Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fathers

Today we’re looking at the words for father and related people in Celtic languages.

Father & son

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *ɸatīr [ˈɸa.tiːr] = father
*ɸatriyos = paternal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ath(a)ir [ˈaθɨrʲ] = father
athramail = fatherly, paternal, fatherlike
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) athair, athir = father
aithre, aithreacha = parents, forefathers, ancestor
Irish (Gaeilge) athair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = father, ancestor, sire
aithriúil = fatherly
ardathair = patriarch
athair mór = maternity, fatherhood
leasathair = stepfather
seanathair = grandfather
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) athair [ahɪrʲ] = father, progenitor, sire
athair-baistidh = godfather
athair-cèile = father-in-law
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
leas-athair = stepfather
piuthar-athar = parternal aunt
prìomh-athair = forefather, patriarch
taobh athar = paternal
Manx (Gaelg) ayr [ˈeːar] = father, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
ayroil = fatherly, parternal
ayrvarroo = patricide
shennayr = grandfather
Old Welsh -atr = ?

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr (father) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include father, padre, paternal in English, and Vatter (father) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos = father, foster-father
Old Irish (Goídelc) aite [ˈadʲe] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aite = foster-father, tutor, teacher
aitecht = tutorage, instruction
Irish (Gaeilge) oide [ˈɛdʲə] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
oideachas = education
oideachasóir = educationalist
oideachasúil = educational
oideas = instruction, teaching, prescription, recipe
oideoir = educator
oideolaíoch = pedagogic(al)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) oide [ɤdʲə] = tutor, foster-father, stepfather, godfather
oide-altraim = foster-father
oide-baistidh = godfather
oide-foghlaim = instructor
oide-ionnsachaidh = tutor
oide-sgoile = schoolmaster
oidich = instruction
Manx (Gaelg) gedjey = foster-father, godfather, guardian, sponsor

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tatos = dad, daddy
Proto-Brythonic *tad = father
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tad = father
Welsh (Cymraeg) tad [taːd] = father
tadaidd = fatherly, paternal
tadeiddiad = fatherhood
tadenw = patronymic
tadol = paternal, fatherly, inherited from the father
tadu = to father (a child), become a father; ascribe, attribute (to)
tadwlad = fatherland, native land
tadwys = family, lineage, fatherhood
tadwysaeth = paternity
Old Cornish tat = father
Cornish (Kernewek) tad, tat = father
tadvath, tatvat = nurser, breeder
Cornish (Kernwek) tas [taːz/tæːz] = father
tasek = patron
tasrewl = patriarchy
tasveth = foster-father
tas bejydh = godfather
tas gwynn = grandfather
Tas Nadelik = Father Christmas
tas sans = patron saint
ugheldas = patriarch
Middle Breton tat = father
tadelez = paternity
Breton (Brezhoneg) tad [ˈtɑːt] = father
tadeg = father-in-law
tadek = paternal
tadelezh = paternity
tadig = dad, daddy
tad-kaer = father-in-law
tad-kozh = grandfather
tad-kuñv = great-grandfather
tata = dad

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *attiyos (father, foster-father), the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source]. The English word dad possibly has Celtic roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *altrawū = foster uncle
Old Irish (Goídelc) altra = foster-father
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) altra = foster-father
altrannas = fostering, fosterage, nurture
banaltra = foster-mother, nurse
Irish (Gaeilge) altra [ˈɛdʲə] = nurse (gender-neutral), foster-father†
banaltra = (female) nurse
altram = fosterage
altramaí = fosterer, foster-parent
altramaigh = to foster
altranas = nursing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) altram [al̪ˠdrəm] = nursing, nurturing, dandling, fostering, fosterage, rearing
altraim = nurse, nurture, dandle, foster, rear
altrach = fosterer, one who fosters, nurse
banaltram [ban̪ˠal̪ˠdrəm] = nurse, wet-nurse
neach-altram = nurse, nursing profession
Manx (Gaelg) boandyr = nanny, nurse, nursemaid
boandyrys = to nourish, nurse, nursing
Proto-Brythonic *alltrọw = ?
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) athro, athraw = teacher, instructor, tutor
athrawes, athravves = female teacher, tutor, governess, school mistress
athronddysg, athrondysc, athronddysc = doctrine, teaching, instruction, learning
alldraỽ, alldraw = godfather, godparent
Welsh (Cymraeg) athro [ˈaθrɔ] = teacher, instructor, tutor, doctor (of law, literature, etc), scholar, master, professor
athrawes [aˈθrau̯ɛs] = female teacher, tutor, governess, school mistress
athronddysg = doctrine, teaching, instruction, learning
alltraw [ˈaɬtrau̯] = godfather, godparent; (ecclesiastical) sponsor, representative, attorney
alltrewes [aɬˈtrau̯ɛs] = godmother
Old Cornish alltrow = stepfather
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) altrou = stepfather
altruan = stepmother
aultra = godfather
aultruan = godmother
Cornish (Kernwek) altrow = stepfather
altrewen = stepmother
Old Breton (Brethonoc) altro = foster-father
Middle Breton autrou, otrou, eutreu = lord, foster-father
Breton (Brezhoneg) aotroù [ˈɔ.tru] = lord, gentleman, Mr
aotrouniaj = lordly, stately, manorial, seigneurial
aotrouiek = seigneurial, authoritarian.
aotrouniekaat = to act authoritarian
aotrouiezh = authority
aotrounius = imperious

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *altros (foster), from *altos (nourished, fostered) + *awū (uncle), ultimately from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éwh₂os (maternal grandfather, maternal uncle). Words from the same roots include uncle in English, abbi (grandfather, old man) in Faroese, and oncle (uncle) in French [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Trousers, Socks and Sites

Words for trousers, socks, sites and related words in Celtic languages.

Red Trousers

Proto-Celtic *ɸlātrom = flat position
Old Irish (Goídelc) láthar [ˈl͈aːθar] = arrangement, disposition
láthraid [ˈl͈aːθrɨðʲ] = to arrange, to dispose
Irish (Gaeilge) láthair [ˈl̪ˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈl̪ˠæhəɾʲ] = place, spot, site, location; presence
as láthair = absent
faoi láthair = at present
i láthair = present
láithreach = ruined site, ruin, trace; imprint; present (tense)
láithreacht = presence
láithreán = piece of ground, place, site; ruined, vacated site; floor, space; set
láithreog = small site; trace, mark; small well-built girl
láithrigh = to present oneself, appear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làthair [l̪ˠaː.ɪrʲ] = presence, venue
an làthair = present, here, in attendance; extant; in existence
neo-làthair = absent
neo-làthaireachd = absence
làthaireach = present
làthaireachd = presence; attendance; atmosphere
uile-làthaireachd = omnipresence
Manx (Gaelg) laaragh = centric(al), stage, centre, venue, site
emshir-laaragh = present tense
neuaaragh, assaaragh = absent
ooilley-laaragh = ubiquitous
Proto-Brythonic *lọdr = leg covering
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llauder, llahudyr, llawdyr, llodr = trousers, breeches, hose
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawdr [ˈɬaːu̯dr] = trousers, breeches, hose
llawdrog, llodrog = wearing breeches, bedraggled
llawdrwisg = breeches
llawdrwr, llodrydd, llodrwr = breeches-maker
llaesu llawdr = to undo one’s trousers (to ease oneself)
Old Cornish loder = sock
Cornish (Kernewek) lodrik = sock
Middle Breton louzr = sock
Breton (Brezhoneg) loer = sock, (trouser) leg

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *pleh₂- (flat) [source].

From the same PIE root we also get Celtic words for hand, from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand) [source], which was borrowed from Old Irish into Old Norse and became lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) in Faroese [source].

Words for floor and ground in Celtic languages also come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Celtic *ɸlārom (floor) [source].

English words from the same PIE root include floor, palm, piano, plain, plan and plane, and also Poland [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bríste [ˈbʲɾʲiːʃtʲə] = trousers; breeching (of harness); roe (of pollock)
brístín = panties, knickers
fobhríste = underpants
forbhríste = overalls
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) briogais [brʲigɪʃ] = trousers, breeches
briogais-ghlùine = shorts, plus fours
briogais-ghoirid, briogais-bheag = shorts
briogais-shnàimh = swimming trunks
Manx (Gaelg) breeçhyn = breeches
breeçhyn glioonagh = knee breeches
breeçhyn markee = riding breeches
Welsh (Cymraeg) brits(h) = breeches
britis pen-(g)lin = knee-breeches
Breton (Brezhoneg) bragez = knickers, panties, breeches
bragez vihan = underpants, briefs, pants, panties

Etymology: from the English breeches, from the Middle English brech(e), brek (breeches), from the Old English brēċ (underpants), from the Proto-Germanic *brōkiz, from *brōks (leggings, pants, trousers; rear end, rump) the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreg- (to break, crack, split) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) triubhas = closs-fitting shorts
Irish (Gaeilge) triús = (pair of) trousers, trews
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) triubhas [tru.əs] = trousers, trews
Manx (Gaelg) troosyn = slacks, pants, trews, tights, trouser, knickers
troosyn çhionn = pantaloons
troosyn giarey = short trousers
troosyn markee = jodhpurs
Welsh (Cymraeg) trywsus, trywser, trowsus [ˈtrou̯sɨ̞s/ˈtrou̯sɪs] = trousers, breeches, knickers, panties
trywsus bach = shorts, short trouserse, knickerbockers
Breton (Brezhoneg) bragez = knickers, panties, breeches
bragez vihan = underpants, briefs, pants, panties
bragoù = trousers

Etymology (Welsh): from the English trousers, from the Middle Irish triubhas (trousers, trews) of uncertain origin [source]. The English word trews (trousers, especially if close fitting and tartan) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic [source].

Cornish (Kernewek) lavrek = trousers
lavrek byghan = briefs, underpants
lavrek jin = jeans
lavrek kott = short
Breton (Brezhoneg) lavreg = trousers

Etymology unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Swans

Words for swan (cygnus) in Celtic languages.

Swans, etc

Proto-Celtic *eli- = swan
Gaulish ala = swan
alauda = skylark
Old Irish (Goídelc) elu = swan
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ela(e) = swan
Irish (Gaeilge) eala [ˈalˠə] = swan
ealach = frequented by swans
eala bhalbh = mute swan (Cygnus olor)
eala ghlorach = whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eala [jal̪ˠə] = swan
eala bhàn = mute swan
eala fhiadhaich = whooper swan
ealag, eala-ghlas = cygnet, young swan
eala-bheag = Bewick’s (tundra) swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii)
Manx (Gaelg) olla, ollay = (mute) swan
ollay chiaulee = whooper swan
eean olla = cygnet
Proto-Brythonic alarkos = swan
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) alarch = swan
Welsh (Cymraeg) alarch [ˈalarχ/ˈaːlarχ] = swan, the constellation Cygnus
alarchaidd = pertaining to a swan, swanlike
alarchen = cygnet
alarches = female swan
alarchwedd = swanlike
alarch dôf, alarch mud = mute swan
alarch y gogledd, alarch chwibanol, alarch gwyllt = whooper swan
Old Cornish elerch = swan
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) elerch = swan
Cornish (Kernewek) alargh = (mute) swan
Middle Breton (Brezonec) alarc’h = swan
alarc’hez = female cygnet
Breton (Brezhoneg) alarc’h = swan
alarc’h roueel = mute swan
alarc’h-kristilh = whooper swan

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁el- (swan, bird, waterfowl) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include alondra (lark) in Spanish, alouette (lark) in French, and allodola (skylark) in Italian. They were probably borrowed from the Gaulish alauda (skylark), from ala (swan) [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include auk (swan) in English, alke (auk) in Danish and Norwegian, and álka (razorbill) in Faroese and Icelandic [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cattle

Words for cattle, cow, bull, calf and related things in Celtic languages.

Highland cows

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *bāus = cow
*bow = cow
Celtiberian boustom = stable (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) [boː] = ox, cow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) = ox, cow
bóaire = stock-master, stock-owner (“cow-noble”)
bólacht = stock of cattle
bómlacht = cow’s milk
búarach = owner of cows
Irish (Gaeilge) [bˠoː] = cow
bó mhara = sea-cow, manatee
bó shamhraidh = ladybird
bó-aire = cattle lord, cattle owner
bódóir = cow-doctor
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [boː] = cow
bò b(h)ainne = dair/milk cow
boineag = small cow
bòthach = pertaining to or abounding in cows
Manx (Gaelg) booa = cow
booa vluight = dairy cow
boin = very little cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉ = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buv, bu, buw = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) bu = cow, ox, head of cattle (as a standard of value in the Welsh laws)
buach = cowherd, rustic, wretched creature
biw = cow, cattle, horned cattle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) biuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bu = cow
Breton (Brezhoneg) bu = cow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle). The old Galician word busto (enclosed pasture, a herd of cattle) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via Celtiberian [source].

Proto-Celtic *boukkā = cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉx = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buvch, buwch = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) buwch [bɨu̯χ / bɪu̯χ] = cow
buwch y dwfr = hippopotamus
buwch goch Duw = ladybird
buwchaidd = cow-like, pertaining to cattle, bovine, uncivilized, stolid
buwchan = small cow, young cow, heffer
buwchfrechu = to vaccinate (with cowpox)
buwchfrechiad = (cowpox) vaccination
buwchol = bovine
Old Cornish buch = cow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) beuch, buch, beuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bugh [biʊx / bɪwh] = cow
bugh godra = dairy cow
bughik = little cow
bughik Dhuw = ladybird
bughvowes = cowgirl
bughwas = cowboy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) buch = cow
Breton (Brezhoneg) buocʼh [ˈbɥoːχ / ˈbyːɔχ] = cow
buoc’han = ladybird
buoc’hken = cowhide

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *bāus (cow), the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) crod = cattle, herds, livestock
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crod, crud, (c)crodh = cattle, herds, stock, property, wealth
crodach = wealth, goods
Irish (Gaeilge) crodh [ˈkɾˠʊh] = cattle, wealth (in cattle), dowry
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crodh [kroː/krɯj] = cattle

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *ḱerdʰ- (file, row, herd) [source]. Words from the same roots include herd in English, Herde (herd, flock) in German and herdhe (nest) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ellach [ˈel͈ax] = good, property, livestock
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ellach = goods, property, stock, cattle
Irish (Gaeilge) eallach, eallaighe [ˈal̪ˠəx / ˈal̪ˠa(x)] = chattels, goods, cattle, livestock, poultry
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eallach [jal̪ˠəx] = burden, load, goods, property, cattle, livestock
Manx (Gaelg) ollagh = bovines, cattle, kine

Etymology: uncertain. Possibly related to sluagh (host, force, army; crowd, multitude, throng) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tarwos = bull
Gaulish taruos = bull
Old Irish (Goídelc) tarb [tarv] = bull
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tarb = bull
Irish (Gaeilge) tarbh [ˈt̪ˠaɾˠuː / ˈt̪ˠaɾˠu] = bull
tarbhadóir = toreador
tarbhán = bull-calf, young bull
tarbhánta = bull-like, massive, powerful
tarbhántacht = bullishness
tarbhghadhar = bulldog
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tarbh [tarav] = bull, Taurus
tarbh-chù = bulldog
tarbh-nathrach (neimhe) = dragonfly
tarbh-thonn = mighty wave
tarbhach = like a bull, hefty, chunky
tarbhan = small bull
tarbhan-dè = butterfly
Manx (Gaelg) tarroo = bull, Taurus
taarroo oaldey = bison, buffalo
tarroo-choo = bulldog
tarroo-feeaih = stag
Proto-Brythonic *tarw = bull
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tarỼ, tarv = bull
Welsh (Cymraeg) tarw [ˈtaru / ˈtaːru] = bull, uncastrated male ox, papal bull, Taurus (sign of the zodiac); valiant leader, fierce hero
tarw dur = bulldozer
tarwgi = bulldog
Old Cornish tarow = bull
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tarow = bull
Cornish (Kernewek) tarow = bull
Old Breton (Brethonoc) taruu = bull
Middle Breton (Brezonec) taru = bull
Breton (Brezhoneg) tarv [ˈtarw / ˈtɑːro] = bull

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *táwros (wild bull, aurochs), which possibly comes from, or was borrowed into Proto-Semtic as *ṯawr- (bull, ox), from which we get ثَوْر (ṯawr – bull, steer, ox, Taurus) in Arabic [Source].

The Old Irish Irish word for bull was borrowed into Old Norse as tarfr, which became tarvur (bull, Taurus, womanizer) in Faroese, and tarfur (bull) in Icelandic [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include Taurus and steer in English, taureau (bull, Taurus) in French, toro (bull) in Spanish, and touro (bull) in Portuguese [Source].

Proto-Celtic *laygos / *lāɸigos = calf
Old Irish (Goídelc) lóeg [l͈oːi̯ɣ] = calf, favourite, darling
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lóeg = calf, favourite, darling, young deer
Irish (Gaeilge) lao [l̪ˠeː / l̪ˠiː] = (young) calf
laoidín = tiny calf
laofheoil = veal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) laogh [l̪ˠɯːɣ] = calf, kid (of deer), fawn, term of endearment for a child
laoghach = pertaining to or abounding in calves
laoghan = little calf
Manx (Gaelg) lheiy [ax] = calf
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lo, lloe, llo = calf
Welsh (Cymraeg) llo [ɬoː] = calf, bullock, simpleton, dolt
llo(e)aidd = calf-like
lloeaf, lloeo, lloea = to calve
Old Cornish loch = calf
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) leauh, loch = calf
Cornish (Kernewek) leugh [løːx / leːx / lɛwh] = calf
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lue, leuè, leuë = calf
Breton (Brezhoneg) leue [ˈløː.e / lweː] = calf

Etymology: a diminutuve of the Proto-Indo-European *leh₂p- (cattle) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bearach = heifer, young cow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) biorach [birəx] = a weaned but not fully mature calf or foal (up to 2 years); anti-suckling device, sucking preventer, weaner
Welsh (Cymraeg) bustach / bustych = bullock, ox, steer (possibly related to the above words)

Etymology: from the Old Irish berach [ˈbʲerax] (pointed, sharp; having pointed ears, horned), from bir (stake, spit, point; spear, spike) & -ach (related to, having, characterised by, prone to) [source].

Proto-Brythonic *ödjon = ox, bull
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eydyon, eidon = ox, steer, bullock
Welsh (Cymraeg) eidion = domestic male of the bovine family, ox, steer, bullock, neat
Old Cornish odion = bullock
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) udzheon, odgan = bullock
Cornish (Kernewek) ojyon = ox
Middle Breton (Brezonec) egen, eugen, eugenn = ox, steer, beef
Breton (Brezhoneg) ejen [ˈeːʒɛn] = ox, steer, beef

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *anderā = young woman
Gaulish anderon = heifer
Old Irish (Goídelc) ainder [ˈan͈ʲdʲər] = married woman; virgin, maiden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ander [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman
Irish (Gaeilge) ainnir [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman (poetic); attractive woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ainnir [an̠ʲɪrʲ] = maiden, virgin; nymph; marriageable woman; young woman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) anneir = heifer
Welsh (Cymraeg) anner [ˈanɛr] = heifer
Old Cornish annoer = heifer
Cornish (Kernewek) annor = heifer
Middle Breton (Brezonec) annoer, onnoer, ounner, onner = heifer
Breton (Brezhoneg) annoar [ˈãnwar] = heifer

Etymology: possibly related to Basque andere (lady, woman) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fields, Meadows and Pastures

There are a number of words for fields, meadows and pastures in Celtic languages. Some appear only or mainly in placenames. Here’s a selection:

Roman Camp

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) achad = expanse of ground; pasture, field; field of battle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) achad = expanse of ground; pasture, field
Irish (Gaeilge) achadh [ˈaxə/ˈaxuː] = field (archaic, used mainly in placenames)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) achadh [axəɣ] = field, plain, meadow; cornfield newly cut or ready for reaping
achadh-feòir = hayfield
achadh-guail = coalfield
bàn-achadh = fallow field

Etymology: unknown, possibly related to the Latin acnua (a measure or piece of land, 120 feet square) [source].

Proto-Celtic *gortos = fence, enclosure, pen
Old Irish (Goídelc) gort = field, orchard, crop
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gort = field (arable or pasture land), field of battle, land, territory, standing corn
guirtine = a little garden
Irish (Gaeilge) gort [ɡɔɾˠt̪ˠ] = (cultivated) field, orchard, (standing) crop
gortbhriseadh = tilling a field, tillage
gortghlan = to clear (a field) of weeds, to weed out
gortghlanadh = clearance (of a field), weeding
gortghlantóir = weeder
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gort [gɔrˠʃd] = standing corn; enclosure; small field
Proto-Brythonic *gorθ = field
Welsh (Cymraeg) garth = field, close, enclosure, fold, pen, yard; fort
garthan = entrenchment, encampment, camp, stronghold, field of battle
gartheiniad = camp defender
Cornish (Kernewek) gorth = field
Old Breton orz = field
Breton (Brezhoneg) garz = field

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰortós (enclosure, hedge) [source], which is also the root of words yard and garden in English, via the Proto-Germanic *gardaz (enclosure, court, yard, garden) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) macha = milking-yard
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) macha, machad = an enclosure for milking cows, a milking-yard or field
Irish (Gaeilge) machaire = plain; stretch of level ground, links, course; field
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) machair [maxɪrʲ] = extensive low-lying fertile plain, level country; extensive beach; ow and level part of a farm
Manx (Gaelg) magher = field, fertile land, campaign, chase, machar, sphere

Etymology: possibly from the Latin mācĕria (wall, enclosure) [source].

Proto-Celtic *rowesyā- = field, open ground
Old Irish (Goídelc) róe [r͈oːi̯] = battle-field, level piece of ground, fight, battle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) róe, roe = a level piece of grand, a battle field, battle, a rout, fight
Irish (Gaeilge) [rˠeː] = stretch of ground, level ground, field
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raon [rˠɯːn] = field, (piece of) ground; plain; zone, area; field (of expertise); ambit
Manx (Gaelg) rheam = gamut, range, field, monarchy
Old Breton runt = mound
Breton (Brezhoneg) run = mound, hill

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *Hrew(H)os (open space, field). The English words rustic and rural come from the same root, via Latin [source].

Proto-Celtic *kagyom = pen, enclosure
Gaulish cagiíun / *kagyom = enclosure
Old Irish (Goídelc) cai = field, orchard, crop
Irish (Gaeilge) [kʲeː] = quay
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cidhe [kʲi.ə] = quay
cidhe-tìreachaidh = wharf
cidhe-bathair = goods wharf
Manx (Gaelg) keiy = jetty, quay(side), wharf
Proto-Brythonic *kaɨ = animal pen, enclosure, field
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kay / kae = field, enclosure
Welsh (Cymraeg) cae [kaːɨ̯ / kai̯] = hedge, hedgerow, fence; field, enclosure; circle, sphere; barrier, obstruction
caead = lid, cover, shutter, flap, shell, case, enclosure, case, wall, fence, hedge, field, buckle, clasp, fastener, valve
caeadu = to bind, cover (a book), stop, close
cei [kei̯] = quay
Cornish (Kernewek) ke = hedge, fence
kay = quay
Old Breton cai = hedge
Middle Breton quae = hedge
Breton (Brezhoneg) kae = hedge, quay

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kagʰyóm (enclosure, hedge) [source], which is also the root English words quay and hedge [source].

The Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx words for quay come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Anglo-Norman kay, cail (quay, wharf) and Gaulish [source]. The Welsh and Cornish words for quay also come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Middle English, Old French and Gaulish [source].

Proto-Celtic *magos = plain, field
Gaulish *magos = field
Old Irish (Goídelc) mag [maɣ] = plain, field
ármag, árbach, ármach = field of slaughter, battlefield
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mag, maig = plain, open stretch of land
Irish (Gaeilge) [mˠɑː / mˠæː] = plain
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) magh [mɤɣ] = level country, plain
Magh Meala = Land of (Milk and) Honey (in mythology)
Magh Meall = elysium
magh na bàire = the plain of battle
Manx (Gaelg) magh = plain
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mais, maes, meys = open country, plain, field
Welsh (Cymraeg) maes [maːɨ̯s / mai̯s] = open country, level land, plain; field; battle, victory, supremacy; out, away, off, outside, out of doors
maesol = rural, agrarian
maestref = suburb, country town, village, hamlet
maestrefol = suburban
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maes, mes, meas, meys = open country, plain, field
Cornish (Kernewek) mes = open country
mestrev = suburb
mesya = to field
Old Breton maes = countryside, outside
Breton (Brezhoneg) maez = countryside, open field, outside, wide

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *meǵh- (great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *klowni = meadow
Old Irish (Goídelc) clúain = meadow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) clúain, clóin = meadow, pasture-land, glade
Irish (Gaeilge) cluain = meadow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cluain [kl̪uən̪ʲ] = green field, pasture, meadow
Old Welsh clun = meadow, moor
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) clun = meadow, moor
Welsh (Cymraeg) clun [klɨːn / kliːn] = meadow, moor; brake, brushwood

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *klopni (wet).

Old Irish (Goídelc) áirge [ˈaːrʲɣʲe] = a place for milking cows
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) áirge, arigi, airge = a place for milking cows, byre, cowshed, herd of cattle
áirgech = having numerous herds, herdsman
Irish (Gaeilge) áirí = milking-place, herd (of cows), ground manured in previous year; ground from which potatoes have been cropped
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àirigh [arʲɪ] = hill pasture, bothy, sheiling, pastoral summer residence
àirigheach [aːrʲɪjəx] = bounding in hill pastures. bothies or shielings
àirigheachd [aːrʲɪjəxg] = transhumance
Manx (Gaelg) eairee = hill pasture, shieling

Etymology: from Old Irish árach, from ad·rig (to tie, bind). The Faorese word ærgi [ˈaɹt͡ʃɪ] (a pasture for cattle to graze over the summer with a hut where the people tending them live meanwhile; a shieling, saeter) also come from the same roots [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hills

Words for hill and related words in Celtic languages.

Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *ardwos = high
Gaulish Arduenna = place name
Old Irish (Goídelc) ard [ar͈d] = high, height
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ard, árd = high above ground, elevated, lofty, tall, noble, great, proud, arduous, high place, height
ardach = hilly
ardae, airde = height, high place, nobility, loudness
ardaid = to rise
ardaigid = to raise, magnify, exalt
ardán = pride, arrogance
ardri = high king
Irish (Gaeilge) ard [ɑːɾˠd̪ˠ/æːɾˠd̪ˠ] = height, hillock, top, high part, elevation, head, rise, ascent
ardaigh = to raise, elevate, ascend, carry
ardaitheoir = lift, elevator
na farraigí arda = the high seas
sála arda = high heels
Ard-Aifreann = High Mass
Ard-Aighne = Attorney-General
ardaingeal = archangel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrd [aːr̪ˠd] = high, lofy, tall, great, loud, chief, eminent, superior, supreme
àrd-bheinn = pinnacle
Manx (Gaelg) ard [ø(r)d] = high, towering, tall, big, loud, height, high place, fell, incline
Proto-Brythonic *arð = high
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ard, art = hill
Welsh (Cymraeg) ardd [arð/aːrð] = hill, highland, top, high, upland
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ard = high, lofty
Cornish (Kernewek) ardh = height, high place
Breton (Brezhoneg) arz = high, elevated, lofty

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós, from *h₃erdʰ- (to increase, grow, upright, high) [source], which is also the root of the Latin word arbor (tree) and words for tree in Romance languages [source].

Proto-Celtic *knokkos = protuberance, hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) cnocc [knok] = hill, lump, swelling
cnoccach [ˈknokax] = hilly, lumpy
cnocán [ˈknokaːn] = little lump, mound, hill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cnocc = lump, protruberance, hill, mound
cnoccach, cnocach = lumpy, hilly
cnoccán, cnocán = little lump, mound, hill
Irish (Gaeilge) cnoc [kn̪ˠɔk / kn̪ˠʊk/ kɾˠʊk] = hill, mount
cnocach = hilly
cnocadóir = hillman, hillclimber
cnocadóireacht = hill-climbing
cnocán = hillock, heap
cnocánach = hilly, uneven
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnoc [krɔ̃xg] = hill, small hill, hillock, knoll, chilblain
cnocach [krɔ̃xgəx] = hilly, rugged, abrupt
cnocaireachd [krɔ̃xgɛrʲəxg] = rough hill walking, pacing
cnocan [krɔ̃xgan] = hillock, ball of fibre
Manx (Gaelg) cronk = mount, tor, hill,
crongan = mound, small hill, tuffet, tumulus, hillock
cronkan = knoll, small hill, hillock
Proto-Brythonic *knox = hill, mound
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cnwch = swelling, protuberance, thickness, hump
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnwc = hillock, knoll; swelling, tumour, lump, knob, hump
cnocell = hillock, knoll
Old Breton cnoch = hill
Middle Breton qnech, knech, crech, cre(a)c’h = high, height, mountain, hill
krec’hennek full of hills
krec’hiek = steep, sloping, incluned
Breton (Brezhoneg) krec’h = height, eminence, mound

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kneg- (back of the head, nape, neck). The English word neck, and related words in other Germanic languages, come from the same root [source].

Proto-Celtic *brusnyos = hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) bruinne = breast(s), bosom, chest; womb
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bruinne, bruinde = breast, bosom, chest
Irish (Gaeilge) broinne = breast, bosom; brink, verge
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) broinne [brɤin̪ʲ] = belly, stomach; womb; bulge
Manx (Gaelg) brein = womb
Proto-Brythonic *bronnā = breast
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bronn, bron = breast, bosom
Welsh (Cymraeg) bron [brɔn] = breast, bosom, thorax, hill-side, slope, breast (of hill)
bronallt, broniallt = gentle slope of hill, rising ground, wooded slope
bryn = hill, mount, rise, bank; heap, mound; prominence, highness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bron = a round protuberance, breast, pap, slope of a hill
Cornish (Kernewek) bronn / brodn [brɔn: / brɔdn] = breast, hill
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bron, bronn = breast, bossom, udder
bronnañ, bronnat, bronniñ = to breast feed
Breton (Brezhoneg) bronn [ˈbrɔ̃n] = breast

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *brusū (belly, abdomen, breast), possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrews- (belly, to swell) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-West-Germanic *brunnjā (chainmail shirt), include: brynja (coat of mail) in Icelandic, Swedish and Faroese, brynje (mail, armour) in Danish, brynje (coat of armour, protective clothing for motorcyclists) in Norwegian, and броня [brɔˈnʲa] (armour, armoured vehicle, shell) in Ukrainian [source].

The English words breast, brisket and bruise come from the same PIE root, as do borst (chest, thorax, breast) in Dutch, Brust (chest, breast, bosom) in German, and bröst (breast, chest, thorax) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *brixs / *brig- = hill
Gaulish *brignā, -brigā = hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) brí [bʲrʲiː] = hill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brí, bri = hill
Irish (Gaeilge) brí = brae, hill
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bre = hill, headland
Proto-Brythonic *breɣ [ˈbrɛːɣ] = hill
Welsh (Cymraeg) bre = hill, hillock, mountain, hill-country, upland, peak
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bre = mountain, hill
Cornish (Kernewek) bre [brɛ: / bre:] = hill – appears as Bray or Brae in placenames
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bre = hill
Breton (Brezhoneg) bre = hill, mountain

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (high) [source].

The Spanish word breña (scrub, brush, rough ground), the Portuguese word brenha (scrub, complication, confusion) come from the Gaulish *brignā, via the Vulgar Latin *brigna (rocky terrain) [source].

From the same PIE root we get the English words burrow and borough, and words in placenames such as burg, burgh and bury, and also the German Burg (castle), the Danish borg (castle, stronghold), and related words in other Germanic languages.

Proto-Celtic *krowko- = heap
Old Irish (Goídelc) crúach = stack, mountain, hill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crúach,cruach = stack of corn, rick, heap, conical pile
crúachad = act of stacking, piling up
crúachán = small rick, hill
crúachda = swollen, piled up
Irish (Gaeilge) cruach [kɾˠuəx] = stack, rick, pile, (mountain) stack
cruachach = full of stacks
cruachadóir = stack-builder
cruachadóireacht = (act of) building stacks
cruachán = (small) stack; person of stunned growth
cruachóg = heap
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruach [kruəx] = pile, stack; round hill; clamp (stack)
cho seasgair ri luchag ann an cruach = as snug as a bug in a rug (“as snug as a mouse in a haystack”)
cruach-fheòir = haystack
cruach-mhòna, cruach mònach = peat-stack
cruach-sheangan = anthill
Manx (Gaelg) creagh = stack, furrow
creagh fendeilagh = barricade
creagh hraagh = haystack
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) krug, gruc, grvg = hillock
Welsh (Cymraeg) crug = hillock, knoll, cairn, tumulus, heap, mass, stack, group, company, multitude; pustule, abscess, boil, carbuncle
Old Cornish cruc = hillock
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cruc, cruk, crŷc = hillock, mound, barrow
Cornish (Kernewek) krug = mound, tumulus
Old Breton cruc = hillock
Middle Breton (Brezonec) krug = pile, heap
krugell = pile, heap, hillock, mound, tumulus
Breton (Brezhoneg) krug = mound
krugell = hillock, tumulus

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *krā(u)- (to heap up) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tumbo- = excrescence hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) tom = bush, tuft, hillock, knoll
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tom = bush, tuft, hillock, knoll
Irish (Gaeilge) tom [t̪ˠɑumˠ/t̪ˠʌmˠ] = bush, shrub
tomach = bushy, tufted
tomachán = small tuft
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tom [tɔum] = hillock, knoll, mound, clump, heap, tuft
toman [toman] = small hillock
tomag [tomag] = small hillock/knoll/mound, small clump, small heap
Manx (Gaelg) tom = tussock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tom, tomm = dung(hill), manure, compost, dirt, muck
Welsh (Cymraeg) tom = dung(hill), manure, compost, dirt, muck, mud, mound, heap

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *tewh₂- (to swell), and cognate with the English word tumulus.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fists, Palms, Hands & Arms

Words for fist, palm, hand, arm and related things in Celtic languages.

palm

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā = palm, hand
Old Irish (Goídelc) lám [l͈aːṽ] = hand, arm, prowess, accomplishment, power
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) lám = hand, arm, prowess, accomplishment, power
lámann, lámand, lámínd = glove, gauntlet, sleeve
lámannán, lamannan = bladder
Irish (Gaeilge) lámh [l̪ˠɑːvˠ / l̪ˠæːw] = hand, arm, handle, signature, measure (of horses)
lámhach = skill in handling, in casting, dexterity
lámhadóir = handler
lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhaíocht = helping hand, subscription
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmh [l̪ˠaːv] = hand, arm, handle
làmhainn [l̪ˠaːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhchaireach = handy
làmhcharach = dexterous, handy
làmhchran, làmhrachan = handle
làmhnan = handyman
làmhadh = pawing, handling, groping
Manx (Gaelg) laue [læu] = hand, handful, foreleg, grasp (of oar), arm
lauee = dexterous, handy, useful, versatile, manual
lauean = glove
laueys = alacrity, elbow grease, skilfulness, industy
Proto-Brythonic *lọβ̃ [ˈlɔːβ̃] = palm, hand
Old Welsh lau = hand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lav, law, llav, llaw = hand
llaw agor, llawegor, llaw egor = generous, bountiful
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaw [ɬaːu̯ / ɬau̯] = hand; authority, control, rule, management, power; ownership, possession; influence; agency, instrumentality, part; guardianship, keeping, custody, care, protection; side, direction, position; skill, touch
llawagor, llawegor = generous, bountiful, liberal, open-handed, creeping thistle, water-pepper
llawaid = handful
llawan = little hand
Old Cornish lof = hand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lau, lef, lof, luef = hand
lofgurchel = utensil
Cornish (Kernewek) leuv [lœ:v / le:v] = hand
leuvdosa = to massage
leuvdosans = massage
leuvherdhya = to hand-off
leuvvedhegel = surgical
leuvvedhek, leuvvedhoges = surgeon
leuvwelen = baton
Old Breton lom = hand
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lau = hand
Breton (Brezhoneg) lav [lav] = feathered hand

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand). The Faroese word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old Norse lámr (hand, arm) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bostā = palm, fist
Gaulish *bostyā = palm, fist
Old Irish (Goídelc) bos / bas = palm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) bas, bos, bass = palm of the hand
basach = having hoofs or claws
baslach = handful
Irish (Gaeilge) bos = palm (of hand); handful; slap; flat end, blade
bosach = bladed, flat-footed
bosachán = flat-footed person
bosaíl = patting, flat-footedness
boslach = handful
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bas [bas] = palm (of hand), lower end of a shinty stick, eye (of a fishing hook)
bas-bhualadh = clapping of hands, applause
baslachadh= clapping, cupping (in one’s hands)
basgar = applause, skirl (in music)
baslach = handful, palmful, baptism
Manx (Gaelg) bass = palm, flat of hand, blade of oar, scale pan, bass
bassag = backhander, clap, clout, pat, slap, smack
bassey = applause, clap, clapping
basslagh = double handful, enough to cover palm, palmful
Proto-Brythonic *bos [ˈbos] = hand
Old Welsh bos = palm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bos = palm
Welsh (Cymraeg) bos = palm (of the hand), unit of length
Middle Breton (Brezonec) boz = hollow of the hand
Breton (Brezhoneg) boz [ˈboːs] = hollow of the hand

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷésdos (branch) [source]. The Middle Latin word bostia (small box, reliquaire was borrowed from the Gaulish *bostyā, and became bostellus (bushel), the root of the French word boisseau (bushel, hollow cylinder), and the English word bushel [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) rig [r͈ʲiɣ] = forearm
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) rig = forearm from wrist to elbow
Irish (Gaeilge) [ɾˠiː] = forearm
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ruighe [r̪ˠujə] = plain, flat ground, (at base of a mountain), shieling area, forearm
ruigheadh = laying out a body, shrouding, stretching out
ruigheachas = tussle, armwrestling
ruigheachdail = accessible
Manx (Gaelg) roih = arm, forearm

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish *reg (to stretch) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) brac, brach = arm, hand
bracann, bracand = sleeve
braccaille = glove
Irish (Gaeilge) brac = arm (literary), bracket
bracach = brachial
bracaíl = brachiation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brac [braxg] = arm, curve (of a breaking wave), branch (of antlers), deer (poetic)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ureich, ureych, braich = arm
Welsh (Cymraeg) braich [brai̯χ] = arm, care, assistance, support, power, might, strength, forelimb of animal, wing, headland, creek
braich olwyn = spoke (of wheel)
braich o’r môr, braich o fôr = arm of the sea, inlet
braich ym mraich = arm-in-arm
Old Cornish bregh = arm
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) brech, brêch, breh = arm
brechol = sleeve
Cornish (Kernewek) bregh [brɛ:x /bre:ʰ] = arm
breghel = sleeve
breghellik = bracelet
Middle Breton (Brezonec) brech, breach, bræch = hand, paw
Breton (Brezhoneg) brec’h = hand
brec’had = handful
brec’hata = to grasp round the waist, embrace

Etymology: from Latin bracchium (hand). Words from the same Latin root include brachium (upper arm) in English, bras (arm) in French, brazo (arm, branch, (tree) limb) in Spanish, and braccio (arm) in Italian [source].

Proto-Celtic *durnos = fist
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorn = fist
Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) dorn, dornn, dord = hand, fist, possession, handle
dornach = generous-handed
dornán = fistful, handful, sheaf
dornasc = bracelet
dornóc = glove, mitten
Irish (Gaeilge) dorn [d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ] = fist; punch; fistful, small quantity; handle, grip
dornáil = boxing
dornálaí = boxer
dornán = fistful, handful, small quantity or number, small handle, grip
dornóg = mitten
dornúil = pugilistic
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dòrn [dɔːr̪ˠn̪ˠ] = fist; punch, hilt, handle
dòrnach = fistful, boxer, pugilist
dòrnadaireachd = boxing, pugilism
dòrnan = small fist, handful, grip,
dòrnag = fist-sized pebble/stone, oar handle, gauntlet
dòrnair = boxer, pugilist
dòrnlach = handful, batch
Manx (Gaelg) doarn = fist, pad, sword handle, grip
doarnane = haft, hilt, spoke, handle, hand grip, fistful
doarney = box, boxing, buffet
doarneyr = boxer
doarneyrys = boxing (match), fighting
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) durn, dwrn,, dyrn = fist, hand, paw, hilt, handle
Welsh (Cymraeg) dwrn = fist, hand, paw, hilt, handle, haft, pommel, knob
dwrn caead = clenched fist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) dorn = fist, hand, handle, hilt
Cornish (Kernewek) dorn [dɔrn] = fist, hand, handle
dorna = to bash, beat, punch, strike, thrash
dornas = fistful, handful
dornbel = handball
dornel = manual
dornlyver, dornlever = handbook
dornskrif = manuscript
dornweyth = handicraft
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dornn, dorn, dourn = hand
dornat, dournat, dournad = handle, handful
dornaff, dournaff = to beat, hit
dornec = large-handed
Breton (Brezhoneg) dorn [ˈdɔʁn] = hand, fist
dornad = handle, handful
dornañ = to beat, hit
dornek = large-handed

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic