Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Halloween

Words for Halloween, November and related things in Celtic languages.

Happy Halloween Season Flickr!

Proto-Celtic *samonios, *samoni- = assembly, (feast of the) first month of the year
Gaulish samoni- = assembly, (feast of the) first month of the year
Old Irish (Goídelc) samain [ˈsaṽinʲ] = Halloween, November, All Saint’s Day, All Hallows, Samhain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) samain, samḟuin = first November, the festival held on that date, All Saints’ Day, All Hallows
idchi samna = the eve of samain
Irish (Gaeilge) Samhain [sˠaunʲ/sˠəunʲ/ˈsˠãuwənʲ] = Halloween, November, All Saint’s Day, All Hallows, Samhain
Mí na Samhna = (month of) November
Oíche Shamhna = Halloween
Lá Samhna = first November, All Hallows
Lá Sean-Samhna = 12th November
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) Samhain [ˈsãũ.ɪn̪ʲ] = All Saints’ Day, All Souls’ Day
An t-Samhain [ən̪ tãũ.ɪn̪ʲ] = November
Oidhche Shamhna = Halloween
bó-Shamhna = Halloween cow (cow killed at Halloween for a winter supply of beef)
samhnag [sãũnag] = Halloween bonfire
samhnair [sãũnɛrʲ] = Halloween guiser/mummer
Manx (Gaelg) Sauin [ˈsoːɪnʲ] = November, Hollantide
Souney = All Hallow’s Day, Hollantide Day
Laa Souney = November
Mee Houney = November
Oie Houney = All Hallow’s Eve, Hallowe’en, Hollandtide Eve, Hop tu Naa
veih Sauin gys Boaldyn = long-winded (from Samhain to Beltane)
cro souney = horse chestnut

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sem- (together, one), or from the Proto-Celtic *samo- (summer) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) callan = calends
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) callann = calends, first day of the month
Irish (Gaeilge) caileann = calends
Lá Caille = New Year’s Day
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cailindha = calends (of a month)
Manx (Gaelg) Caillyn = calends
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kalan = first day of the year, New Year’s day, first day of each month, calends
Kalan Gayaf = All hallows’ day, All Saints’ day, first of November
Welsh (Cymraeg) calan [ˈkalan/ˈkaːlan] = first day of the year, New Year’s day, first day of each month, calends
Calan Gaeaf = All hallows’ day, All Saints’ day, first of November
nos Galan Gaeaf = Halloween
calannig [kaˈlɛnɪɡ/ˈklɛnɪɡ] = gift given at New Year, (Christmas) present
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) calan = the calends, first day of the month
Calan gauav = first November
Deu halan gûav = All Saints’ Day, the calends of winter
Dydh Calan = New Year’s Day
Cornish (Kernewek) kalan = calends, first of the month
Kalan Genver = New Year’s Day
Kalan Gwav = All Hallows
Dy’ Halan Gwav = Saint Allan’s Day, Feast of Saint Allan (day of the first day of winter)
Nos Kalan Gwav = Allantide (eve of the first day of winter)
Middle Breton kaland = calends
kal, kala = first day of the month
kala-bloaz = first day of the year
kala-goañv = first November
kal-ar-goañv, Kalar goan, kal ar goañ = All Saints’ Day, first November
Breton (Brezhoneg) kala = calends, first day of the month
kala-bloaz = first day of the year
kala-goañv, Kalan Goañv = first November

Etymology: from the Vulgar Latin calandae (calends, the first day of the month) from the Latin kalendae (calends, the first day of the month), from calō (I call, announce solemnly, call out) from the Proto-Italic *kalēō from the Proto-Indo-European *kelh₁- (to call, summon) [source].

Words from calendar many languages, including English, come from the same roots, via the Latin calendārium (account book, debt book) [source].

Details of Celtic traditions associated with this time of year:
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samhain
https://ga.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lá_Samhna
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-tu-Naa
https://gv.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hop-tu-Naa
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Halloween
https://cy.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gŵyl Calan Gaeaf
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Allantide

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Rotten Fragrance

Today we’re looking at the words for rotten and related things in Celtic languages.

Rotten wood

Proto-Celtic *bragnos = rotten
Gaulish brennos = rotten
Old Irish (Gaoidhealg) brén [bʲrʲeːn] = foul, putrid, rotten, stinking
Irish (Gaeilge) bréan [bʲɾʲiːa̯nˠ / bʲɾʲeːnˠ] = foul, putrid, rotten; to pollute, putrefy
bréanlach = filthy place, cesspool
bréanóg = refuse heap
bréantachán = stinker
bréantas = rottenness, stench, filth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breun [brʲeːn] = foetid, putrid, disgusting, filthy, nasty, stinking
breunlach = sinking bog
breunachd = corruption, rottenness
breunan = dunghill, dirty person, dirty/smelly object, crabbit/grumpy person, grouch
breunad = degree of foetidness/putridness, degree of disgustingness/filthiness/nastiness, degree of stink
breuntas = stench, stink, putrefaction, putridness
Manx (Gaelg) breinn = foetid, loathsome, malodorous, nasty, offensive, pestilential, putrid, rancid, rotten, smelly, stinking
breinnaghey = to become smelly, putrefy, taint, stink
Proto-Brythonic *braɨn = foul, stinking putrid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brean = rotten
Welsh (Cymraeg) braen [braːɨ̯n / brai̯n] = rotten, putrid, corrupt, mouldy, withered, fragile; rot, putrefaction, corruption, decay
braen(i)ad = rotting, decomposition, rottenness, putridness
braenu = to rot, putrefy, make/become corrupt, become mouldy
braenedig = rotten, putrefied, corrupt, festering, gangrenous, mouldy, wounded
Cornish (Kernewek) breyn = putrid, rotten
breyna = to decay, rot
breynans = decay
breynder = rot
Middle Breton brein = rotten
Breton (Brezhoneg) brein [ˈbrɛ̃jn] = rotten, uncultivated (land)
breinadur = corruption
breinañ, breiniñ = to rot, decay
breinidigezh = putrefaction

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰreHg- (to smell, have a strong odour) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include flair, fragrant, and bray in English, and брезгать (to be fastidious/squeamish, to disdain) in Russian [source].

The Gaulish word brennos was borrowed into Vulgar Latin and ended up as berner (to trick, fool, hoodwink) in French, via the Old French bren (bran, filth, excrement). The English word bran comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Middle English bran(ne) / bren and the Old French bren [source].

The Galician word braña (mire, bog, marsh, moorland) and the Asturian word braña (pasture, meadowland) are thought to come from the Proto-Celtic *bragnos, possibly via Celtiberian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Heather

Today we’re looking at the words for heather and related things in Celtic languages.

Heather

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *wroikos = heather
Gaulish *wroika = heather
Celtiberian *broikios = heather
Old Irish (Goídelc) froích, fróech = heather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fráech = heather
Irish (Gaeilge) fraoch [fˠɾˠeːx / fˠɾˠiːx / fˠɾˠiːx] = heather, heath, moor
fraochán = bilberry, whortleberry, ring-ouzel
fraochlach = heath
fraochmhá = heath
fraochmhar = heathery
fraoch bán = white heather
fraoch coitianta = Scotch heather, ling
píobaire fraoch = grasshopper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fraoch [frɯːx] = heather, ling
fraoch-geal = white common heather (Calluna vulgaris alba
fraoch-bheinn = heather-covered mountain
fraochan = whortleberry, blaeberry, lingonberry, cranberry
fraochach = heathy, heathery
Manx (Gaelg) freoagh = heather, ling, heath
freoagh bane = brier, white heather
freoagh marrey = sea fern
freoagh mooar = Scotch heather
Proto-Brythonic *gwrʉg [ˈɡwrʉːɡ] = heather
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gruc, gerug, gwrug = heather
Welsh (Cymraeg) grug [ɡrɨːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heather, ling heath
grug cyffredin = heather, ling, common heath, Calluna vulgaris
grugiar = (red) grouse, willow grouse, heath-hen
gruglus = heath-berries
gruglwyn = bush of heather, sweet broom
grugnythu = to nest or nestle in the heather
grugog = heath-covered, heathery, abounding in heather
Cornish (Kernwek) grug [ɡryːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heath, heather, ling
grugyar = partridge
Middle Breton groegan = heather
Breton (Brezhoneg) brug [bryːk] = heather
brugek [ˈbryː.ɡɛk] = (a place) abundant in heather, covered with heather

Etymology unknown, possibly from a non-Proto-Indo-European root [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via Gaulish *wroikos (heather), and Latin *brūcus (heather) or Vulgar Latin *broccius, include brezo (heath) in Spanish, breixo (heather) in Galician, brugo (heather) and brughiera (heath, moor) in Italian, bruc (heather) and bruguera (heath) in Catalan, and bruyère (heather, heath, brier) in French [source].

Eilean Fraoch (Heather Isle) is a nickname for the Isle of Lewis / Eilean Leòdhais in the Western Isles / Na h-Eileanan Siar. Here’s a song about it:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nieces

Today we’re looking at the words for niece and related people in Celtic languages.

Sasha and Nick
My brother and my niece

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *nextī = niece
Old Irish (Goídelc) necht = niece, grand-daughter
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) necht, neachd = niece, grand-daughter
Irish (Gaeilge) neacht [n̠ʲæxt̪ˠ] = niece
garneacht = grand-niece
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nigh [n̪iːj] = daughter, niece
Proto-Brythonic *nėθ = niece
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nith = niece
Welsh (Cymraeg) nith [niːθ] = niece
gor-nith = great-niece
Old Cornish noit = niece
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) noit = niece
Cornish (Kernwek) nith = niece
Old Breton nith = niece
Middle Breton nyz, niz = niece
Breton (Brezhoneg) nizh, nizez = niece
gou(r)nizez = great-niece

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *néptih₂ (niece, granddaughter) [source].

Words in Germanic language the come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *niftiz (female descendent, granddaughter, niece), including: Nichte (niece) in German, nicht (female cousin, niece) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word nift (niece) [source].

The English word niece comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nece (niece, granddaughter), from the Old French nece (niece, granddaughter), from the Vulgar Latin *neptia (niece), from the Latin neptis (granddaughter) [source].

Other words for niece:

  • Irish: iníon deirféar (sister’s daughter), iníon dearthár (brother’s daughter)
  • Scottish Gaelic: nighean-pheathar (sister’s daughter), nighean-bhràthar (brother’s daughter), ban-ogha = granddaughter, niece
  • Manx: inneen shayrey (sister’s daughter), inneen vraarey (brother’s daughter)

See also the post about daughters.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Strawberries

Words for strawberries and related words, in Celtic languages.

Strawberries

Proto-Celtic *subhī = strawberries
Old Irish (Goídelc) sub = strawberry
sub craéb = raspberry
Irish (Gaeilge) [sˠuː] = (red) berry
sú craobh = raspberry
sú talún = strawberry
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sùbh [suː] = berry, soft fruit
sùbh-craobh = raspberry
sùbh-craobh ruiteach = salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis)
sùbh-làir fiadhain = wild / Alpine strawberry (Fragaria vesca)
sùbh nam ban-sìthe = stone bramble (Rubus saxatilis)
sùbh-thalmhainn = strawberry
Manx (Gaelg) soo [suː] = berry
soo crouw = raspberry
soo thallooin = strawberry
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) yssyui / syui / syvi = strawberries
Welsh (Cymraeg) syfi(en) [ˈsəvi] = (wild) strawberries
syfi coch/gwyllt/bach = wild strawberries
syfi gardd = cultivated strawberries)
syfïa = to gather (wild) strawberries
Old Cornish syvyen = strawberry
Cornish (Kernewek) sevi(en) = strawberries
Old Breton s(u)iuy = strawberries
Middle Breton siuy = strawberries
Breton (Brezhoneg) sivi(enn) = strawberries
sivia = to pick strawberries
sivi-garzh = wild strawberries

Etmology: possibly from a non-Indo-European substrate [source]

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ymevvs / mefys / mefvs / mevys = strawberries
Welsh (Cymraeg) mefus(en) [ˈmɛvɨ̞s / ˈmeːvɪs] = strawberries
mefus y goedwig / mefus y coed = wild strawberries

Etmology: from the Vulgar Latin majusa (“mayberry”), or from the Basque mart (blackberry, bramble), or from the Gaulish *majoþa [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Milk

Words for milk, and related words, in Celtic languages.

North versus South

Proto-Celtic *laxto- = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) lacht [l͈axt] = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) lacht [l̪ˠɑxt̪ˠ / l̪ˠaxt̪ˠ] = milk, yield of milk; tears
lachtadh = lacation; flooding (of eyes)
lachaí = nursling
lachtach = lactic, milky; tearful
lachtbhán = milkwhite
lachtmhar = lactiferous, milky, abounding in milk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lac, lachd = sweet milk
Manx (Gaelg) laghtveih = milk gauge, milk tester
Proto-Brythonic *llaɨθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaeth = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaeth [ɬaːɨ̯θ / ɬai̯θ] = milk; milk-like substance, latex; milt, soft roe
llaetha(f), llaethu = to yield milk, lactate, feed with milk, turn to milk
llaetheiddrwydd = milkiness, lactescence
llaethiad = lactation
llaethlyd = milk-like, milky
llaethog = milky, abounding in milk
llaethogrwydd, llaethedd = milkiness
llaethwraig = milkmaid, dairymaid, good milker
llaethyddol = dairy, dairying
y Llwybr Llaethog the Milky Way
Old Cornish lait = milk
Middle Cornish leth, leyth = milk
Cornish (Kernewek) leth = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) laezh [ˈlɛːs] = milk

Etmology: from the Vulgar Latin *lacte (milk), from the Latin *lac (milk), from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵlákt [source].

Proto-Celtic *mlixtus = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) mlicht [mʲlʲixt] = milch, in milk (of cattle)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blicht = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bleacht [bʲlʲaxt̪ˠ] = milk, milk yield
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bliochd [blixg] = milkiness, milk
bliochdmhor [blixg(v)ər] = milky, full of milk
bliochdach = milky, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bluight = lactiferous, lacteal, galactic
bluightagh, ollagh vluight = milking cows
Proto-Brythonic *bliθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blyth = milk
lleurith = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) blith [bliːθ] = milch, lactating (of cow, etc), full of milk, in calf, in lamb, pregant, fruitful, productive, nourising; milk, dairy produce, lactation, dairying; profit, gain, advantage
blithog, blithiog = milch, giving milk, full of milk, fruitful, productive, bearing offspring
llefrith [ˈɬɛvrɪθ] = milk, new milk, sweet milk, fresh milk
Old Cornish leuerid = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) livrizh = milk

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ml̥ǵtus, from *h₂melǵ- (milk, to milk) [source].

The Welsh word llefrith, which is used in North Wales, comes from llef (weak) and blith (milk) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bandyo- = drop
Old Irish (Goídelc) bannae = drop
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bainne = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bainne [ˈbˠɑɲə / ˈbˠɑnʲə / ˈbˠan̠ʲə] = milk
bainniúil = milky, milk-yielding
bainniúlacht = milkiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bainne [ban̪ʲə] = milk, milky fluid, sap
bainneach [ban̪ʲəx] = milk, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bainney = milk
bainnagh = lactic, milk producing, milky, galactic
bainnaght = milkiness
yn Raad Mooar Bainnagh the Milky Way
Middle Cornish banne = drop
Cornish (Kernewek) banna = drop
Breton (Brezhoneg) banne = drop, droplet, glass

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Slavic *baňa (bath), from the Ancient Greek *βαλανεῖον (balaneîon, bath) [source], which is the root of words for bath(room) in many European languages, including bain in French, baño in Spanish and bagno in Italian [source].

Other words for milk in Proto-Celtic include: *glaxtā-, *melgos-, *mlig-e/o-, *seigi- and *sutu-.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Horses

Words for horse, stallion, mare, foal and related things in Celtic languages.

Ceffylau / Horses

Note: the commonly-used words for horse in each Celtic language are: capall in Irish, each in Scottish Gaelic, cabbyl in Manx, ceffyl in Welsh, margh in Cornish, and marc’h in Breton.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kaballos, *kapallos, *kappilos = horse
Gaulish *caballos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) capall [ˈkapal͈] = horse
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) capall, capail = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) capall ˈkapˠəl̪ˠ] = horse, mare
capallach = equine
capaillín = pony
capall maide = wooden, vaulting horse, hobby-horse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) capall [kahbəl̪ˠ] = mare, colt, horse, small horse
capall-aibhne = hippopotamus
capall-coille = capercaillie
capall-mara = seahorse
capallach [kahbəl̪ˠəx] = pertaining to or abounding in mares/colts
capallan [kahbəl̪ˠan] = small horse, pony
Manx (Gaelg) cabbyl = horse, mount
cabbyl awin = hippopotamus
cabbyl assylagh = mule
Proto-Brythonic *kėfɨl = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keffyl, ceffyl = horse
keffylyn = little horse, nag, pony
cavall, cauall = horse, steed
Welsh (Cymraeg) ceffyl [ˈkɛfɨ̞l / ˈkɛfɪl] = horse, nag, hobby
ceffyl yr afon = hippopotamus
ceffylaf, ceffylu = to put on horseback, put one to ride the high horse, extol
ceffylaidd = pertaining to horses, equine, horsy
ceffylan = little horse, nag
ceffyles = mare
ceffylyn = little horse, nag, pony
cafall = horse, steed
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cevil, kevil = horse
Old Breton (Brethonoc) cefel = horse

Etymology: uncertain – related to the Late Latin caballus (horse, nag) and Ancient Greek καβάλλης (kabállēs – nag) and maybe Persian کول (kaval – second class horse of mixed blood). Possibly ultimately from PIE *kebʰ- (worn-out horse, nag). Words from the same roots include cheval (horse) in French, cavalier in English and caballo (horse) in Spanish [source].

The Breton word kefeleg (woodcock) comes from the same Proto-Brythonic root, as does kevelek (woodcock) in Cornish and cyffylog (woodcock) in Welsh [source].

Proto-Celtic *markos = horse
Galatian *μάρκαν (márkan) = horse
Gaulish *markos = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) marc [mark] = horse
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) marc = horse
Irish (Gaeilge) marc [mˠaɾˠk] = horse (literary / archaic)
marcach = horseman, rider, jockey; cavalryman, Cavalier
marcachas = horsemanship
marchaigh = to ride
marcaíocht = riding, horsemanship, ride drive lift
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) marc [marxk] = charger (warhorse – literary)
marc-shluagh = horsemen, riders, cavalry
marchach = equestrian, mounted; riding
Manx (Gaelg) mark = horse
mark-sleih = horseman
markiagh = to ride, riding, cavalier, equestrian, horseman, jockey, rider
markiaghey = riding
markiaght = drive, equitation, horsemanship, (horse) riding, lift, rider
Proto-Brythonic *marx = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) march = horse
Welsh (Cymraeg) march [marχ] = horse, stallion, war-horse, steed
marchaidd = pertaining to a horse, horsy, horselike, equine
marchallu = horsepower
marchasyn = jackass, male donkey
marchdy = stable
marchfeddyg = horse doctor, farrier
marchfilwr = dragoon, cavalryman, cavalier, trooper
marchog = horseman, rider, jockey, mounted warrior, knight
Old Cornish march = horse
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) march = horse
Cornish (Kernewek) margh [ˈmaɾx] = horse
marghek = knight, rider
margh-leska = rocking horse
marghnerth = horsepower
marghogeth = to ride (a horse)
marghti = stable
Old Breton (Brethonoc) marh = horse
Middle Breton (Brezonec) march = horse
marcheg, marhec = horseman, rider, knight
marecat = to ride (a horse)
marheguez = to ride (a horse), to dominate
Breton (Brezhoneg) marc’h [marx] = horse, easel
marc’h-tan [marxˈtãː.n] = motorbike
marc’heg [ˈmar.ɣɛk] = horseman, rider, knight
marc’hegkaat [mar.ɣe.ˈkɑːt] = to ride (a horse)
marc’hegañ =
marc’hegezh [marˈɣeːɡɛs] = to ride (a horse), to dominate
marc’hegiezh = chivalry, cavalry

Etymology: thought to be from the Proto-Indo-European *márkos, which is also the root of the English words mare and marshal, the French word maréchal (marshal), and related words in other languages [source].

Proto-Celtic *ekʷos [ˈe.kʷos] = horse
Celtiberian ekua- = horse
Gaulish epos = horse
Primitive Irish *ᚓᚊᚐᚄ (*eqas) [exʷah] = horse
Old Irish (Goídelc) ech [ex] = horse
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ech = horse
airech = packhorse
Irish (Gaeilge) each [ax] = horse, steed (archaic)
eachach = abounding in horses
eachaí = horseman, jockey, equine
eachaire = horse-attendant, groom
each-chumhacht = horse-power
eachmharcach = horseman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) each [ɛx] = horse
each-aibhne = hippopotamus
each-coimhlinge = racehorse
eachach [ɛxəx] = pertaining to or abounding in horses, horsy
eachaire [ɛxɪrʲə] = equerry
eachan [ɛxan] = small horse, yarnwindle
eachlach [ɛxl̪ˠəx] = horse groom, jockey
Manx (Gaelg) agh [ax] = steed, riding horse
aghee = equine
aghlagh, aghragh = equestrian
eagh = horse, racehorse, riding horse, steed
eagh marrey = sea horse
eagh-veg = hobbyhorse
Early Brittonic *epālos = foal
Proto-Brythonic *eb [ɛːb] = horse
*ebọl [ɛˈbɔːl] = foal
Old Welsh eb = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ep, ebawl = colt, foal
ebawluarch, ebolfarch, ebawlfarch = colt, young horse
ebolyauc, eboliauc = in foal, capable of bearing a foal
Welsh (Cymraeg) ebol [ˈɛbɔl / ˈeːbɔl] = colt, foal, sucker
eboles [ɛˈbɔlɛs] = filly, foal
ebolaidd = coltish, frisky, playful, wanton
ebolfarch = colt, young horse
cyfeb = mare in foal
ebolig = coltish
eboliog = in foal, capable of bearing a foal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ebel = foal, colt
Cornish (Kernewek) ebel = horse
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ebol = horse
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ebeul = foal, filly
Breton (Brezhoneg) ebeul [ˈe.bøl] = foal
ebeulan, ebeuliañ = to foal
ebeulez = filly
keneb = mare in foal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁éḱwos, which is also the root of the Latin word for horse, equus, and the English word equine, and related words in English and other languages [source]. The horse goddess, Epona, may be related as well.

Proto-Celtic *uɸorēdos = horse
Gaulish *werēdos = horse
Proto-Brythonic *gworuɨð = horse
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) goruytaur, goruit, gorwyd , gorŵydd = steed, horse
gorwyddfarch = (war-)horse, steed
Welsh (Cymraeg) gorwydd = steed, horse
gorwyddfarch = (war-)horse, steed

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (under) and *rēdo- (to ride; riding, chariot), from Proto-Indo-European *(H)reydʰ- (to ride). Words from the same Celtic roots include palfrey (a small horse with a smooth, ambling gait), Pferd (horse) in German, and vereda (path, lane) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *(φ?)lārek- = mare
Old Irish (Goídelc) láir = mare
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láir, lair = mare
Irish (Gaeilge) láír [l̪ˠɑːɾʲ] = mare
An Láír Bhán = the Milky Way
láír bhán = hobby-horse
láíreog = little mare, young mare, filly, well-built girl, woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làir [l̪ˠaːrʲ] = mare
Manx (Gaelg) laair = mare
laaireen = small mare

Etymology: possibly from PIE *pōlH- (animal young), which is also the root of pony and foal in English, pollo (chicken) in Spanish, and poule (hen) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanxstikā = mare
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cassec, kassec = mare
Welsh (Cymraeg) caseg [ˈkasɛg] = mare
Old Cornish casec, cassec, casac = mare
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) casek = mare
Cornish (Kernewek) kasek = mare
Middle Breton (Brezonec) casec, casecq = mare
Breton (Brezhoneg) kazeg [ˈkɑː.zek] = mare

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱonḱ- (horse) [source]. Words from the same root possibly include henchman in English, hengst (stallion) in Dutch, and häst (horse, knight) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *stirrākos = small animal, chick
Old Irish (Goídelc) serrach = colt, faol
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serrach = colt, faol
Irish (Gaeilge) searrach = colt, faol
searrachúil = foal-like, lively, flighty
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searrach [ʃɛr̪ˠəx] = colt, faol, filly
searrachan [ʃɛr̪ˠəxan] = little foal
searrach-ruadh = buzzard
Manx (Gaelg) sharragh = faol
sharraghoil = faol-like

Etymology: from PIE *stirp- (progeny). Words from the same root possibly include estirpe (lingeage) in Spanish, and sterpo (dry twig or branch, brushwood) in Italian [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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