Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Worms & Maggots

Today we’re looking at the words for worm, maggot and related things in Celtic languages.

Earth Worm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kʷrimis = worm
Old Irish (Goídelc) cruim [kruṽʲ] = maggot, worm
crumdoma = maggot heap
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) cruim, crúim = worm, maggot
crumach = full of reptiles
crumdoma = dunghill
cromóc = maggot
Irish (Gaeilge) cruimh = maggot, larva, grub, tiny insect, worm
crumhóg = maggot
cruimheach = maggoty
cruimheachán = venemous person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnuimh [krɯ̃ĩv] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimheach [krɯ̃ĩvəx] = maggoty
cnuimheag [krɯ̃ĩvag] = maggot, grub, worm
cnuimhneag [krɯ̃ĩvn̪ˠʲag] = maggot, worm
Manx (Gaelg) crooag = (flesh) worm, grub, maggot, worm
crooagagh = maggoty, wormy
Proto-Brythonic *prɨβ̃ [ˈprɨβ̃] = worm
Old Welsh prem = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pryuet, pryf = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryuyedic = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Welsh (Cymraeg) pryf [prɨːv/priːv] = insect, fly, larva, maggot, grub, worm
pryfedaf, pryfedu, pryfedo = to breed worms of maggots, to become infested with worms or maggots
pryfediad = worm or maggot infestation
pryfedig = wormeaten, maggoty
pryfeteg = entomology
pryfiedig = abounding in / infested with worms or maggots
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pref, prêv, pryf = any small animal, a vermin, an insect, a worm, a reptile
Cornish (Kernewek) pryv, prev = crawling animal, grub, insect, worm, weevil
pryv del = caterpillar
pryv prenn woodworm
pryvladher = insecticide
Middle Breton (Brezonec) preff, preuet, prenvv = worm
Breton (Brezhoneg) preñv = worm
preñvedik = vermiculated
preñvek = vermicular, wormlike, wormy
eneppreñveg, eneppreñvek = wormable

Etymology: from PIE *kʷŕ̥mis (worm) [source]. Words from the same root include cirmenis (maggot, grub) in Latvian, kirmis (worm) in Lithuanian, käärme (snake) in Finnish, کرم (kerm – worm) in Persian, and červ (worm, maggot) in Czech and Slovak [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dorb = worm, larva
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorb = small insect or worm
Irish (Gaeilge) doirb [kɑbʲ/kabʲ] = water beelte
doirbeach = infested with water beetles
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) doirb [dɤrʲɤb] = unspecific term for a small/tiny/insignificant creature (e.g. minnow, worm, leech, small person)
Manx (Gaelg) durrag = cabbage worm, larva of cabbage moth

Etymology: unknown

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Mind Sense

Today we’re looking at the words for mind, sense and related things in Celtic languages.

Mind, Sense, Widom, Intelligence, Meaning

Proto-Celtic *kʷēslā = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Old Irish (Goídelc) cíall [kʲiːa̯l͈] = sense, intelligence, mind; wisdom, good sense, skill; intention, cause, reason, idea; signification, meaning, function
Irish (Gaeilge) ciall [kiəl̪ˠ/kʲal̪ˠ] = sense, sanity; normal state of mind; common sense; perception; meaning; reason, cause
ciallaigh = to mean, signify; explain, interpret
ciallchogar = confidential whisper
ciallmhaireacht = sensibleness, reasonableness
ciallmhar = sensible, reasonable, common sense
aingiall = unreason
fochiall = secondary meaning, connotation
gan chiall = meaningless, misguided, unmeaning, callow, lunatic, senseless, silly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ciall [kʲiəl̪ˠ] = meaning, sense, significance, connotation, implication, understanding, reason
ciallach = prudent, sensible, sane, tame
ciallaich = to mean, signify, imply
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
eu-céillidheachd = insanity, madness, irrationality, foolishness
Manx (Gaelg) keeall = sense, significance
keeaylagh = eloquent, prudent
meecheeall = senselessness
meecheeallagh = senseless, unadvisedly
bun-cheeal = moral
gyn keeall = unmeaning, senseless
Proto-Brythonic *puɨll = mind; sense, wisdom, intelligence; meaning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) puil, puilh = deliberation, consideration, care, caution
Welsh (Cymraeg) pwyll [puːɨ̯ɬ / pʊi̯ɬ] = deliberation, consideration, care, caution; discretion, prudence, wisdom, patience, understanding, intelligence, perception, judgement; nature, disposition; meaning, significance, sense
pwyll(i)ad = intention, intent, goal, aim, design
pwyllaf, pwyllo = to exercise discretion, deliberate, consider, contemplate
pwyllgor = committee, meeting
pwyllog = discreet, wise, intelligent, sane, rational, reasonable
pwyllwr, pwyllwraig = discreet, sensible or wise person
gan bwyll = gently, gradually, carefully, slowly
iawnbwyll = sanity, saneness, sane, sensible
o’i bwyll = out of one’s mind, beside oneself, insane
Cornish (Kernewek) poll = intelligence, reason
pollek = brainy, intelligent
Breton (Brezhoneg) poell = logical, logic
poellata = to reason, argue
poellakaat = to rationalize
poellel = logical, logic
poellelour = rationalist
poellgor = committee

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeyt- (to notice) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include číst (to read) and čítat (to count) in Czech, šķist (to seem, appear) and skaitīt (to count) in Latvian, skaitýti (to read) in Lithuanian, and चित्त [t͡ʃɪt̪t̪] (mind, heart) in Hindi [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Frosty Ice

Words for frost, ice, cold and related words in Celtic languages.

A cold and frosty morning / Bore oer a rhewllyd

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *ɸreswos = frost
Old Irish (Goídelc) réúd [r͈ʲeːu̯ð] = frost
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) reód = frost
Irish (Gaeilge) reo [ɾˠoː / ɾˠɔː] = frost
reodóg = icicle
reoigh = to freeze, congeal, solidify
reoiteach = frosty, chilling
reoiteacht = frostiness
reoiteog, uachtar reoite = ice cream
reomhar = frigid
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) reòth [r̪ˠɔː] = frost, freeze, become frozen, congeal
reòite [r̪ˠɔːdʲə] = frozen, frosty, icy
reòthtach [r̪ˠɔːhdəx] = freezing, frosty
reòthadh = freeze
reòthadair [r̪ˠɔ.ədɪrʲ] = deep-freeze, freezer
stob reòta, caisean-reòta, boidean-reòthaidh = icicle
Manx (Gaelg) rio = frost, freezing, ice
riojey = to freeze, ice up
rioeeagh = freezing, frosty
rioeeaght = frostiness
rioghar, bwoid rioee, kibbin rioee = icicle
riojag, key riojey, key riojit = ice-cream
rio-stroo, awin rioee = glacier
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rew, reo, rev = frost
rewlyt, rewlyd, rewllid = icy, freezing, frozen
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhew [r̥eːu̯ / r̥ɛu̯] = (hoar-) frost, ice
rhewaidd = freezing, frosty, icy
rhewedig = frozen, icy, extremely cold
rhewi = to freeze, preserve; anaesthetize, make numb
rhewiadur = refrigerator
rhewin = frosty weather
rhewllyd, rhewlyd = icy, freezing, frozen, very cold, frigid
rhew bargod = icicle
rhew du = black ice
gwŷn rhew = frost-bite
rhedlif rhew = glacier
Old Cornish reu = ice, frost
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) rew, reu = frost, ice
Cornish (Kernewek) rew = ice, frost
rewer = freezer
rewi = to freeze
rewys = frozen
downrewi = deep-freeze, freezer
dehen rew = ice cream
furvell rew = ice tray
kub rew = ice cube
skes rew = ice skate
Middle Breton (Brezonec) reau, reo, réau, rëu = frost, frozen
Breton (Brezhoneg) rev = frost, freezing, freeze
rev du = black ice
rev noz = night frost

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *prews- (to freeze, frost), which is also the root of the word frost in English [source].

Ice cave on Franz Josef Glacier

Proto-Celtic *yegis = ice
Old Irish (Goídelc) aigred = ice
aigretta = icy, frozen
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aig = ice
aigide = icy
Irish (Gaeilge) oighear [əiɾʲ] = ice
oighear dubh = black ice
oighreach = glacial
leac oighir = (sheet of) ice
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eigh [ej] = ice
eigh-bheinn = iceberg
eigh-shruth = glacier
leac-eighe = ice-floe
linn-eighe = ice age
pac-eigh = pack ice
taigh-eighe = ice house
Proto-Brythonic *jaɣ = ice
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ia, ya = ice, frost
Welsh (Cymraeg) [jaː] = ice, (hoar-) frost
iaaidd = glacical, icy
iaënnol = glacical, icy
iaeth, iaaeth = iciness, frost, cold, severe winter weather
ialyd = icy, freezing, very cold
iaog = icy, freezing, frozen
iain = very cold, freezing, icy
Old Cornish iein = ice
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) iein, iên, yein, yeyn, yên = cold (as ice), frigid
ieinder, iender, yender, yeinder = frigidity, coolness
Cornish (Kernewek) yey = ice
yeyn = cold
yeynder = cold
yeynell, yeyner = fridge
yeynhe = to chill, become cold
Middle Breton (Brezoneg) yen = cold
Breton (Brezhoneg) yen = cold
yenaat = to cool down, relax
yenadur = coolness, cooling, chill
yenañ = to cool, refrigerate, detach
yender = cold, coolness

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁yeg- (ice, frost), which is also the root of the English word icicle [source].

Proto-Celtic *ougros = cold
Gaulish Ogronnios = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) úar [uːa̯rʲ] = cold
úacht = cold, coldness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úar = cold, cool. refreshing, unfriendly
ind(ḟ)úar = very cold, chilly, cool, refreshing, pleasing, entertaining
úacht, ócht, ocht = cold, coldness, numbness
Irish (Gaeilge) fuar [fˠuəɾˠ] = cold, apathetic, raw, uncooked
fuaraigh = to cool, make cold, chill, relieve, pass (away)
fuaráil = coolness, indifference, reserve
fuaraíocht = coldness, chilliness
fuarálach = cold, indifferent, reserved
fuacht = cold, chill, apathy
fuachtán = chilblain
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuar [fuər] = cold
fuarachd [fuərəxg] = coldness, chilliness, chilblain, mildew, dampness
fuarachdainn [fuərəxgɪn̪ʲ] = cooling, easing, relieving
fuaradair [fuərədɪrʲ] = fridge, refrigerator
fuaraichte [fuərɪçdʲə] = cooled, refrigerated, eased, relieved
fuarail [fuəral] = chilly, chilling
fuaralachd [fuərəl̪ˠəxg] = coldness, frigidity
Manx (Gaelg) feayr = chill, cold, cool, frigid, frosty, ice, distant (of person)
feayght = chill, cold, exposure
feayraghey = chill, cool, refrigerate, alienation
feayraght = chill, cold, coldness
feayrit = chilled, cooled, refrigerated
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) oir, oer = cold, cool
oerai, oeri = to make/become/grow cold or cool
oyrder = cold(ness), cool(ness), chill, indifference, apathy
oered = coldness, chill
oervel, oeruel = cold(ness), chill
Welsh (Cymraeg) oer [jaː] = cold, cool, sad, dejected, miserable, coldness, child, cold vegetables, fruit and salad
oeraf, oeri = to make/become/grow cold or cool, lose zeal, become depressed
oeraidd = rater cold, coolish, coldish, chilly, unenthusiastic, apathetic, indifferent
oerder = cold(ness), cool(ness), chill, indifference, apathy
oeredd = coldness, chill
oerfa = cool place, shade
oerfel = cold(ness), chill
oergell = refrigerator, freezer, cold cell
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) oir = cold, frigid
Cornish (Kernewek) oor = bitterly cold, glacial, icy

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewǵ- (cold), which is also the root of the Lithuanian word aušti (cold) [source].

Another word for ice in Breton is skorn – etymology unknown.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Old

Words for old and related things in Celtic languages.

Old Irish Cottage & Out House

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *senos = old
Gaulish *senos = old
Old Irish (Goídelc) sen = old, ancester, old person,
sendatu = longevity, old age
senóir = elder, old person, senior
senórdacht = elderliness, old age
sentonn = old woman
sentu = old age
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sen = old, ancient, long-standing, ancestor
sendatu = old age, long life
senóir, seanóir = senior, elder, old person
senórdacht, senordacht = old age, seniority
sentonn, sentuinne, sentain = old woman
sentu = old age
Irish (Gaeilge) sean [ʃanˠ] = old, aged, mature; senior, ancestor; long-established, old fashioned; great, exceeding
seanaimsir = old times
seanaois = old age
seanársa = primitive
seanda = old, aged, ancient, antique, stale
seanóir = old person, senior, elder
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sean [ʃɛn] = old, aged, elderly; former
seanachd [ʃɛnəxg] = ancientness, oldness
seanair [ʃɛnɪrʲ] = grandfather, elder, ancestor
seanmhair [ʃɛnɛvɪrʲ] = grandmother, grandma
seannda [ʃãũndə] = ancient, old-fashioned
seanndaidh [ʃãũn̪ˠdɪ] = ancient, old-fashioned, infirm, frail
seantaidh [ʃan̪ˠdɪ] = primeval, primitive, shanty
Manx (Gaelg) shenn = old, stale, aged, former, time-fusty, inveterate, ancient, vintage, veteran, old-established, olden, antiquarian, worn, elderly, consecrated, archaic, ex, senile, long-standing
shennaghys = annals, antiquity, history, story-telling, tradition
shennayr, shaner = ancestor, father, forebear, grandfather
shenndeeagh = ancient, historical
Proto-Brythonic *hen = old
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hen = old
henadur, henadûr = alderman, elder, presbyter, (church) father, senior in rank
henv, henu, hena = to grow old or decrepit, weaken, deteriorate, fail
henaidd = oldish, old, aged, ancient, archaic, antiquated
heneint, henaint = old age, oldness, antiquity, the aged
Welsh (Cymraeg) hen [heːn] = old, aged; ancient, antique, pristine, former; inveterate, chronic; original; senior, elder; stale, mouldy, musty, fusty
henadur = alderman, elder, presbyter, (church) father, senior in rank
henaf, henu = to grow old or decrepit, weaken, deteriorate, fail
henaidd = oldish, old, aged, ancient, archaic, antiquated
henaint = old age, oldness, antiquity, the aged
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hen, hén, hên = old, ancient, antique
hendas = grandfather
hengog = great great grandfather
Cornish (Kernewek) hen [hɛ:n / he:n] = old, archaic, long-standing
henavek, henavoges = elder(ly), senior, older
hendas = ancestor, forefather
hendedhyow = the olden days
hendheskonieth = archaeology
henedh = generation
hengov = tradition
henlavar = proverb
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hen = old, ancient
henaff = elder, senior
henavelezh = birthright, right of primogeniture
Breton (Brezhoneg) hen = old, ancient
henadur = = archaism
henamzer = antiquity
henañ = elder, senior
henanded = primogeniture
henavelezh = birthright, right of primogeniture

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sénos (old) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include senate and senior in English, sens (ancient, old) in Latvian, sẽnas (old) in Lithuanian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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