Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Swans on Llyn Padarn / Elyrch ar Lyn Padarn

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rotten Fragrance

Today we’re looking at the words for rotten and related things in Celtic languages.

Rotten wood

Proto-Celtic *bragnos = rotten
Gaulish brennos = rotten
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) brén [bʲrʲeːn] = foul, putrid, rotten, stinking
Irish (Gaeilge) bréan [bʲɾʲiːa̯nˠ / bʲɾʲeːnˠ] = foul, putrid, rotten; to pollute, putrefy
bréanlach = filthy place, cesspool
bréanóg = refuse heap
bréantachán = stinker
bréantas = rottenness, stench, filth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breun [brʲeːn] = foetid, putrid, disgusting, filthy, nasty, stinking
breunlach = sinking bog
breunachd = corruption, rottenness
breunan = dunghill, dirty person, dirty/smelly object, crabbit/grumpy person, grouch
breunad = degree of foetidness/putridness, degree of disgustingness/filthiness/nastiness, degree of stink
breuntas = stench, stink, putrefaction, putridness
Manx (Gaelg) breinn = foetid, loathsome, malodorous, nasty, offensive, pestilential, putrid, rancid, rotten, smelly, stinking
breinnaghey = to become smelly, putrefy, taint, stink
Proto-Brythonic *braɨn = foul, stinking putrid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brean = rotten
Welsh (Cymraeg) braen [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = rotten, putrid, corrupt, mouldy, withered, fragile; rot, putrefaction, corruption, decay
braen(i)ad = rotting, decomposition, rottenness, putridness
braenu = to rot, putrefy, make/become corrupt, become mouldy
braenedig = rotten, putrefied, corrupt, festering, gangrenous, mouldy, wounded
Cornish (Kernewek) breyn = putrid, rotten
breyna = to decay, rot
breynans = decay
breynder = rot
Middle Breton brein = rotten
Breton (Brezhoneg) brein = rotten
breinadur = corruption
breinañ = to rot, decay
breinidigezh = putrefaction

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreHg- (to smell, have a strong odour) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include flair, fragrant, and bray in English, and брезгать (to be fastidious/squeamish, to disdain) in Russian [source].

The Gaulish word brennos was borrowed into Vulgar Latin and ended up as brener (to trick, fool, hoodwink) in French, via the Old French bren (bran, filth, excrement). The English word bran comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Middle English bran(ne) / bren and the Old French bren [source].

The Galician word braña (mire, bog, marsh, moorland) is thought to come from the Proto-Celtic *bragnos, possibly via Celtiberian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos is the root of the Galician words camba (doorjamb of an oven, handmill), cambar (to bend), cambiar (to change) [source].

*kambos was possibly also borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Proto-Celtic *wēros = crooked
Old Irish (Goídelc) fíar = bent, crooked, curved
Irish (Gaeilge) fiar [fʲiəɾˠ] = slant, tilt, bias, obliquity, bend, twist, crookedness, perverseness; slanting, tilted, oblique, diagonal
fiaradh to slant, tilt
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fiar [fiər] = bent, crooked, squint, wry, oblique, perverse
fiaragach = slanted, twisted, touchy
fiaranaich = slant
fiaradh = slanting, slant, distorting, skewing, distortion
fiarach = inclinning, slanting
fiaras = crookedness
Proto-Brythonic *gwuɨr = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gvir, gwyr [ɡwɨr] = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyr [ɡuːɨ̯r/ɡʊi̯r] = askew, slanting, oblique, aslant, cross(-eyed), squinting, crooked, curved, bent, distorted, unjust, dishonest, wrong, evil; wickedness, error, wandering, twist
gwyrio = to bow, stoop, bend, lean, incline, slant, slope
gwyraidd = sloping, slanting, stooping
Cornish (Kernewek) gwarr = curve
gwarak = arch, arc, bow, crescent
Middle Breton goar = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwar = curved
gwared = arch

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *weh₁iros (turned, twisted), from *weh₁y- (to twist, wrap) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Heather

Today we’re looking at the words for heather and related things in Celtic languages.

Heather

Proto-Celtic *wroikos = heather
Gaulish *wroika = heather
Celtiberian *broikios = heather
Old Irish (Goídelc) froích, fróech = heather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fráech = heather
Irish (Gaeilge) fraoch [fˠɾˠeːx / fˠɾˠiːx / fˠɾˠiːx] = heather, heath, moor
fraochán = bilberry, whortleberry, ring-ouzel
fraochlach = heath
fraochmhá = heath
fraochmhar = heathery
fraoch bán = white heather
fraoch coitianta = Scotch heather, ling
píobaire fraoch = grasshopper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fraoch [frɯːx] = heather, ling
fraoch-geal = white common heather (Calluna vulgaris alba
fraoch-bheinn = heather-covered mountain
fraochan = whortleberry, blaeberry, lingonberry, cranberry
fraochach = heathy, heathery
Manx (Gaelg) freoagh = heather, ling, heath
freoagh bane = brier, white heather
freoagh marrey = sea fern
freoagh mooar = Scotch heather
Proto-Brythonic *gwrʉg [ˈɡwrʉːɡ] = heather
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gruc, gerug, gwrug = heather
Welsh (Cymraeg) grug [ɡrɨːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heather, ling heath
grug cyffredin = heather, ling, common heath, Calluna vulgaris
grugiar = (red) grouse, willow grouse, heath-hen
gruglus = heath-berries
gruglwyn = bush of heather, sweet broom
grugnythu = to nest or nestle in the heather
grugog = heath-covered, heathery, abounding in heather
Cornish (Kernwek) grug [ɡryːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heath, heather, ling
grugyar = partridge
Middle Breton groegan = heather
Breton (Brezhoneg) brug = heather

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology unknown, possibly from a non-Proto-Indo-European root [source]. It’s uncertain where the Breton word brug comes from, but it’s likey that it was borrowed from the Latin *brūcus (heather).

The Spanish word brezo (heath) comes from the Vulgar Latin *broccius, from the Proto-Celtic *wroikos, as does the Galician breixo (heather) [source].

Words from the Gaulish root *wroikos (heather), via the Latin *brūcus (heather), include brugo (heather) and brughiera (heath, moor) in Italian, bruc (heather) and bruguera (heath) in Catalan, and bruyère (heather, heath, brier) in French [source].

Eilean Fraoch (Heather Isle) is a nickname for the Isle of Lewis / Eilean Leòdhais in the Western Isles / Na h-Eileanan Siar. Here’s a song about it:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lakes and Ponds

Words for lakes, ponds and related things in Celtic languages.

Llyn Idwal

Proto-Celtic *lindā = pool, lake
Gaulish lindon = pool, lake; sea, ocean
Old Irish (Goídelc) lind [l̠ʲiːn̠ʲ / l̠ʲɪn̠ʲ] = pool, pond, body of water, lake, sea
Irish (Gaeilge) linn = pool, pond, body of water, lake, sea
linn mhuilinn = mill-pond
linn lachan = duck pond
linneach = full of pools, watery
linneolaíocht = limnology (freshwater science)
linntreog = small pool, puddle, pot-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) linne [l̪ʲin̪ʲə] deep pool; strait, sound, firth
linne-thuathal, faochag-linne = whirlpool
Linne Giùdain = Firth of Forth
Linne Shalmhaigh = Solway Firth
éisg-linn = fishpond
Manx (Gaelg) lhingey = pool, pond, backwater
lhingey chassee = small whirlpool
lhingey eeast = fishpond
Proto-Brythonic *llɨnn = lake, liquid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = lake, liquid
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = lake, pool, pond, puddle, moat
llyn anoddun = bottomless pit, the deep
llyn melin = mill pond
llyn tro = whirlpool
Old Cornish lin = lake
Cornish (Kernewek) lynn, lydn = lake
Old Breton lin = lake
Breton (Brezhoneg) lenn = lake, basin, washhouse, fishpond, body of water

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o-/*liH-nd-u [source].

These words appear in places names such as Lincoln in England, Dublin in Ireland, Lintgen in Luxembourg, Limmat – a river in Switzerland (originally Lindimacus), and possibly strong>Lindern in Germany.

Proto-Celtic *loku = lake, pool
Old Irish (Goídelc) loch [l͈ox] = lake, inlet of the sea
Irish (Gaeilge) loch [l̪ˠɔx] = lake, pool, (body of) water, arm of the sea, lough, fiord
lochach = having (many) lakes
lochán = small lake, pond
lochánach = having (many) small lakes
loch-chuach = lake basin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) loch [l̪ˠɔx] = loch, lake
lochach = pertaining to or abounding in lochs/lakes
lochan = small lake, loch
loch-mara = sea loch
loch-tasgaidh = reservoir
loch-uisge = freshwater loch/lake
feur-lochan = small grassy loch (which tends to dry up)
Manx (Gaelg) logh [laːx] = lake, lough, loch, arm of the sea
loghan = small lake, pond, dam, tank, dock, pool
loghanagh = full of lakes
logh-hailjey = saltwater lake
logh-ushtey = freshwater lake
Old Welsh lichou = lake, pool
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) luch, lluch = lake, pool
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwch [ɬuːχ] = lake, pool, stagnant water, bog, swamp, marsh, mud, mire, grime, filth, dung
Cornish (Kernewek) logh = inlet
Middle Breton laguenn = flooded field
Breton (Brezhoneg) loc’h = pond, lagoon, flooded meadow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool), which is also the root of the Icelandic lögur (liquid, fluid, lake, sea), and words for lake in Romance languages, including lac in French, Occitan and Romanian, and lago in Galician, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Ale and Beer

Words for ale, beer and related words in Celtic languages.

beer haul

Proto-Celtic *lindo- = drink
Gaulish linda = drink
Old Irish (Goídelc) linn [ˈl͈ʲin͈ʲ] = drink, liquid, brew, ale, beer, intoxicating drink
lind = liquid, drink, ale
Irish (Gaeilge) leann = (pale) ale, beer; liquid, fluid
lionn = humour (of the body)
lionndubhach = melancholy, depressed
leannadóir = ale-merchant
leannlus = hop
leann bó = milk
leann donn = brown ale
leann dubh = stout
leann piorra = perry
leann sinséir = ginger ale
leann úll = cider
iarleann = small, weak beer
seomra leanna = tap-room
teach leanna = ale-house
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leann [l̪ʲãũn̪ˠ] / lionn [l̪ʲũːn̪ˠ]= ale, beer; humour (of the body); fluid, liquid
lionn-dubh = dejection, melancholy
lionn searbh = bitter (ale)
lionn-ubhal = cider
Manx (Gaelg) lhune = ale, beer
lhune doo = stout, porter
lhune freillagh = lager
lhune jinshar = ginger beer
lhune ooyl = cider
lhune peear = perry
lhune sharroo = bitter (beer/ale)
shamyr lhionney = bar room, lounge bar, tap room
thie lhionney = ale house, pub
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = drink
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = drink, beverage, intoxicating liquor, cordial, juice; liquid, humour
llyn afalau = cider, apple juice
llyn y bustl = bile
llyn gellyg = perry
Old Cornish lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
Cornish (Kernewek) lin = fluid, liquid, lotion
lin-golghi = washing detergent
lin leur = floor cleaner
lin sebon = detergent, washing-up liquid
Old Breton linnou = drink
Breton (Brezhoneg) liñvenn = liquid

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o- [source].

Proto-Celtic *kormi, *kurman = beer
Gaulish curmi, curmím, κόρμα (kórma), κούρμι (koúrmi) = beer
Old Irish (Goídelc) cuirm = ale, beer
Irish (Gaeilge) coirm, cuirm [kɞɾʲəmʲ] = ale, drinking-party, feast, banquet
coirmeach = ale-drinking, festive
coirmtheach = ale-house
coirm cheoil, ceolchoirm = concert
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cuirm [kurʲum] = feast, banquet, entertainment; ale, beer (archaic)
co(i)rm = ale, beer
cuirm-chiùil = concert
cuirm-chnuic = picnic
Manx (Gaelg) cuirrey = banquet, feast
cuirrey kiaull = concert
Proto-Brythonic *kuruβ ̃, *kurβ̃ = beer, ale
Old Welsh curum = beer, ale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kuref, kwryf, kwrwf, cwrwf, cyryw = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwrw [ˈkʊru / ˈkuːru] = beer, ale
cwrw Adda = Adam’s ale, water
cwrw casgen = draught beer
cwrw coch = brown ale
cwrw cychwyn = a drink of beer on setting out on a journey, one for the road
coesau cwrw = a drunken gait (“beer legs”)
Old Cornish coref, coruf = ale, beer
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cor = ale, beer
coref = ale, beer
Cornish (Kernewek) korev, kor = ale, beer
Breton (Brezhoneg) korev = ale, beer

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *kremH- (to burn) [source], or *ḱr̥h₃-m- (porridge, soup), or *ḱh₁erh₂- (to mix) [source].

The Latin word cervēs(i)a (beer) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, as do words for beer in several Romance languages, including Spanish (cerveza), Portuguese (cerveja), Galician (cervexa) and Catalan (cervesa) [source].

More about words for beer in European languages.

Irish (Gaeilge) beoir [bʲoːɾʲ] = beer, a woman (rare, colloquial)
beoir bhairille = draught beer
beoir shinséir = ginger beer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beòir [bjɔːrʲ] = beer
beòir chaol = small beer
roipean beòir = beer moustache
Manx (Gaelg) beer = beer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ber, berr, berre = beer, ale
Welsh (Cymraeg) bir = beer, ale
Breton (Brezhoneg) bier = ale, beer

Etymology (Irish, Scottish Gaelic and Manx): from the Old Norse bjórr, from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer), from the Proto-Indo-Eurpean *bʰews- (dross, sediment) [source].

Etymology (Welsh): from the English beer, from the Middle English bere (beer), from the Old English bēor (beer), from the Proto-West Germanic *beuʀ (beer), from the Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Etymology (Breton): from the French bière (beer), from the Old French biere (beer), from the Middle Dutch bier/bēr (beer), from the Frankish *bior (beer), from Proto-Germanic *beuzą (beer) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sheep

Words for sheep and related words in Celtic languages.

Sheep in Gleann Cholm Cille

Proto-Celtic *kaɸrāxs = sheep
Old Irish (Goídelc) cáera, caíra [ˈkaːi̯ra] = ox, cow
Irish (Gaeilge) caora [ˈkeːɾˠə / ˈkiːɾˠə] = sheep, ewe
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caora [kɯːrə] = sheep, sheepish person
Manx (Gaelg) keyrrey = sheep
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kaeriwrch = roebuck
Welsh (Cymraeg) caer = sheep (archaic)
caeriwrch / cariwrch = roebuck

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *kápros (goat) [source].

Proto-Celtic *damos = ox, bull, domesticated animal
*dametos = sheep
Old Irish (Goídelc) dam [daṽ] = ox, stag, hero, champion
Irish (Gaeilge) damh [d̪ˠaw] = ox, stag; strong man, champion, corpulent person
damh alla = stag
damh comhair = one of a pair of oxen, yokefellow; equal, peer
damháire = bellowing, lowing (of oxen), belling (of stag)
damhán = small ox
damhra = oxen, yoke of oxen; stags, herd of deer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) damh [dav] = stag (antlered, up to 4 yrs old), ox, oaf, crab missing a claw
damh-féidh = hart, stag
cho dall ri damh ann an ceò = as blind as a bat in daylight (“as blind as an ox in the fog”)
Manx (Gaelg) dow = ox, hart, stag
Proto-Brythonic *daβ̃ad = sheep
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dauat, davad = sheep
Welsh (Cymraeg) dafad [ˈdavad/ˈdaːvad] = sheep, ewe; one who is under the charge of a spiritual pastor
defaid cymorth = sheep given to a needy person to form the nucleus of a flock
dafad ddu = black sheep, prodigal son, ne’er do-well of a family
defaid Dafydd Jos = waves, billows (“David Jones’ sheep”)
mynd yn draed defaid = to go to ruin (“to become sheep’s feet”)
Old Cornish dauat = sheep
Cornish (Kernewek) davas = ewe, sheep
kig davas = mutton
Breton (Brezhoneg) dañvad [ˈdãː.vat] = sheep; overly kind, gentle person; cuckold, flock; small, fluffy clouds, foamy waves
dañvadez = ewe

Etymology: the Brythonic words come from *dametos, which comes from *damos. Both these words come from the Proto-Indo-European *demh₂- (to domesticate, tame) [source]. The English words tame, (in)domitable and danger come from the same PIE root [source].

Proto-Celtic *retio- = ram
Old Irish (Goídelc) reithe [r͈ʲeθʲe] = ram; boats used as fireships
Irish (Gaeilge) reithe = ram
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) reithe [r͈ʲe.ə] = ram, tup; Aries
Manx (Gaelg) rea = ram, tup

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hwrd, hwrt = ram
Welsh (Cymraeg) hwrdd = ram; a stupid person; battering ram; rammer, beater; Aries
Old Cornish horþ = ram
Middle Cornish hordh = ram
Cornish (Kernewek) hordh = ram
Breton (Brezhoneg) (h)ourz = ram

Etymology: unknown.

Proto-Celtic *moltos = ram, wether (castrated ram)
Gaulish *multon = sheep
Old Irish (Goídelc) molt [mol͈t] = ram, wether
Irish (Gaeilge) molt = wether, sulky, morose person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) molt [mul̪ˠt̪ˠ] = wether
Manx (Gaelg) mohlt = castrated sheep, wether, mutton
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mollt = castrated ram, wether, mutton
Welsh (Cymraeg) mollt [moːɬd / mɔɬt] = castrated ram, wether, mutton
Cornish (Kernewek) mols = wether, sheep
Middle Breton mout, maout = ram
Breton (Brezhoneg) maout [ˈmɔwt] = ram, mutton; champion, trophy

Etymology: uncertain, possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *(h₂)moldus (soft, weak) [source].

The Gaulish *multon is the root of the French word mouton (sheep, mutton), via the Vulgar Latin moltō (wether), and also of the Galician word motóa (sheep), and the English word mutton [source].

Proto-Celtic *ognos = lamb
Old Irish (Goídelc) úan [uːa̯n] = lamb
Irish (Gaeilge) uan = lamb
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uan [uən] = lamb
Manx (Gaelg) eayn = lamb
Brythonic *oɨn = lamb
Welsh (Cymraeg) oen [oːɨ̯n / ɔi̯n] = lamb
Old Cornish oin = lamb
Cornish (Kernewek) oen = lamb
Breton (Brezhoneg) oan = lamb

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂egʷnós (lamb) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Yew (trees)

Words for yew (tree) (Taxus baccata) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *eburos [d̪ˠaɾʲ] = yew (tree)
Celtiberian ebur- = yew (tree)
Gaulish eburo- = yew (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) ibar [d̪ˠaɾʲ] = yew (tree)
Irish (Gaeilge) iúr [uːɾˠ] = yew (tree)
iubhar [ˈju.əɾ] = yew (tree)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iubhar / iùbhar [ju.ər] = yew (tree), bow
Manx (Gaelg) euar = yew (tree)
Proto-Brythonic *eβor = yew (tree)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) efwr, ewr, ewur, evwr = hogweed, cow parsnip
Welsh (Cymraeg) efwr [ˈɛvʊr / ˈeːvʊr] = cow parsnip, hogweed
Cornish (Kernewek) evor = hogweed
Old Breton heuor / euor = yew
Breton (Brezhoneg) evor = alder buckthorn

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ebʰros (yew) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Words for yew (tree) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *iwos = yew (tree)
Gaulish *iwos = yew (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) [eːo̯] = stem, shaft, yew, tree
Irish (Gaeilge) eo [oː/ɔː] = yew tree (literary)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iodh [jɤɣ] = yew tree
Proto-Brythonic *ɨwī / *ɨwɨnā = yew (tree)
Welsh (Cymraeg) yw [ɨ̞u̯ / ɪu̯] = yew (tree), yew-wood
Old Cornish hiuin = yew (tree)
Cornish (Kernewek) ewin = yew (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) iwin / ivin = yew (tree)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁eyHweh₂ (yew) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Ancient Yew

Fists, Palms, Hands & Arms

Words for fist, palm, hand & arm in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā = palm, hand
Old Irish (Goídelc) lám [l͈aːṽ] = hand, arm, prowess, accomplishment, power
Irish (Gaeilge) lámh [l̪ˠɑːvˠ / l̪ˠæːw] = hand, arm, handle, signature, measure (of horses)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmh [l̪ˠaːv] = hand, arm, handle
Manx (Gaelg) laue [læu] = hand, handful, foreleg, grasp (of oar), arm
Proto-Brythonic *lọβ̃ [ˈlɔːβ̃] = palm, hand
Old Welsh lau = hand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaw = hand
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaw [ɬaːu̯ / ɬau̯] = hand; authority, control, rule, management, power; ownership, possession; influence; agency, instrumentality, part; guardianship, keeping, custody, care, protection; side, direction, position; skill, touch
Old Cornish lof = hand
Cornish (Kernewek) leuv [lœ:v / le:v] = hand
Old Breton lom = hand
Middle Breton lau = hand

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bostā = palm, fist
Gaulish *bostyā = palm, fist
Old Irish (Goídelc) bos / bas = palm
Irish (Gaeilge) bos = palm (of hand); handful; slap; flat end, blade
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bas [l̪ˠaːv] = hand, arm, handle
Manx (Gaelg) bass = palm, flat of hand, blade of oar, scale pan, bass
Proto-Brythonic *bos [ˈbos] = hand
Old Welsh bos = palm
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bos = palm
Welsh (Cymraeg) bos = palm (of the hand), unit of length
Cornish (Kernewek) bas [ba:z / bæ:z] = shallow
Middle Breton boz = hollow of the hand
Breton (Brezhoneg) boz [ˈboːs] = hollow of the hand

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷésdos (branch) [source]. The Middle Latin word bostia (small box, reliquaire was borrowed from the Gaulish *bostyā, and became bostellus (bushel), the root of the French word boisseau (bushel, hollow cylinder), and the English word bushel [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) rig = forearm
Irish (Gaeilge) [d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ] = forearm
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ruighe [r̪ˠujə] = plain; forearm
Manx (Gaelg) roih = arm, forearm

Etymology: possibly from the Old Irish *reg (to stretch) [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) braich [brai̯χ] = arm
Cornish (Kernewek) bregh [brɛ:x /bre:ʰ] = arm
Breton (Brezhoneg) brec’h = hand

Etymology: from Latin bracchium (hand) [source].

Proto-Celtic *durnos = fist
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorn = fist
Irish (Gaeilge) dorn [d̪ˠoːɾˠn̪ˠ] = fist; punch; fistful, small quantity; handle, grip
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dòrn [dɔːr̪ˠn̪ˠ] = fist; punch; hilt; handle
Manx (Gaelg) doarn = fist, pad, sword handle, grip
Welsh (Cymraeg) dwrn = fist, hand, paw; hilt, handle, haft, pommel; knob
Cornish (Kernewek) dorn [dɔrn] = fist, hand, handle
Breton (Brezhoneg) dorn [ˈdɔʁn] = hand, fist

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

palm

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau, TermOfis