Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Lead (Metal)

Today we’re looking at the words for lead (metal) and related things in Celtic languages.

Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Wales.
Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Ceredigion, Cymru

Proto-Celtic *ɸloudom = lead (metal)
Gaulish *laudon = lead (metal)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lúaide = lead (metal)
Irish (Gaeilge) luaidhe [ˈl̪ˠuːiː] = lead (metal), (sounding-) lead, plummet, (fishing) sinker
luaidhiúil = lead-like, leaden
luaidhnimh = lead-poisoning
peann luaidhe = pencil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luaidhe [l̪ˠuəjə] = lead (metal), leaden
luaidheach = leaden
peann-luaidhe = pencil
Manx (Gaelg) leoaie = lead (metal), leaden, sounding lead
penn leoaie = pencil

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plewd- (to fly, flow, run), from *plew- (to fly, flow, run), from the Proto-West Germanic *laud [source].

Some words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood and pneumonia in English, vlieten (to flow) in Dutch, fließen (to flow) in German, flyte (to float, flow) in Swedish [source].

The English word lead comes from the Middle English le(e)d (lead) from the Old English lēad (lead) from the Proto-West-Germanic *laud (lead), from the Gaulish *laudon (lead) [source], and words for lead in other Germanic language languages come from the same root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *plum = lead (metal)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pluum, plwm = lead (metal)
Welsh (Cymraeg) plwm [plʊm] = lead (metal); mass or ball of lead, plumb, plummet, straight(ness), vertical(ness)
plymaidd = leaden, lead-like, heavy, oppressive, worthless
plymen = lead weight, plummet, sheet, of lead
plymio = to sound (for depth), fathom, dive, plunge, plummet; to cover or solder with lead, line (pottery) with lead, glaze
plymwr = plumber, dealer/worker in lead, plunger, diver
plymliw = lead-coloured, blackish-blue, greyish blue, pale blue
Cornish (Kernewek) plomm, plobm = lead (metal)
plommer = plumber
plommwedhek = vertical
pyncel plomm = pencil
Breton (Brezhoneg) plom = lead (metal)
plomek = lead(en)
plomer = plumber
plomerezh = plumbing

Etymology: from the Latin plumbum (lead, pencil), may be borrowed from Etruscan, Iberian or some other pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate language [source].

Some words from the same Latin root include plumb (truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line) in English, piombo (lead, grey, bullet) in Italian, plomb (lead, fuse, sinker) in French, and Plombe (seal, filling) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Mysterious Secrets

Today we’re looking at words for secret and mystery, and related words, in Celtic languages.

Secret words

Proto-Celtic *rūnā = secret, mystery, magic
Gaulish Cobrunus = personal name
Leptonic Runatis = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) rún [r͈uːn] = mystery, secret
rúnde [ˈr͈uːn͈de] = mysterious, mystical
Irish (Gaeilge) rún [ɾˠuːnˠ] = mystery, secret, intention, purpose, resolution, love, affection
rúnach = darling, sweetheart; runic, secret, mysterious
rúnaí = secretary, confidant, secretary-bird
rúnchara = confidant(e)
rúnda = mystical, mysterious, secret, confidential
rúndacht = secrecy
rúnmhar = close, secretive
rúnscríbhin = runic script, secret writing, cipher
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rùn [r̪ˠuːn] = secret, intention, design, resolution, motive, purpose, desire, love
rùnach = secretarial, mysterious, mystical, beloved, runic
rùnag = small secret, dearie, sweetie
rùnaire = secretary
rùinean = small secret, quietly
Manx (Gaelg) roon = confidence, obstinacy, viciousness, malice, spite, resentment, rune
roonagh = stubborn, secret, vindictive, perverse, malicious, malignant, vicious, ill intentioned, runic
Proto-Brythonic *rrin = mystery
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rin = mystery, charm
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhin [r̥iːn] = secret, mystery, miracle; privacy, intimacy, intercourse; enchanment, magic spell, charm, sorcery, witchcraft, rune; virtue, attribute, property, quality, essence; secret, private, mysterious, occult
rhin(i)af / rhin(i)o = to whisper, speak secretly, charm, enchant, secrete
rhiniwr = charmer, enchanter, sorcerer, magician
rhinaidd = obscure, profound, enchanting
rhinwedd = virtue, rectitude, moral excellence, nature, quality
cyfrin = mysterious, esoteric; mystic, mystery, secret.
cyfrinach = secret, mystery, deliberation
Cornish (Kernewek) rin = mystery
kevrin(ek) = secret
Middle Breton rin = secret, wisdom

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *rewHn-, from *rewH-/*rēwH- (to roar, grumble, murmur, mumble, whisper). The Proto-Germanic word *rūnō (secret, mystery, rune) and related words in modern Germanic languages, including rune in English and Dutch, and runa (rune) in Swedish, possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, or from the same PIE root [source].

Proto-Celtic *kowdo- = hidding place
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cud = concealment, covering, hidden
Welsh (Cymraeg) cudd [kɨð/kɪð] = concealment, hiding-place, secrecy, covering, veil; concealed, hidden, dark, hiding
cuddedig = hidden, concealed, unknown, covered,mysterious, secret, dark
cuddfa = hiding-place, retreat, hoard
cuddiad = a hiding, concealment, secret
cuddio = to hide, conceal, bury, cover
Cornish (Kernewek) kudh = concealed, hidden, secret
kevrin(ek) = secret
Middle Breton cuzaff = secret, confidential
Breton (Brezhoneg kuzh = secret, confidential
kuzh(iadell) / toull-kuzh = hiding place
kuzhat = to hide (oneself)
kuzhet = masked
kuzhadur = eclipse, blanking, concealment
kuzhuter = confidant(e)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kewdʰ- (to hide, cover, wrap) [source].

Proto-Celtic *sanestos = secret (advice), whisper, counsel, history
Old Irish (Goídelc) sana(i)s = advice, counsel, whisper, privacy
Irish (Gaeilge) sanas [ˈsˠanˠasˠ] = whisper, hint, suggestion, gloss, glossary
sanasaí = etymologist
sanasaíocht = etymology
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sanas [ˈsanəs] = notice, sign, signal, warning, hint, cue, whisper
sanasach = warning, hinting
Manx (Gaelg) sannish = whisper, hint, allusion, suggestion
sansheraght = to whisper, annunciate, speak under breath, whispering
Proto-Brythonic *hanes = history, secret
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hanes = history, secret
Welsh (Cymraeg) hanes [ˈhanɛs/ˈhanas] = history, chronicle, tale, account, narrative, record, report, intelligence; secret, mystery, whisper, murmur
hanesaf / hanesu = to narrate/write history
hanesydd = historian, historiographer, chronicler
Cornish (Kernewek) hanas = groan, murmur, sigh, whisper
hanasa = to groan, murmur, sigh, whisper

Etymology: unknown [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Bread

Words for bread and related words in Celtic languages.

Soda Bread

Proto-Celtic *ar(-akno)- = bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread, loaf of bread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread
Irish (Gaeilge) arán [əˈɾˠɑːn̪ˠ / ˈaɾˠanˠ] = bread
arán baile = home-baked bread
arán bán = white bread, baker’s bread
arán coirce = oatbread, oatcake
arán donn, arán rua = brown bread
arán prátaí = potato cake
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aran [aɾan] = bread, loaf; livelihood, sustenance
aran-coircearan-donn, aran ruadharan-eòrnaaran milisaran-seagail
Manx (Gaelg) arran = bread
arran Albinagh = shortbread
arran bainney = bread roll
arran bane = white bread
arran dhone, arran ruy = brown bread
arran greddan(it) = toast
arran shoggyl = rye bread

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *arankā- (grain) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bargo / *baragenā / *barginā = cake, bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) barigen [ˈˈbarʲ.ɣʲən] = bread, loaf of bread
Irish (Gaeilge) bairín = loaf
bairín breac = barmbreac
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bairghin = bread, cake
Manx (Gaelg) berreen = cake
Welsh (Cymraeg) bara [ˈbara / ˈbaːra] = bread, loaf, slice; food, meal, sustenance, livelihood
bara barlys = barley bread
bara beunyddiol = daily bread
bara brith = currant bread
bara byr = buscuit
bara ceirch = oat bread, oatcake
bara coch = brown bread, barley bread
bara drwg = bad bread, bad state, difficulties
bara gwyn = white bread
bara lawr = laverbread (made with edible seaweed)
bara poeth = gingerbread, hot bread
Old Cornish bara = bread
Cornish (Kernewek) bara = bread
bara byghan/bian = roll
bara gwaneth = wheaten bread
bara leun = wholemeal bread
bara sugal = rye bread
Breton (Brezhoneg) bara [ˈbɑː.ra] = bread
bara bis = brown bread
bara brazed = wholemeal bread
bara brizh = currant bread
bara gwenn = white bread
bara kras = toast

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰars- (spike, prickle). Words from the same root include the English barley, the Scots bere/beir (barley), the Swedish barr (pine/fir needle), the Icelandic barr (pine needle), the Old Norse barr (corn, grain, barley), and the Latin far (spelt, coarse meal, grits), and words for flour in Romance languages, such as farine in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

You can find the origins of the English words bread and loaf on Radio Omniglot.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Ants

Words for ant in Celtic languages.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sengán = ant
Irish (Gaeilge) seangán = ant
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seangan [ʃɛŋgan] = ant, mean fellow
Manx (Gaelg) sniengan = ant

Etymology: from the Middle Irish seng (narrow, thin, slender) and the suffix -án [source].

Proto-Celtic *morwis = ant
Old Irish (Goídelc) moirb [morʲvʲ] = ant
Welsh (Cymraeg) morgrug = ants
morgrugyn = ant
mor / mŷr / myrr = ant
myrion = ants
Old Cornish menƿionen = ant
Cornish (Kernewek) moryon = ants
moryonen = ant
mwrrian = ant
Old Breton moriuon = ant
Breton (Brezhoneg) merion = ants
merionenn = ant

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *morwi- (ant) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, MacBain’s Dictionary, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old-Irish Glossary, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Formica cf. rufibarbis

Dwellings

Words for dwelling / settlement / town in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *trebā = dwelling
Gaulish Atrebates = name of a tribe
Old Irish (Goídelc) treb = house, farm; household; tribe
Irish (Gaeilge) treibh [ˈtʲɾʲɛv] = house, homestead, farmstead; household, family; tribe, race
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = farming village
treubh [treːv] = tribe
Proto-Brythonic *treβ [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tref [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Welsh (Cymraeg) tre(f) [treːv] = town; town centre; dwelling(-place), habitation, residence, home; house (and surrounding land), homestead, farm, estate, cluster of houses; township; tribe
Cornish (Kernewek) trev [trɛ:v /tre:v] = farmsteads (singular: treven)
Old Breton treff = town, settlement
Breton (Brezhoneg) trev = town

Meni Bridge / Porthaethwy

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source].

This is also the root of the archaic English word thorp(e) (a group of houses standing together in the country; a hamlet; a village), which appears in place names such as Milnthorpe and Scunthorpe.

Related words in other languages include German Dorf (hamlet, village, town), Danish torp (village), Swedish torp (farm, cottage, croft), Icelandic þorp (village, farm), and Albanian trevë (country, region, village) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Woman / Wife

Words for woman / wife in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *benā = woman
Gaulish benā = woman, wife
Old Irish (Goídelc) ben [bʲen] = woman
Irish (Gaeilge) bean [bʲanˠ] = woman, wife
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bean [bɛn] = woman, wife
Manx (Gaelg) ben = woman, lady, wife
Proto-Brythonic *ben = woman
Old Welsh ben = woman
Welsh (Cymraeg) benyw = female, girl, woman, feminine
menyw = woman, female, feminine
Old Cornish benen = woman
Cornish (Kernewek) benyn [‘bɛnɪn / ‘bɛnən] = woman
Old Breton ban = woman
Breton (Brezhoneg) e-ben = woman

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *gʷḗn (woman) [source], which is also the root of the English words queen and gynecology, words for woman in some other Germanic languages, such as kvinna in Swedish, and words for woman / wife in Slavic languages, such as žena in Czech.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Proto-Celtic *wrakkā = woman
Old Irish (Goídelc) frac = woman
Proto-Brythonic *gwrėg [ˈɡwre̝ːɡ] = woman, (human) female, wife
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gureic, gwreic = wife, woman
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwraig [ɡuˈrai̯ɡ] = wife, woman, (human) female
Old Cornish greg, grueg = wife
Middle Cornish gurek = wife
Cornish (Kernewek) gwreg [gwrɛ:g / gwre:g] = wife
Middle Breton gruec = wife
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwreg [ˈɡwʁɛːk] = wife

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Proto-Celtic English Word List, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau