Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Flowing Slowly

Words for slow and related things in Celtic languages.

sloth

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *malnos/*mallo- = slow, lazy
Old Irish (Goídelc) mall [mal͈] = slow, tardy, late
utmall = unsteady, restless
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mall = slow, sluggish
mallaigid = to make slow, retard
maill, moill = tardiness, delay
maillech = slowly-moving, leisurely, gentle
admall = very slow, dilatory
immall = very slow, wearisome, sad, sluggish
utmall = unstable, fickle, restless
Irish (Gaeilge) mall [mˠɑul̪ˠ/mˠɑːl̪ˠ/mˠal̪ˠ] = slow, late
mallachar = slowness, dullness, dimness
mallacharach = slow, dim
mallaibh = of late, lately
udhmhall = unstable, restless, unceratin, nimble, quick
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mall [maul̪ˠ] = slow, deliberate, placid
mallan [mal̪ˠan] = sluggard, slowcoach
mallanach [mal̪ˠanəx] = slow, dilatory
Manx (Gaelg) moal = slow, sorry, tardy, unimpressive, backward, deliberate, dull, feeble, gradual, meagre

Etymology: possibly from PIE *mel- (to be late, hesitate) and *-nós (creates verbal adjectives) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) slaet = heap, layer, pile
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) slaet = a swathe, layer, pile, illness, disease
slaetach, slaebach = in layers, sweeping (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) slaod = swath, layer, flowing mass, prostration, stupefication, float, raft; to mow down, lay low, flow, drag, trail, trudge
slaodach = in swaths, in layers, flowing, prostrating, heavy, oppressive, viscous
slaodacht = viscosity
slaodaí = trudger, slowcoach, lazy-bones
slaodaíocht = trudging, slowness, laziness
slaodchiallach = slow-witted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slaod [sl̪ˠɯːd] = raft, float, sledge, tow, drag, sluggard, slowcoach
slaodach [sl̪ˠɯːdəx] = slow, sluggish, dilatory, dragging, pulling, awkward, clumsy
slaodachadh [sl̪ˠɯːdəxəɣ] = dragging, hauling, slowing down
slaodachd [sl̪ˠɯːdəxg] = slowness, drowsiness, awkwardness
Manx (Gaelg) sleayd = dredge, trail, sledge, trailer
sleaydagh = trailing
sleayder = lug, trailing

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *aramo- = quiet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) araf, arav [ˈarav] = slow, leisurely, calm, quiet
arafu = to be(come) or make slow, slow down
arafaidd, arauaidd = slow, gradual, mild, gentle
arafhau = to make or become quiet or calm,
Welsh (Cymraeg) araf [ˈarav] = slow, gradual, tedious, tiresome, mild, meek, gentle, tender
arafu = to be(come) or make slow, slow down, retard
arafaidd = slow, gradual, mild, gentle, lovely, pleasant
arafedd = slowness, gentleness, tenderness
arafhau = to make or become quiet or calm, ease, abate, moderate
arafol = slow, gradual, slowing, delaying

Etymology: from PIE *h₁r̥h₃-mo-, from *h₁reh₃- (rest). Words from the same roots include Ruhe (calm, quietness, rest) in German, ro (calmness) in Danish, ro (peace, quiet, tranquility) in Swedish, and unruly in English [source].

Proto-Brythonic *segʉr = idle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) segur = idle
segyra, segura, seguru, segvro = to (be) idle
segyrllyt, segurllyd = idle, lazy, sluggish, slothful
Welsh (Cymraeg) segur [ˈsɛɡɨ̞r / ˈseːɡɪr] = idle, unoccupied, inactive, lazy, slothful, disused, idle
seguro = to (be) idle, laze, linger, lounge around, rest
segurdod = idleness, laziness
segurllyd = idle, lazy, sluggish, slothful
segurwr = idler, lazy person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) sigyr, zigyr = sluggish, lazy
Cornish (Kernewek) syger = idle, lazy, lethargic, slow
sygera = to seep, trickle
sygerans = seep(age)
sygerneth = idleness, laziness, lethargy
sygerus = at leisure, leisurely

Etymology: from Latin sēcūrus (careless, carefree, negligent, safe, secure), from sē- (without) and‎ cūra (care). Words from the same root include secure and sure in English, sicuru (safe, secure, sure) in Italian, seguro (secure, safe, sure) in Spanish and säker (safe, secure, sure, certain) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *uɸostatos = stable
Old Irish (Goídelc) fossad = firm, steady
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fossad, fossud = stationary, fixed, firm, steady, steadfast, consistent, flat surface, level place, stopping-place, abode
Irish (Gaeilge) fosadh = stop, stay, rest, stable position, steadiness, stability
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fosadh [fɔsəɣ] = cessation, desisting, recess, respite, (act of) abiding
Proto-Brythonic *gwostad = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwastat, guastat = flat, level, smooth
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwastad [ˈɡwastad] = flat, level, smooth, even, horizontal, continual, constant, quiet, peaceful, gentle, plain, level
Cornish (Kernewek) gwastas = flat, open, plain, smooth
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goustat, goustadic, goustadec, goustadic = gently, slowly
Breton (Brezhoneg) gou(e)stad = slow, slowly
doustadik = slow, slowly

Etymology: unknown [source].

Another word for slow in Cornish is lent, and lenthe means to slow down. This is possibly from (Old) French lent (slow), or from Latin lentus (sticky, slow, flexible).

In Middle Cornish the word hel means slow or tardy, and cosel/kozal means soft, quiet, slow or sluggish, which became kosel (calm, quiet, restful, still, tranquil) in revived Cornish.

Another Proto-Celtic word for slow is *dwāyo-. This became doé / doe (slow, sluggish) in Old Irish and Middle Irish, but has no descendents I can find in the modern Celtic languages.

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Booths

Words for booths, huts and related things in Celtic languages:

Bothy

Proto-Celtic *butā = place, dwelling, hut
Old Irish (Goídelc) both [boθ] = hut, cabin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) both = hut, bothy, cot, cabin
bothach = full of huts/hovels, hovel-like; crofter
bothán = little hut, cabin, cottage
Irish (Gaeilge) both [bˠɔ(h)/bˠoh]= booth, hut
bothach = hutted, full of huts
bothán = shanty, cabin, hut, shed, coop
bothánach = given to visiting and gossiping
bothánaí = a frequenter of neighbours’ houses
bothánaíocht = (act of) visiting houses for pastime or gossip
bothóg = shanty, cabin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bothan [bɔhan] = cottage, hut, bothy, hovel, shed
bothag [bɔhag] = bothy, small hut, hovel, playhouse
bùth [buː] = shop, booth
bùthan [buː.an] = small booth, small bothy, tent
bùthach [buː.əx] = pertaining to or abounding in shops/booths
bùthanach [buː.anəx] = one who dwells in a small bothy or tent, tent-dweller
Manx (Gaelg) bwaane = booth, cottage, hovel, hut, kiosk, outhouse, shack, shanty, shed
bwaag = booth, bower, cabin, lodge, hut, pavilion, shed
booage = booth, tent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bod, bot, bôd = permanent home, dwelling place, residence, abode
bwth = cabin, booth, cottage
Welsh (Cymraeg) bod = permanent home, dwelling place, residence, abode
bwd = booth, cottage, cabin
bwth = cabin, booth, cottage, shed, hut, outhouse, shack
bwthyn = booth, cot, cottage, hut
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bod, bos, bo- = a dwelling house (found in place names)
bôth = hut, booth
bothoc = hut, cottage
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bôt, bod = residence, refuge, asylum
Breton (Brezhoneg) bod = cottage, dwelling

Etymology: the Proto-Celtic word *butā might come from an unknown language, or from the same PIE root as booth [source].

Etymology (Scottish Gaelic bùth and Welsh bwth): from the Middle English bothe (a store, kiosk, booth, shack, cabin), from the Old Norse búð (booth, shop), from the Proto-Germanic *bōþō/*bōþǭ (buidling, dwelling), from the PIE *bʰuH- (to become, grow, appear) [source].

Words from the same roots include búð (shop, tent, pavilion) in Icelandic, bothy (a primitive dwelling or shelter) in Scots, booth in English, Bude (booth, stall, kiosk, shack, hut) and Baude (mountain hut or inn) in German, bouda (hut, shack, lodge, cabin, booth, stall) in Czech, and bod (shed, shack, shop) in Swedish [source].

Incidentally, the German word Baude comes from Silesian German, from the Czech bouda, from the Old Czech būda, from Middle High German buode, from the Proto-Germanic *bōþō/*bōþǭ [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Magic and Spells

Today we’re looking at words for magic, spells and related things in Celtic languages.

Witch

Proto-Celtic *brixtā = spell, magical formula, incantation
Celtiberian *bruxtia
Gaulish brixtia
Old Irish (Goídelc) bricht = charm, spell, incantation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bricht = incanation, charm, magic spell
Irish (Gaeilge) briocht = charm, spell, amulet
briocht sí = fairy charm
briocht a chanadh = to chant a spell
briocht draíochta = magic spell
Proto-Brythonic *briθ [ˈbriːθ] = charm, incantation
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleturith, lledrith, ledryth = magic, spell, charm, enchantment
llethrithawc, lledrithyawc, lleturithawc = magic, magical, enchanted
Welsh (Cymraeg) lledrith, lledfrith = magic, spell, charm, enchantment; apparition, spectre, phantom; illusion, delusion, fantasy, imagination
lledrithaid = pretence, dissembling, deception
lledrithiaf, lledrithio = to counterfeit, fake, pretend, simulate
lledrithiog = magic, magical, enchanted
Old Breton brith = charm, incantation (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰerHǵ- (enlighten). Words that probably come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Celtiberian *bruxtia, include bruja (witch, crone, hag, owl) in Spanish, bruxa (witch, hex) in Galician, bruxa (witch) in Portuguese, and bruixa (witch) in Catalan [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) dríocht [ˈd̪ˠɾˠihaxt̪ˠə] = druidic art, druidism, witchcraft, magic, charm, enchantment
draíochtach = magical, bewitching, entrancing
draíochtúil = magic, magical
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) draoidheachd [drɯjəxg] = magic, socery, druidism
eun-draoidheachd = augury
slat-draoidheachd = magic wand/td>
Manx (Gaelg) druaight = charm, druid
druaightagh = charmer, charming, druid, magician, occult
druaightys = charming, druid, druidism, magic
fo druaight = charmed
Welsh (Cymraeg) derwyddiaeth [dɛrˈwəðjaɨ̯θ/dɛrˈwəðjai̯θ] = druidism, the druid cult
Cornish (Kerneweg) drewydhieth = druidism
Breton (Brezhoneg) drouizelezh / drouiziezh = druidism

Etymology: these words come from the same roots as words for druid.

Proto-Celtic *soitos. *soyto- = magic
Proto-Brythonic *hʉd = magic, charm
hʉdol = charming, illusory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hut, hud = magic, wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft
hûdadwy, hydadwy = persuasive, enticing, seducible
Welsh (Cymraeg) hud [hɨːd/hiːd] = magic, wizardry, sorcery, witchcraft, spell, enchantment, charm, fascination, allurement, persuasion
hudadwy = persuasive, enticing, seducible
hudaf, hudo = to fashion or produce by magic, conjure, cast a spell upon, enchant, charm, entice, allure, persuade, seduce, beguile
hudaidd = alluring, charming, seductive
hudol = charming, enchanting, enticing, alluring, illusory, deceptive, deceitful
Old Cornish hudol = charming, illusory
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) huder = a deceiver, hypocritic, juggler, sorcerer
hudol = sorcerer
Cornish (Kerneweg) hus = charm, enchantment, illusion, magic, sorcery, spell
husa = to charm, create an illusion, enchant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hud = magic
hudek, hudel = magic, magical
hudiñ = to charm, enchant, bewitch, delight
hudour = magician, wizard
hudouriezh = magic
Breton (Brezhoneg) hud = magic
hudek = magic, magical
hudour = magician, wizard

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-Etymology *sh₂oy-tó-s (magic), from *sh₂ey (to bind, fetter) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include seiður (magic, witchcraft, sorcery) in Icelandic, sejd (sorcery, witchcraft, magic potion) in Swedish, and seid (magic) in Norwegian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Lead (Metal)

Today we’re looking at the words for lead (metal) and related things in Celtic languages.

Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Wales.
Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Ceredigion, Cymru

Proto-Celtic *ɸloudom = lead (metal)
Gaulish *laudon = lead (metal)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lúaide = lead (metal)
Irish (Gaeilge) luaidhe [ˈl̪ˠuːiː] = lead (metal), (sounding-) lead, plummet, (fishing) sinker
luaidhiúil = lead-like, leaden
luaidhnimh = lead-poisoning
peann luaidhe = pencil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luaidhe [l̪ˠuəjə] = lead (metal), leaden
luaidheach = leaden
peann-luaidhe = pencil
Manx (Gaelg) leoaie = lead (metal), leaden, sounding lead
penn leoaie = pencil

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plewd- (to fly, flow, run), from *plew- (to fly, flow, run), from the Proto-West Germanic *laud [source].

Some words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood and pneumonia in English, vlieten (to flow) in Dutch, fließen (to flow) in German, flyte (to float, flow) in Swedish [source].

The English word lead comes from the Middle English le(e)d (lead) from the Old English lēad (lead) from the Proto-West-Germanic *laud (lead), from the Gaulish *laudon (lead) [source], and words for lead in other Germanic language languages come from the same root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *plum = lead (metal)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pluum, plwm = lead (metal)
Welsh (Cymraeg) plwm [plʊm] = lead (metal); mass or ball of lead, plumb, plummet, straight(ness), vertical(ness)
plymaidd = leaden, lead-like, heavy, oppressive, worthless
plymen = lead weight, plummet, sheet, of lead
plymio = to sound (for depth), fathom, dive, plunge, plummet; to cover or solder with lead, line (pottery) with lead, glaze
plymwr = plumber, dealer/worker in lead, plunger, diver
plymliw = lead-coloured, blackish-blue, greyish blue, pale blue
Cornish (Kernewek) plomm, plobm = lead (metal)
plommer = plumber
plommwedhek = vertical
pyncel plomm = pencil
Breton (Brezhoneg) plom = lead (metal)
plomek = lead(en)
plomer = plumber
plomerezh = plumbing

Etymology: from the Latin plumbum (lead, pencil), may be borrowed from Etruscan, Iberian or some other pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate language [source].

Some words from the same Latin root include plumb (truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line) in English, piombo (lead, grey, bullet) in Italian, plomb (lead, fuse, sinker) in French, and Plombe (seal, filling) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Mysterious Secrets

In this post we’re looking at words for secret and mystery, and related words, in Celtic languages.

Secret words

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *rūnā = secret, mystery, magic
Gaulish Cobrunus = personal name
Leptonic Runatis = personal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) rún [r͈uːn] = mystery, secret
rúnde [ˈr͈uːn͈de] = mysterious, mystical
Irish (Gaeilge) rún [ɾˠuːnˠ] = mystery, secret, intention, purpose, resolution, love, affection
rúnach = darling, sweetheart; runic, secret, mysterious
rúnaí = secretary, confidant, secretary-bird
rúnchara = confidant(e)
rúnda = mystical, mysterious, secret, confidential
rúndacht = secrecy
rúnmhar = close, secretive
rúnscríbhin = runic script, secret writing, cipher
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rùn [r̪ˠuːn] = secret, intention, design, resolution, motive, purpose, desire, love
rùnach = secretarial, mysterious, mystical, beloved, runic
rùnag = small secret, dearie, sweetie
rùnaire = secretary
rùinean = small secret, quietly
Manx (Gaelg) roon = confidence, obstinacy, viciousness, malice, spite, resentment, rune
roonagh = stubborn, secret, vindictive, perverse, malicious, malignant, vicious, ill intentioned, runic
Proto-Brythonic *rrin = mystery
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rin = mystery, charm
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhin [r̥iːn] = secret, mystery, miracle; privacy, intimacy, intercourse; enchanment, magic spell, charm, sorcery, witchcraft, rune; virtue, attribute, property, quality, essence; secret, private, mysterious, occult
rhin(i)af / rhin(i)o = to whisper, speak secretly, charm, enchant, secrete
rhiniwr = charmer, enchanter, sorcerer, magician
rhinaidd = obscure, profound, enchanting
rhinwedd = virtue, rectitude, moral excellence, nature, quality
cyfrin = mysterious, esoteric; mystic, mystery, secret.
cyfrinach = secret, mystery, deliberation
Cornish (Kernewek) rin = mystery
kevrin(ek) = secret
Middle Breton rin = secret, wisdom

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *rewHn-, from *rewH-/*rēwH- (to roar, grumble, murmur, mumble, whisper). The Proto-Germanic word *rūnō (secret, mystery, rune) and related words in modern Germanic languages, including rune in English and Dutch, and runa (rune) in Swedish, possibly come from the same Proto-Celtic root, or from the same PIE root [source].

Proto-Celtic *kowdo- = hiding place, concealment
*koudeti = hide
Proto-Brythonic *kʉðɨd = to hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cud = concealment, covering, hidden
Welsh (Cymraeg) cudd [kɨð/kɪð] = concealment, hiding-place, secrecy, covering, veil; concealed, hidden, dark, hiding
cuddedig = hidden, concealed, unknown, covered,mysterious, secret, dark
cuddfa = hiding-place, retreat, hoard
cuddiad = a hiding, concealment, secret
cuddio = to hide, conceal, bury, cover
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) cudhe, cidha, citha, cudhb = to hide, conceal, cover
cudhygyc = one that conceals himself, bashful, ashamed
Cornish (Kernewek) kudh = concealed, hidden, secret
kudha (rag) = to conceal, hide (from)
kudhlen = cover, veil
kudhoberys = underhand
kudhva = hideout, lair
kudhys = veiled
Middle Breton cuzaff = secret, confidential
Breton (Brezhoneg kuzh = secret, confidential
kuzh(iadell) / toull-kuzh = hiding place
kuzhat = to hide (oneself)
kuzhet = masked
kuzhadur = eclipse, blanking, concealment
kuzhuter = confidant(e)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kewdʰ- from *(s)kewH- (to hide, cover, wrap). Words from the same roots include custodian, hide, house, hut and sky in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *sanestos = secret (advice), whisper, counsel, history
Old Irish (Goídelc) sana(i)s = advice, counsel, whisper, privacy
Irish (Gaeilge) sanas [ˈsˠanˠasˠ] = whisper, hint, suggestion, gloss, glossary
sanasaí = etymologist
sanasaíocht = etymology
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sanas [ˈsanəs] = notice, sign, signal, warning, hint, cue, whisper
sanasach = warning, hinting
Manx (Gaelg) sannish = whisper, hint, allusion, suggestion
sansheraght = to whisper, annunciate, speak under breath, whispering
Proto-Brythonic *hanes = history, secret
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hanes = history, secret
Welsh (Cymraeg) hanes [ˈhanɛs/ˈhanas] = history, chronicle, tale, account, narrative, record, report, intelligence; secret, mystery, whisper, murmur
hanesaf / hanesu = to narrate/write history
hanesydd = historian, historiographer, chronicler

Etymology: unknown [source].

Blubrry podcast hosting

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Bread

Words for bread and related words in Celtic languages.

Soda Bread

Proto-Celtic *ar(-akno)- = bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread, loaf of bread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread
Irish (Gaeilge) arán [əˈɾˠɑːn̪ˠ / ˈaɾˠanˠ] = bread
arán baile = home-baked bread
arán bán = white bread, baker’s bread
arán coirce = oatbread, oatcake
arán donn, arán rua = brown bread
arán prátaí = potato cake
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aran [aɾan] = bread, loaf; livelihood, sustenance
aran-coircearan-donn, aran ruadharan-eòrnaaran milisaran-seagail
Manx (Gaelg) arran = bread
arran Albinagh = shortbread
arran bainney = bread roll
arran bane = white bread
arran dhone, arran ruy = brown bread
arran greddan(it) = toast
arran shoggyl = rye bread

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *arankā- (grain) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bargo / *baragenā / *barginā = cake, bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) barigen [ˈˈbarʲ.ɣʲən] = bread, loaf of bread
Irish (Gaeilge) bairín = loaf
bairín breac = barmbreac
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bairghin = bread, cake
Manx (Gaelg) berreen = cake
Welsh (Cymraeg) bara [ˈbara / ˈbaːra] = bread, loaf, slice; food, meal, sustenance, livelihood
bara barlys = barley bread
bara beunyddiol = daily bread
bara brith = currant bread
bara byr = buscuit
bara ceirch = oat bread, oatcake
bara coch = brown bread, barley bread
bara drwg = bad bread, bad state, difficulties
bara gwyn = white bread
bara lawr = laverbread (made with edible seaweed)
bara poeth = gingerbread, hot bread
Old Cornish bara = bread
Cornish (Kernewek) bara = bread
bara byghan/bian = roll
bara gwaneth = wheaten bread
bara leun = wholemeal bread
bara sugal = rye bread
Breton (Brezhoneg) bara [ˈbɑː.ra] = bread
bara bis = brown bread
bara brazed = wholemeal bread
bara brizh = currant bread
bara gwenn = white bread
bara kras = toast

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰars- (spike, prickle). Words from the same root include the English barley, the Scots bere/beir (barley), the Swedish barr (pine/fir needle), the Icelandic barr (pine needle), the Old Norse barr (corn, grain, barley), and the Latin far (spelt, coarse meal, grits), and words for flour in Romance languages, such as farine in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

You can find the origins of the English words bread and loaf on Radio Omniglot.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis