziñ = to blame, accuse

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *kh₂er- (blame, abuse). Words from the same PIE root include cārinō (I revile, blame, insult) in Latin, корить [kɐˈrʲitʲ] (to reproach, upbraid) in Russian, and коря [koˈrʲɤ̟] (to accuse, blame) in Bulgarian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) peccad = sin
pecthaigid = to sin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) pec(c)ad = sin
pecthach = sinful, committing sin, sinner
pecthaigid, pec(c)aigid = sins. commits sin
Irish (Gaeilge) peaca [ˈpʲakə/ˈpʲaku] = sin
peacadh = offender, transgressor; wicked, sinful, guilty
peacach = sinner, sinful
peacaigh = to sin
peacúil = sinful
peacúlacht = sinfulness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) peaca [pɛxgə] = sin
peacadh, peacachadh [pɛxgəxəɣ] = sinning, sin, transgressing
peacail [pɛxgal] = sinful
peacach [pɛxgəx] = sinner
Manx (Gaelg) peccah = human being, sinner, sin, wickedness
peccagh = human, person, transgressor, sinner
peccoil = erring, sinful, unregenerate
Proto-Brythonic *pexọd [peˈxɔːd] = sin
*pexadʉr = sinner
*pexad [peˈxɔːd] = to sin, offend
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pechawt = sin
pechadur = sinner
pechu =to sin, offend
Welsh (Cymraeg) pechod [ˈpɛχɔd/ˈpeːχɔd] = sin
pechadur [pɛˈχadɨ̞r/pɛˈχaːdɪr] = sinner, offender
pechu [ˈpɛχɨ/ˈpeːχi] =to sin, offend
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pech, pêch, pechad, pechas = sin, offence, transgression
pecha, peché = to sin, transgress, offend
pechadur, pechadures = sinner, transgressor
Cornish (Kernewek) pegh = guilt, sin
pegha = to sin, offend
peghador, peghadores = sinner
peghes = sin
peghus = sinful
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pechet = blame
pechiff =to sin, offend
pechezr = sinner
Breton (Brezhoneg) pec’hed = sin
pec’hiñ = to sin, offend
pec’her = sinner

Etymology: from Latin peccātum (sin), from peccō (I sin, offend), from Proto-Italic *petkāō (I sin), from Proto-Indo-European verbal root *ped- (“to walk, fall, stumble”) [source].

Words from the same roots include peccadillo, impeccable, foot, pedal, pedestrian, and pew in English, pécher (to sin) in French, pecar (to sin) in Spanish [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Down Under

Words for down, below, under and related things in Celtic languages.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) ís = below
sís = down, downwards, northwards
anís = below, from below
tís = below
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ís = below, under
sís, sis = down, downwards, northwards, below, onwards, throughout, onwards
sísana, siosina, sisana = here below, below
anís, = (from) below, beneath
tís = below, in the north
Irish (Gaeilge) síos [ʃiːsˠ] = down (away from the speaker), to lower place or station, hanging down, drooping, trailing, to the north, to a lesser centre or remote district, following
síos suas = upside down, topsyturvy
aníos = up (from below), from the north
thíos = down, in a lower place, in the north, below, farther on in a book, written down, entered (in a ledger, etc), on the fire
thíosluaite = undermentioned
thíos-sínithe = undersigned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìos [ʃiəs] = down (away from the speaker), downwards, below
shìos [hiəs] = down, below
a-nìos [əˈn̪ʲiəs] = up, upwards (towards from the speaker)
a-sìos [əˈʃiəs] = down, downwards
sìos ‘nad inntinn = depressed
a’ dol sìos = going down, experiencing a downturn, charging (in battle)
cuir sìos = to put/lay/set down
is mar sin sìos = and so on
Manx (Gaelg) sheese = below, down, downward(s)
brishey sheese = to analyse, analysis, break down, rend
sheese lesh = down the hatch, down with
soie sheese = to settle, sit down
heese = beneath, down, downhill, hereafter, lower end, under, knock-down (prices)
neese = from below up, upwards
Old Welsh is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) is, iss = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
iss-hau, isheir = to sink, sink down or lower
issot, isod = under, underneath, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than; before; lower, inferior, poorer
isâf, isáu = to come/go lower, to reduce in rank, lower the pride of, debase, degrade, humble, humiliate
isafaf, isafu = to minimize, reduce, lower
isafiad = (one’s) inferior
isod = under, underneath, below, beneath, on earth, lower down, later, further
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) isa = lowest
isot = downwards
Cornish (Kernewek) a-is = below, lower
Old Breton isel = low
Middle Breton (Brezonec) is = lower, below
Breton (Brezhoneg) is = lower, below
isdouarel = underground

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot), from *ped- (to walk, step) [source]. Words from the same roots include íseal (low) in Irish, ìosal (low, humble) in Scottish Gaelic, isel (low) in Welsh and related words for low in other Celtic languages, Fuß (foot) in German and pie (foot) in Spanish [more details].

Proto-Celtic *uɸo/*ufo- = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) fo = beneath, through, throughout, towards, under
fo bésad = after the manner of, like
fo bíthin = because (of)
fo chétóir = at once, immediately
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fo, fa, fá = under, underneath, into, through, about, around
Irish (Gaeilge) faoi [fˠiː] = beneath, below, bearing, supporting, about, round, against
faoi cheann = by, at, the end of
faoi adhall = in heat
faoi bhaile = at home, around
faoi bhun = beneath
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fo [fɔ] = under, underneath, below, beneath, subordinate
fo-dhearg = infrared
fo-inntinn = subconscious
fo-ros = undergrowth
fo chleòca = under cover, in secret
Manx (Gaelg) fo = below, beneath, under, sunken, dependent, underlaying, subsidiary, junior, assistant
fo aggle = aghast, alarmed, awestricken
fo arrey = under surveillance
fo chiuney = beclamed
fo druaight = charmed
fo-heer-vooar = subcontinent
Old Welsh guo, gu =under, rather, somewhat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwo, gwa, go = under, rather, somewhat
goaruoel = rather bald, baldish
Welsh (Cymraeg) go = under, rather, somewhat, slightly, partly, small, exceeding
go agos = near, almost
go dde = right, dexterous
go lew = pretty fair, middling
go is = beneath
goarfoel = rather bald, baldish
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) go = rather
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gou, gu, go, fo, uo = under
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwa-, gou- = under, sub-

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *upo (under, below). Words for high in Celtic languages come from the same root, as does sub(marine) in English, sumo (highest, greatest) in Spanish and summo (hightest, greatest, great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tanā = (point in) time
Old Irish (Goídelc) tan = when, time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tan, tain = time, while, point of time, when, whenever, until, before
Irish (Gaeilge) tan [tan] = time, occasion, once upon a time, once
(an) tan = at the time that, when, whenever, since
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàn [taːn] =time, season
an tàn = when, at the time
Proto-Brythonic *tan =under
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dan, tan = under, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) tan [tan] = until, under, while
dan = under, below, beneath, underneath, on the inside, less than, until, while, because, since
o dan = under
tan lw = under oath
dan yr awyr, tan awyr = under the sky, in the open air
dan ddaear = underground
dan din = sneaky, deceitful, stealthy, secret, illicit
dan y don = under water
dan draed = underfoot, in the way
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tan = under, beneath, below
(yn) dan = under, beneath
danva = a hiding place, concealment
Cornish (Kernewek) yn-dann = below, beneath, under, underneath
yn-dann alhwedh = under lockdown
yn-dann dava = in touch
yn-dann dhor = underground
yn-dann dhowr = underwater
yn-dann gel = in secret, secretly
yn-dann hatt = confidential
yn-dann with = care of (c/o)
Old Breton tan, dan = under
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dan = bottom, back, under, underneath
Breton (Brezhoneg) dan = basement, subsoil
dindan = under, on, sub-
dindan-douar = underground, secret
dindan-vor = underwater

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥néh₂ (a stretch), from *ten- (to stretch). Words from the same root include contain, tenant, tone and tune in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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