Deceitful Errors

Words for to error, deceit and related things in Celtic languages.

Deceitful Errors

Proto-Celtic *welsos = error, deceit
*wolsos = something wrong
Gaulish uolson = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fell = deceit, treachery
fellaid = to act deceitfully
faill = neglect
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fell = deceit, treachery
felle = treachery
felmaíne = deceitful riches
faill, fall = neglect, negligence
Irish (Gaeilge) feall [fʲɑːl̪ˠ/fʲal̪ˠ] = deceit, treachery, let-down, failure; to prove false to, betray, fail
fealladh = deception, betrayal, failure.
feallaire = deceiver, betrayer
feallaireacht = deception, betrayal
fealltach = deceitful, treacherous
fealltacht = deceitfulness, treachery
feallatóir = betrayer, traitor
feallatóireacht = betraying, treachery
faill = negligence, omission, chance, opportunity, time, occasion, cessation, easement
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feall [fjaul̪ˠ] = treachery, conspiracy, trickery, deceit, falsehood
feallachadh [fjal̪ˠəɣ] = deceiving, deceit, deception
feallag [fjal̪ˠag] = trick
feallsach [fjaul̪ˠsəx] = mendacious, false, mock, pseudo
feallsachd [fjaul̪ˠsəxg] = mendacity, deceit
fealltach [fjaul̪ˠdəx] = fraudulent, traitorous
fealltair [fjaul̪ˠdɪrʲ] = deceiver, traitor
Manx (Gaelg) foall = deceit, felony, murder, slyness
foalsaght = deceit(fulness), fallacy, falseness, hollowness, hypocrisy
foalsey = affected, bogus, counterfeit, fallacious
foalsid = affectation, deceitfulness, falseness, fictitiousness, perfidiousness, untruth
foalserey = deceiver, hypocrite, sycophant
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) guall, gvall, gwall = mistake, error, oversight, fault
gwallawc, gwallawg = negligent, careless, loose, faulty, defective
guallus, gwalus, gwallus = negligent, careless, heedless, slack, remiss
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwall [ɡwaɬ/ɡwa(ː)ɬ] = mistake, error, oversight, fault, wrong, deceit, lie, defect, negligence, faulty, evil, deficient
gwallgof = madness, insanity, delirium, mad, insane
gwallgofaf, gwallgofi = to go mad, become insane, be frenzied or frantic
gwallog = negligent, careless, loose, faulty, defective
gwallus [ˈɡwaɬɨ̞s/ˈɡwaɬɪs] = negligent, careless, heedless, slack, remiss
Cornish (Kernewek) gwall = accident, defect, neglect
gwallus = accidental
gwaluster = casualty
Old Breton guoael = bad, wrong
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goall, goual, goal, gual(l) = bad, wrong
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwall [gwal] = bad, wrong, nasty, naughty
gwallus = harmful
gwallvrudañ = to defame
gwallvruder = slanderer
gwallvruderezh = deffamation, slandering
gwallwir = concussion
gwalladenn = rape

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(h₁)welh₁(bʰ)-,, from *wel- (to deceive) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Facing Opposition

Words for face and related things in Celtic languages.

Mr. Funny Face

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gnūstis = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) gnúis [ɡnuːsʲ] = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gnúis = face, countenance, disc (of sun or moon), aspect, kind, form, species
dognúisach = ill-featured, ill-favoured
Irish (Gaeilge) gnúis [ɡn̪ˠuːʃ/ɡɾˠuːʃ] = face, mien, countenance, sour expression, frown, aspect, kind, form
gnúiseach = well-favoured, good-looking.
gnúiseachán = sour-faced person.
gnúisgheal = bright-faced
gnúis-searbh = sour-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnùis [gruːʃ] = face, countenance, visage
gnùis-dhreach = aspect
gnùis-bhrat = veil
samhla-gnùis = smiley ☺️, emoticon
maise-gnùis = cosmetics
ruadhadh-gnùis = blush
Manx (Gaelg) grooish = countenance, visage, aspect
grooish-volley = deceit, deceive
geyre-ghrooishagh = sharp-faced
sharroo-ghrooishagh = vinegar-faced
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gnis = jaw, chin, countenance, face
Welsh (Cymraeg) gnis [miːl] = jaw, chin, countenance, face
gnisiaf, gnisio = to low, neigh, sigh, pant, groan, grumble
Cornish (Kernewek) greuv = face, front

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵneh₃- (to recognise, know) [source]. Words from the same roots include cognition, cunning, gnome, ignorant, know, noble and uncouth in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *enekʷos = face
Old Irish (Goídelc) enech = face, honour, reputation
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) enech, ainech = face, front, opposite, against, in opposition to
enechgris = face-flushing
enechlóg = honour-price
Irish (Gaeilge) oineach = honour, good name, reputation, generosity, hospitality, bounty, favour
oineachúil = generous, good-natured
eineach = face (literary)
eineachlann = ‘honour-price’, proportionate compensation, satisfaction for injury, etc
eineachras = safeguard, protection
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eanach [ɛnəx] = honour, praise
Proto-Brythonic *ėnib = face
Old Welsh enep = face
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wynep, wyneb, vynep = face
wynebiat, wnepiat, wynepiat = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion, wynebyon = surface, scum, froth,
Welsh (Cymraeg) wyneb [ˈwɨnɛb / ˈwɨnab] = face, countenance, expression, grimace, surface, area, front, side, honour, respect, status, effrontery, impudence, audacity, cheek
wynebaf, wynebu = to face, look towards, confront, oppose, encourage, support
(g)wynebiad = surace, facing, behaviour, aspect
wynebion = surface, scum, froth, head (of beer), cream
(g)wynebol = honourable, worthy, facial, front, facing, promising, favourable, handsome, beautiful
Old Cornish eneb = face
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) enep, enap = face, countenance, page (of a book)
Cornish (Kernewek) enep = face, surface
enebi = to face, oppose
enebieth = opposition
Old Breton enep = face
Middle Breton (Brezonec) enep = face, resistance, opposition, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) eneb [ˈẽːnep] = face, opposite, honour
enebenn [e.ˈneː.bɛn] = upper, front, page
eneberezh = opposition
enebiñ = to oppose

Etymology: from the PIE *h₁enih₃kʷos (face), from animālis (animate, living), from *h₁én (in) and *h₃ókʷs (eye), and okno (window) in Czech [source].

Words from the same roots include eye in English, acs (eye, vision, attention) in Latvian, akis (eye, loop) in Lithuanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *antonos = forehead
Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) étan, édan = front, brow, forehead
étanán = frontlet
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠən̪ˠ/ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, flat surface, facet, table, end
éadána = timid, diffident
éadánacht = timidity, diffidence
éadanchlár = fascia
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial, side
aodannach [ɯːdən̪ˠəx] = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-coimheach = mask
aodann creige = rockface, cliff-face
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = face, facade, feature, front, apron, dial, impudence, cheek
eddinagh = facial

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (face, forehead, front). Words from the same roots include answer, end in English, and anë (side, edge, verge, brink) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) agad [ˈaɣəð] = face, honour, surface
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) agad, aiged = face, countenance, surface, front
Irish (Gaeilge) aghaidh [əiɟ/ai/əi̯] = face, front, aspect, dial (of clock), obverse (of coin)
aghaidhbhéasach = civil-looking
aghaidh-dhána = bold-faced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aghaidh [ɤː.ɪ] = face, visage, facade, front, facing, cheek, impudence, nerve
aghaidheachd [ɤː.ɪjəxg] = resistance
aghaidhich = oppose, face, confront, affront
aghaidhichte = opposed, opposing, fronting, facing, confronted
Manx (Gaelg) oai = countenance
oaie = dial, exposure, facade, face, facial, front, frontage
oaieagh = blasphemous, sepulchral

Etymology: uncertain, possibly related to the Old Irish aigid (to drive), from Proto-Celtic *ageti (to drive), from Proto-Indo-European *h₂éǵeti (to be driving) [source].

Proto-Celtic *drikā = face, front
*ɸaredrikā = face, front
Old Irish (Goídelc) drech = face
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) drech, dreach = face, countenance, front, surface
drechach = fair, comely, graceful, shapely
Irish (Gaeilge) dreach [dʲɾʲax] = facial appearance, look, expression, aspect, face, surface
dreachadh =delineation, portrayal, make-up
dreachadóir = delineator
dreachúil = good-looking, comely
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dreach [drɛx] = figure, form, shape, appearance, complexion
dreachmhor [drɛxvər] = comely, handsome, a healthy complexion
dreachadh [drɛxəɣ] = portraying, shaping, adorning
dreachail [drɛxal] = handsome, personable
dreachalachd [drɛxəl̪ˠəxg] = handsomeness
Manx (Gaelg) dreagh = expression
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyrch = face
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrich, edrych = to look, view, observe
Welsh (Cymraeg) drych [drɨːχ / driːχ] = mirror, looking-glass, reflection, example, magnifying-glass, glasses, countenance, appearance, aspect
drachaf, drychu = to mirror, see, make apparent
drychiolaeth = apparition, ghost, spectre, phantom
edrych = regard, appearance
edrych(af) = to look, view, observe, watch, search
Middle Breton (Brezonec) derch = shape, aspect, appearance

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dr̥ḱ-eh₂ from *derḱ- (to see) [source]. Words from the same roots include dragon, drake and tarragon in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Size & Quantity

Words for size, amount, quantity and related things in Celtic languages.

Size & Quantity

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mantī = size, quantity
Old Irish (Goídelc) méit [mʲeːdʲ] = amount, extent, greatness, quantity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) méit, mét = greatness, magnitude
méite, méte, méide = size, amount, extent
Irish (Gaeilge) méid [mʲeːdʲ] = amount, quantity, extent, degree, number; size, magnitude
ainmhéid = hugeness, overgrowth
cóimhéid = equal size or amount
gearrmhéid = fair size
gháthmhéid = ordinary, average, size
lánmhéid = full size
meánmhéid = medium size
ollméid = great, size, hugeness, immensity
méadaigh = to increase, multiply, enlarge, augment
méadail = paunch, stomach
méadaíocht = grown state, increase, growth, self-importance, friendship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) meud [miad] = size, largeness, amount, quantity, dimension
meudmhor = ample, sizeable
meudachd = dimension, bulk, greatness, magnitude, size, scale
meudachadh = increasing, expanding, augmenting
meudaichte = increased, expanded, augmented
làn-mheud = full size
mòr-mheud = great size
ro-mheud = excessive size / amount
Manx (Gaelg) mooad = amount, quantity
mooadys = amount, amplitude, augmentation, capacity, dimension
mooadagh = bulky, expansionist, large, sizeable
mooadaghey = aggravation, amplify, augment, develop, developing, enlarge
mooad-vaghteyr = quantity surveyor
Proto-Brythonic *mėnt = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) meint, meynt, mint = size, stature, amount
kymeint, kemeint, cymain = as great, as large, as big
meintholy, meynholy, meintoli = to specify an amount, measure
Welsh (Cymraeg) maint [mai̯nt] = size, dimension, magnitude, stature, amount, sum, number, quantity, the whole, all, as many, such
maintiol(i)aeth = size, dimension, measure, quantity
cymaint = as great, as large, as big, as many, as much
(pa) faint? = how many? how many?
meintiol = quantitative
mein(ti)olaf, meint(i)oli = to specify an amount, measure, quantify, value
meint(i)oliad = quantification
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mens, mŷns = magnitude, greatness, quantity
Cornish (Kernewek) myns, mens = amount, quantity, as many as
mynsek, mensek = considerable, sizeable
mynsonieth, mensonieth = geometry
Old Breton ment, mint =
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ment, mænt, men = size, dimension
Breton (Brezhoneg) ment [ˈmɛnt/ˈmẽnt] = size, dimension, measure, format
mentad = measure
mentadañ = to measure, format
mentadur = quantification
mentel [ˈmẽntɛl] = dimensional, quantitative

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *mh₁-nt-, from *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include immense, meal, measure, meter / metre, metronome and probably moon and month in English, vermaren (to make famous) and maal (meal, time, turn) in Dutch, and mærð (flattery, praise) in Icelandic [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

With and Without

Words for with, without, by and related things in Celtic languages.

Gaelic Song Class 2023

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

The emphatic forms of this word combined with personal pronouns are shown after the /.

Proto-Celtic *letos = side
Old Irish (Goídelc) la [la] = with, beside, by, belonging to, among; in the language of, in the opinion of
lem(m), lim(m), leim, lium(m) / lemsa, li(u)msa = with me
lat(t) / latso, latsu = with you (sg)
leiss, les(s), lais(s), letha / le(i)som, laisem = with him
l(a)ee, lǽ / lési = with her
li(u)nn, le(i)nn, linn(a)i = with us
lib / libsi = with you (pl)
leu, léu leo, lethu / leusom, leosom = with them
lam = with my
lat = with your (sg)
lia = with his/hers/its/their
liar = with our
lassa = with, which
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) la = beside, by, touching, along with, in the same direction as, following to course of, in the company of
lem(m), lim(m), lium = with me
lat(t), let = with you (sg)
leiss, less, les = with him
lee, laee, lea = with her
lenn, leinn, linn = with us
lib = with you (pl)
leu, leo = with them
Irish (Gaeilge) le [lʲɛ] = with, to, for, by, against, in proximity to, in contact with, beside, towards, facing, open to, along the face of, in company with, at, against
liom / liomsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leis-sean = with him
léi / léise = with her
linn / linne = with us
libh / libhse = with you (pl)
leo / leosan = with them
le mo, lem = with my
le do, led = with your (sg)
lena = with his/hers/its
lenár = with our
lena = with their
le haghaidh = for, near, in store for
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) le [le] = with, by, using, in possession of, in favour of, downhill, downstream, lee(ward), port(side)
leam / leamsa = with me
leat / leatsa = with you (sg)
leis / leissan = with him
leatha / leathase = with her
leinn / leinne = with us
leibh / libhse = with you (pl/frm)
leotha / leothasan = with them
Manx (Gaelg) lesh [lɛʃ] = for, with, toward
lhiam / lhiams = with me
lhiat / lhiats = with you (sg)
lesh / leshsyn = with him
lhee / lheeish = with her
lhien / lhienyn = with us
lhiu / lhiuish = with you (pl)
lhieu / lhieusyn = with them

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *letos (side), which is possibly related to *ɸletos (side) [source].

Words for half, side, wide, broad and related things in Celtic languages possibly come from the same roots [more details].

Proto-Celtic *writu = against
*writbero = to come against, return
*writkomfarsko- = to ask
*writtongo = to renounce
Old Irish (Goídelc) fri [fʲrʲi] = towards, against, along, beside, close to, on the point of
frimm, frium(m) / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friut(t) / fritso, fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom, frissium = against him
frie = against her
frinn / finn(a)i = against us
frib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fri = towards, facing, turned to, against, alongside, by, next to, at, in contact with
frim(m), frium / fri(u)msa = against me
frit(t), friutt / fritsu = against you (sg)
fris(s) / frissom = against him
frie, friae / frise = against her
fri(u)nn, frind / finn(a)i = against us
frib, frithib / fribsi = against you (pl)
friu / friusom = against them
Irish (Gaeilge) re [rˠeː] = with, to, for, by, against (archaic, le is used instead)
fara [ˈfˠaɾˠə] = along, with, beside, in addition to (rare, used in Munster)
frae, fré [fˠɾˠeː] = with, along with (used in Connacht)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ri [rʲi] = against, busy with, engaged in, to, than
ruim/ ruimsa = against me
ruit / riutsa = against you (sg)
ris / ris-san = against him
rithe / rithese = against her
rinn / rinne = against us
ribh / ribhse = against you (pl)
riutha / riuthasan = against them
Manx (Gaelg) rish [rɪʃ] = along, beside, by, during, for
rhym / rhyms = to me
rhyt / rhyts = to you (sg)
rish / rishyn = to him
r’ee / r’eeish = to her
rooin / rooinyn = to us
riu / riuish = to you (pl)
roo / roosyn = to them
Old Welsh gurth = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) wrth, vrth, Ỽrth = by, at, near
Welsh (Cymraeg) (g)wrth [(g)ʊrθ / (g)ʊθ] = by, at, near, close to, opposite, facing, in contact with, on, against, also, with, beside, because of, as a result of, about, concerning
wrth angen = according to need, as necessary
wrth angor = at anchor
wrth fron = near, close to, at the point of, almost
wrth law, wrth y llaw = nearby, at hand, by hand
wrth fynd heibio = in passing (of comment)
wrth ben = on top of, above, over
Old Cornish gurth = by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) (w)orth = at, by, to, for, with
(w)orthyf of/from/to/against me
(w)orthys = of/from/to/against thee
(w)orto = by/upon him or it
(w)orty = by/upon her or it
(w)orthyn = of/from/to/against us
(w)ortheuch = of/from/to you
orte, worté = by/upon them
Cornish (Kernewek) orth = against, at
orth ow brys = in my opinion
orth bodh ow brys = intentionally
orth niver = in number
Middle Breton (Brezonec) oz, ouz, ouc’h, oud = against, to, of, opposite
Breton (Brezhoneg) ouzh [us] = towards, to, against
ouzh beg = below, at the bottom (of)
diouzh [ˈdiːus/ˈdjuːs] = of, according to
diouzh re = in case of need, if necessary
diouzhtu [djusˈtyː] = immediately

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wert- (to turn) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include divert, invert, pervert, verse, verus, vortex and worth [source].

Proto-Celtic *kanta = together with
*kantyos = assembly, gathering
Gaulish *kantyos = assembly, gathering
cantio = assembly, gathering
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét- = with
céite = assembly, hill, mound
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cét- = with
céite = hill, mound, open space, racecourse, meeting-place, assembly, square, market-place
Old Welsh cant = by, at, near
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) can, cann, gen, gant, gan = with, together with
genhyf = with me
genhyt = with thee
gant(h)aw = with him or it
gent(h)i = with her or it
genhym, genhyn, gennyn = with us
genhwch, gennwch = with you
gantu(d), gantunt, ganthud = with them
gid, y gyd, kyd, gyt = with, together with
Welsh (Cymraeg) gan [ɡan] = with, together with, alongside, beside, by (means of), through, because of, on account of, from , of
gyda = with, together with, in addition to, in the company of, close by, next to, alongside, besides, for
Old Cornish cant, cans = with, by
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gan, gans = with, by
genef, gynef = with me
genes, gynes = with thee
ganso = with him or it
gynsy = with her or it
genen, gynen = with us
geneuch = with you
gansé = with them
Cornish (Kernewek) gans = by, with
gans ganow = by word of mouth
gans golow, gans tan = alight, lit
gans henna = thereby
gans oll ow holon vy = sincerely yours
gans pub bolonjedh da = with all good wishes
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gant = with, on the occasion of, so much
Breton (Brezhoneg) gant [ˈɡãnt] = with, because of
digant = with, of

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱóm (with) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

Proto-Celtic *sekʷo- = besides, without
Old Irish (Goídelc) sech [sʲex] = past, beyond, different from, more than
sechum = different from me
sechut = different from you (sg)
sech(a)e, sechæ = different from him
secce = different from her
sechund = different from us
seccu = different from them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sech = past, beyond, different from, more than,
sechum, seacham , seocham = different from me
sechut, seachad, seochad = different from you (sg)
(se)chae, secha, sechai = different from him
seochu, seacha = different from him
secci, seicce, seice = different from her
sechund, sechoind, seachoinn = different from us
sechaib = different from you (pl)
seccu, seocu, seoca = different from them
Irish (Gaeilge) seach [ʃax] = by, past, beyond, other than, more than
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seach [ʃɛx] = compared with/to, in preference to, past, by, rather than
seach-rathad = bypass, relief road, byway
seach-thìm = overtime
Manx (Gaelg) shagh [ʃax] = past
shaghey = bye, bygone, past, delay, prolong, neglected
shiaghey = past
shagh-votal = proxy vote
shagh-chlou = offprint
shagh-teiyder = proxy
Proto-Brythonic *heb = besides, without
Old Welsh hep = without
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heb, hep = without, past
hebof, hebofy = without me
hebot = without thee
hebddaw = without him or it
hebddi, hebdi, hebti = without her or it
hebom, heibom = without us
heboch = without you
hebddudd = without them
heb law, hebillaw, heb-law = besides, not counting
eb vn ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annot = without delay, immediately
Welsh (Cymraeg) heb [hɛb/heːb] = without, minus, free from, void of, lacking, in the absence of, past, besides, in addition to, not including, excluding, apart from,
heblaw = besides, not counting, over and above, in addition to, except, but, without, past
heb ei ail, heb (un) ail = without peer, incomparable, unrivalled
heb annod = without delay, immediately
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) heb, hep = without, destitute, void of
hebford = without a road
Cornish (Kernewek) heb = witout
heb ahwer = readily
heb bri = irrelevant
heb danjer = safely
heb difuna = dormant
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
Old Breton ep = without
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hep, hemp, eb = without
hep quen, ep quen, hemb kin, epken = only
hep muy, hep-mui = without further …, only
hep muy quen, hep mui quen = only
Breton (Brezhoneg) hep [hep] = without
hepken = only, exclusiveness
hepmuiken = without further …

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *sekʷ- (to follow) or from *sek- (to cut) [source].

Conjugated forms in Welsh, Cornish and Breton

English words from the same PIE root include sect, sign, signal, social, sue, suit, suite [source].

Proto-Celtic *kina = on this side of
Old Irish (Goídelc) cen [kʲen] = except, without, unbeknownst to, unknown to
cene, cenae [ˈkʲene] = besides, in any case, already
olchene, olchenae [olˈxʲene] = besides, the other(s), the rest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cen, cin, can, gen, gin, gan = on this side of, apart from, besides, except, without, -less
Irish (Gaeilge) gan [ɡən̪ˠ/ɡan̪ˠ] = without, not
gan amhras = undoubtedly
gan fáth gan ábhar = for no reason whatever
gan fhios = unknown, secretly
gan on = faultless, unblemished
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gun [ɡən̪ˠ] = without, not
gun chiall = without sense, senseless, insane
gun fhiù = worthless, trashy, trivial
gun iarraidh = unwanted, unbidden, unsought
gun mhaille = forthwith
gun sgot = clueless
Manx (Gaelg) gyn = ex, un-, devoid, without
gyn baare = pointless
gyn bun = baseless, bogus, unfounded
gyn currym = carefree, unencumbered
gyn ennym = anonymous, nameless, unnamed
gyn feill = vegetarian
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quen, quin, gen, ken = no more, other
Breton (Brezhoneg) ken [ˈkɛnː] = other, only, no more

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱe (this, here) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Down Under

Words for down, below, under and related things in Celtic languages.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) ís = below
sís = down, downwards, northwards
anís = below, from below
tís = below
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ís = below, under
sís, sis = down, downwards, northwards, below, onwards, throughout, onwards
sísana, siosina, sisana = here below, below
anís, = (from) below, beneath
tís = below, in the north
Irish (Gaeilge) síos [ʃiːsˠ] = down (away from the speaker), to lower place or station, hanging down, drooping, trailing, to the north, to a lesser centre or remote district, following
síos suas = upside down, topsyturvy
aníos = up (from below), from the north
thíos = down, in a lower place, in the north, below, farther on in a book, written down, entered (in a ledger, etc), on the fire
thíosluaite = undermentioned
thíos-sínithe = undersigned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìos [ʃiəs] = down (away from the speaker), downwards, below
shìos [hiəs] = down, below
a-nìos [əˈn̪ʲiəs] = up, upwards (towards from the speaker)
a-sìos [əˈʃiəs] = down, downwards
sìos ‘nad inntinn = depressed
a’ dol sìos = going down, experiencing a downturn, charging (in battle)
cuir sìos = to put/lay/set down
is mar sin sìos = and so on
Manx (Gaelg) sheese = below, down, downward(s)
brishey sheese = to analyse, analysis, break down, rend
sheese lesh = down the hatch, down with
soie sheese = to settle, sit down
heese = beneath, down, downhill, hereafter, lower end, under, knock-down (prices)
neese = from below up, upwards
Old Welsh is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) is, iss = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
iss-hau, isheir = to sink, sink down or lower
issot, isod = under, underneath, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than; before; lower, inferior, poorer
isâf, isáu = to come/go lower, to reduce in rank, lower the pride of, debase, degrade, humble, humiliate
isafaf, isafu = to minimize, reduce, lower
isafiad = (one’s) inferior
isod = under, underneath, below, beneath, on earth, lower down, later, further
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) isa = lowest
isot = downwards
Cornish (Kernewek) a-is = below, lower
Old Breton isel = low
Middle Breton (Brezonec) is = lower, below
Breton (Brezhoneg) is = lower, below
isdouarel = underground

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot), from *ped- (to walk, step) [source]. Words from the same roots include íseal (low) in Irish, ìosal (low, humble) in Scottish Gaelic, isel (low) in Welsh and related words for low in other Celtic languages, Fuß (foot) in German and pie (foot) in Spanish [more details].

Proto-Celtic *uɸo/*ufo- = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) fo = beneath, through, throughout, towards, under
fo bésad = after the manner of, like
fo bíthin = because (of)
fo chétóir = at once, immediately
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fo, fa, fá = under, underneath, into, through, about, around
Irish (Gaeilge) faoi [fˠiː] = beneath, below, bearing, supporting, about, round, against
faoi cheann = by, at, the end of
faoi adhall = in heat
faoi bhaile = at home, around
faoi bhun = beneath
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fo [fɔ] = under, underneath, below, beneath, subordinate
fo-dhearg = infrared
fo-inntinn = subconscious
fo-ros = undergrowth
fo chleòca = under cover, in secret
Manx (Gaelg) fo = below, beneath, under, sunken, dependent, underlaying, subsidiary, junior, assistant
fo aggle = aghast, alarmed, awestricken
fo arrey = under surveillance
fo chiuney = beclamed
fo druaight = charmed
fo-heer-vooar = subcontinent
Old Welsh guo, gu =under, rather, somewhat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwo, gwa, go = under, rather, somewhat
goaruoel = rather bald, baldish
Welsh (Cymraeg) go = under, rather, somewhat, slightly, partly, small, exceeding
go agos = near, almost
go dde = right, dexterous
go lew = pretty fair, middling
go is = beneath
goarfoel = rather bald, baldish
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) go = rather
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gou, gu, go, fo, uo = under
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwa-, gou- = under, sub-

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *upo (under, below). Words for high in Celtic languages come from the same root, as does sub(marine) in English, sumo (highest, greatest) in Spanish and summo (hightest, greatest, great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tanā = (point in) time
Old Irish (Goídelc) tan = when, time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tan, tain = time, while, point of time, when, whenever, until, before
Irish (Gaeilge) tan [tan] = time, occasion, once upon a time, once
(an) tan = at the time that, when, whenever, since
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàn [taːn] =time, season
an tàn = when, at the time
Proto-Brythonic *tan =under
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dan, tan = under, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) tan [tan] = until, under, while
dan = under, below, beneath, underneath, on the inside, less than, until, while, because, since
o dan = under
tan lw = under oath
dan yr awyr, tan awyr = under the sky, in the open air
dan ddaear = underground
dan din = sneaky, deceitful, stealthy, secret, illicit
dan y don = under water
dan draed = underfoot, in the way
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tan = under, beneath, below
(yn) dan = under, beneath
danva = a hiding place, concealment
Cornish (Kernewek) yn-dann = below, beneath, under, underneath
yn-dann alhwedh = under lockdown
yn-dann dava = in touch
yn-dann dhor = underground
yn-dann dhowr = underwater
yn-dann gel = in secret, secretly
yn-dann hatt = confidential
yn-dann with = care of (c/o)
Old Breton tan, dan = under
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dan = bottom, back, under, underneath
Breton (Brezhoneg) dan = basement, subsoil
dindan = under, on, sub-
dindan-douar = underground, secret
dindan-vor = underwater

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥néh₂ (a stretch), from *ten- (to stretch). Words from the same root include contain, tenant, tone and tune in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Take Note!

Words for note, mark and related things in Celtic languages.

note, mark, sign

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) not = contraction, mark, sign
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) not, nod = mark, sign, sign of contraction in writing, note, bear in mind
nodmar = significant
Irish (Gaeilge) nod [n̪ˠɔd̪ˠ/n̪ˠʌd̪ˠ] = scribal contraction, abbreviation, hint
nodaire = professional scribe
nodaireacht = notation, profession of scribe
nóta = (musical) note, brief record, annotation, short letter
nótáil = to note (down)
nótáilte = notable
nótaire = notary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nòd(h) = note
nòta = (written) note
nòtachadh = annotation
nòtaire = notary
dubh-not = crotchet, quarter note
geal-not = minim, half note
cruinn-not = semibreve, whole note
bun-nòta = footnote
nòta-deiridh = endnote
Manx (Gaelg) notey = note
noatey = banknote
Proto-Brythonic *nod = mark, brand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nod, not, nôd = target, goal, aim, etc
nottwy, nodi, notto = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
Welsh (Cymraeg) nod [noːd] = target, goal, aim, fame, renown, notoriety, mark sign, symbol, note, banknote, verse (in Bible)
nodach = short notes, jottings, odds and ends, trifles
nodadwy = noteworthy, notable, remarkable
nod(i)af, nodi(o) = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nod(i)edig = noted, marked, appointed, set, specified
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
nodyn [ˈnɔdɨ̞n/ˈnoːdɪn] = target, aim, mark, token, note
atalnod = punctuation mark, comma
collnod = apostrophe ’
cysylltnod = hyphen –
dyfynnod = ‘quotation mark’
ebychnod = exclamation mark!, sign of aspiration (h)
hirnod = cîrcûmflêx
hynod = remarkable, notable
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nôd, nos = mark, token
notye = to note, observe, denote
Cornish (Kernewek) nos = mark, token
nos devyn = quotation mark
nos -junya = hyphen
nosedhek = notable
nosya = to notate
nosyans = notation
noten = note
notenna = to notate (music)
notennans = notation
notennyans = annotation
noter, notores = notary, solicitor
notya = to note
notyans = memo
notyes, notys = notable
Old Breton not = note
Middle Breton (Brezonec) not = note, mention
notabl, notapl = notable
notadur = notation, (religious) censure
Breton (Brezhoneg) notenn = note
not = note
notañ, notiñ = to note
notapl = notable
notadur = notation

Etymology: from Latin nota (mark, sign, note), which is of unknown origin. Words from the same Latin root include note in English, note (note, mark, grade, bill) in French, Note (note, grade, mark) in German, and nota (note, memo, mark) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Boats and Ships

Words for boat, ship and related vessels in Celtic languages.

Douglas / Doolish

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *longā- = boat, vessel
Old Irish (Goídelc) long [l͈oŋɡ] = boat, ship
longfort = camp, encampment, stronghold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) long, longa = boat, ship, vessel, long-ship, galley; vessel, container; house; bed
longphort, lonngport = camp, encampment, temporary stronghold, mansion, princely dwelling; stronghold, fortress
Irish (Gaeilge) long [l̪ˠɔŋ] = ship, vessel, container, house
longbhá = shipwreck
longbhac = embargo (on ships), naval blockade
longbhoth = (navel) dock
longbhriste = shipwrecked
longcheárta, longchlós = shipyard
longfort = camp, stronghold, fortified residence
longlann = dockyard
longmhar = abounding in ships
longtheach = boat-house
longthógáil = shipbuilding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) long [l̪ˠɔuŋg] = ship
longas = shipping, shipment
longart = seaport
long-adhair = airship
long-bhriste = shipwreck
long-chasgadh = embargo
long-fhada = galley (ship)
long-fhànais = spaceship
long-lann = dockyard
long-phort = seaport
long-thogail = shipbuilding
Manx (Gaelg) lhong [loŋ] = ship, vessel
lhong aer = airship
lhong-chaardee = boatyard, shipyard
lhong chrowal = hovercraft
lhong liauyr = longship
lhong-phurt = basin, seaport
lhong spoar = spaceship
lhong spooillee = pirate ship
lhuingys = fleet, shipping
Proto-Brythonic *llong = ship, vessel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) loggou, log, llogeu, llong = ship, boat
llongi = to embark, ship
llongeidiev, llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llog porth, llogborth, llong-borth = seaport, haven, harbour
long-dorr = shipwreck
longhawl, llonghavl. llongawl = nautical, maritime, naval
llongỼyr, llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
Welsh (Cymraeg) llong [ɬɔŋ] = ship, boat; the Great Bear (Ursa Major)
llongaf, llongi = to embark, ship
llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llongborth = seaport, harbour, dock, quay
llongdor = shipwreck
llongol = nautical, maritime, naval
llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
llong awyr = airship, aeroplane
llong y diffeithwch, llong dir = ship of the desert, camel
llong ofod = spaceship, spacecraft
llong hofran = hovercraft
llong danfor(ol) = submarine
Old Breton locou = ship, boat

Etymology: possibly from the Latin (navis) longa ([long] boat), or from an unknown source [Source].

Proto-Celtic *nāwā- = boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) nau, nó = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) nó, noe = boat (generally a small one, propelled by oars)
Irish (Gaeilge) nae [n̪ˠeː] = boat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) noe = large vase, bowl
Welsh (Cymraeg) noe = (wooden) vessel used in making butter, kneading dough, etc. shallow dish, bowl, pan, basin, laver, wooden trough
noeaid = dishful
Cornish (Kernewek) new = sink, trough, washbasin
new doos = trough
new-droghya = sheep dip
Middle Breton (Brezonec) néau, néff, neo, nev = trough, bucket
néay-doas, neo-doaz, nev-doaz = kneading-trough
Breton (Brezhoneg) nev = trough, bucket

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *néh₂us (boat), from *(s)neh₂- (to swim) [Source]. Words from the same roots include navy, navigate, andnautical in English [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelic) bát = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bát, bád = boat
Irish (Gaeilge) bád [bˠɑːd̪ˠ/bˠaːd̪ˠ] = boat
bádóireacht = (act of) boating
bád iascaigh = fishing boat
bád seoil = sailing boat
bád tarrthála = lifeboat
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàta [baːhdə] = boat, craft
bàtaireachd = boating
bàta-aigeil = submarine
bàta-asieig = ferry boat
bàta-falbhain = hovercraft
bàta-iasgaich = fishing boat
bàta-sàbhalaidh = lifeboat
bàta-siùil = sailing boat
Manx (Gaelg) baatey [ˈbɛːðə] = boat, even keel
baateyrys = boating
baatey assaig = ferry boat
baatey bieauid = speedboat
baatey eeastee = fishing boat
baatey etlagh = seaplane
baatey sauaillagh = lifeboat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bat, bad = boat
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
Welsh (Cymraeg) bad = boat, barge, (small) ship
badaid = boatful
badlong = ketch, pinnace
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
bad acbub = lifeboat
bad pysgota = fishing boat

Etymology: from Old English bāt (boat) or from Old Norse bátr (boat), both of which come from Proto-Germanic *baitaz (boat, ship), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to break, split) [Source].

The English word boat comes from the same roots, as do words for boat in many other languages [Source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scaf, scaffu, scafa = ship
Irish (Gaeilge) scafa [sˠkɑfˠə] = ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgoth [sgɔh] = skiff
sgothag = little skiff, small yacht, cutter
sgiof [sgʲif] = skiff (boat)
sgib [sgʲib] = small ship (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) skiff = skiff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) esgraff, yscraff, ysgraff = boat, barge, ferry
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgraff, sgraff = boat, barge, skiff, ferry, ship, raft
ysgraffbont = pontoon
ysgraffwr, ysgraffydd = ferryman, boatman, bargee
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scath = boat
scath hîr = long boat
Cornish (Kernewek) skath = boat
skathik = dinghy
skath hir = barge
skath kloos = raft
skath tan = motor-boat
skath sawya = lifeboat
skath-wolya = sailing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) scaph, scaff, sqaff, skaf = skiff
skavat, skafad = contents of a skiff
Breton (Brezhoneg) skaf = skiff, landing net

Etymology: possibly from Latin scapha (a light boat, skiff), from Ancient Greek σκάφη (skáphē – light boat, skiff), from σκᾰ́πτω (skáptō – to dig, delve); or from Old Norse skúta (small craft, cutter) [Source].

Proto-Celtic *lestrom = vessel, pot
Old Irish (Goídelic) lestar = vessel, container, beehive
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lestar = vessel, container, beehive, ship, boat
lestarach = frequented by ships
Irish (Gaeilge) leastar [ˈl̠ʲasˠt̪ˠəɾˠ] = vessel, container (for liquids), cask, firkin, (wash) tub, punt (boat), tub; squat, dumpy person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leastar = small boat, cup, vessel, furniture of a house
Proto-Brythonic *llestr = vessel, container
Old Welsh lestir = vessel, container
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llestri, llestyr = vessel, container
llestreit, llestraid, llestred = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestryn, llestrun = small vessel, small barrel, boat
Welsh (Cymraeg) llestr [ɬɛstr/ˈɬɛstɛr] = vessel, bushel, ship, boat, beehive, womb, uterus
llestraid = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestrwr = maker of vessels, potter
llestryn = small vessel, small barrel, boat, human body
Old Cornish lester = vessel, container
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lester = vessel, ship
golowlester = a light-vessel, a lamp
Cornish (Kernewek) lester = dish, ship, utensil vessel
lester eth = steam boat
lester-bargesi = hovercraft
lester=gwari = yacht
lester-sedhi = submarine
annedh lester = houseboat
lestrier = (kitchen) dresser
lestriva = dockyard
lestryn = container
Old Breton lestr = ship, vessel, container
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lestr = ship, vessel, container
lestr-dre-dan = steamship
lestr-kroazer, lestr-reder = cruiser
Breton (Brezhoneg) lestr [ˈlɛstʁ] = vessel, container, ship
lestr-spluj[lɛs.ˈplyːʃ] = submarine
aerlestr [ˈɛʁlestʁ] = aircraft
lestrañ [ˈlɛstrã] = to board, load (a vehicle)
dilestrañ [diˈlɛsːtrã] = to disemark

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pleḱ- (to fold, weave). The Goidelic words were possibly borrowed from Proto-Brythonic [Source].


Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cwch, cŵch = boat, beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwch [kʊχ] = boat, beehive
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) coc = boat
Cornish (Kernewek) kok = fishing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) couc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
kouc’hañ = to cover (a beehive)

Etymology: possibly cognate with the English word cog (a clinker-built, flat-bottomed, square-rigged mediaeval ship of burden, or war with a round, bulky hull and a single mast; a small fishing boat), which comes from Middle Dutch cogghe (clinker-built, flat-bottomed sailing cargo ship of the Middle Ages), from Proto-Germanic *kuggō, from PIE *gugā (hump, ball) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse dictionary

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Ceilidh Companions

Words for companion, ceilidh and related things in Celtic languages.

Cèilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
Ceilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig in the Isle of Skye / Cèilidh aig Sabhal Mòr Ostaig san Eilean Sgitheanach

Proto-Celtic *kēlyos = companion, servant
Primitive Irish ᚉᚓᚂᚔ (celi) = follower, devotee (genitive)
Old Irish (Goídelc) céile [ˈkʲeːlʲe] = client, companion, husband, liege, servant, spouse, subject, vassal
céilide [ˈkʲeːlʲiðʲe] = visit, visiting
coicéile = companion, comrade, friend, friendship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) céile, ceile, céli = servant, bondsman, vassal, subject, fellow, companion, husband
céileachas = adultery
céilide = visit, act of visiting
coicéile, cocéle, coceli = vassal, bondsman, companion, fellow, friend
coicéilsine, cocéilsine, cocélsine = fellowship, clientship
Irish (Gaeilge) céile [ˈceːlʲə] = companion, spouse
céileachas = companionship, cohabitation, copulation
céilí = friend call, visit, social evening, Irish dancing session
céilíoch = person fond of social visits, sociable person
céilíocht = sociableness, companionableness
céiliúil = companionable
coigéile = mate, companion
coigéilsine = fellowship, companionship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cèile [kʲeːlə] =fellow, partner, significant other, spouse, counterpart
cèile-còmhraige = opponent, antagonist
cèile-pòsta = married partner (husband or wife)
cèileach [kʲeːləx] = entertaining
cèileachadh [kʲeːləxəɣ]= participating/sharing in, twinning, partnering (of a city)
cèiliche [kʲeːlɪçə] = visitor
cèilidh [kʲeːlɪ] = ceilidh, visit, (act of) visiting
cèilidheach [kʲeːlɪjəx] = companionable, fond of company, sociable
Manx (Gaelg) keilley = match
dy cheilley = joined, together
e cheilley = fellow
ry-cheilley =en masse, together, with each other
kaylee = ceilidh
Proto-Brythonic *kuɨlð = servant, companion
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cilit, cilid, kilid, kilyd = servant, companion
Welsh (Cymraeg) cilydd [ˈkɪlɨ̞ð/ˈkiːlɪð] = fellow, companion, neighbour, enemy, other
cilyddol = reciprocal, mutual
at ei gilydd = together
gyda’i gilydd = together
ei gilydd = each other
o bryd i’w gilydd = from time to time
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cele = companion, fellow, one of two
Cornish (Kernewek) kila = companion
Old Breton kiled = friend
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kile = the other (one), friend
Breton (Brezhoneg) kile = associate, stooge, colleague, sidekick

Etymology: possibly the Proto-Celtic word originally meant ‘wayfarer’, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱey- (to settle, to be lying down) [source].

The English word ceilidh [ˈkeɪli] (an informal social gathering where traditional Irish or Scottish folk music is played, with dancing and storytelling; a ceilidh dance; to dance a ceilidh) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic and/or from Irish [source]. Someone who attends a ceilidh is apparently a ceilidher [source].

The Welsh equivalent of a ceilidh is a twmpath, which also meanings hillock, knoll, mound, pile, gathering or assembly. It’s also a known as a twmpath dawns (folk-dance, barn dance, public dance) or noson lawen (“merry/joyful evening”). In Cornish a ceilidh is a troyll, which also means spiral or swirl, and in Breton they are known as fest-noz [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Near and Close

Words for near, close and and and related things in Celtic languages.

A group of meerkats

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *onkus = at
*onkus-tus = near, close, and
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocus [ˈoɡus] = near, close, nearness, proximity, and
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocus, acus = and, near, nearness, proximity
com(ḟ)ocus, comacus = near, proximate, neighbouring; equidistant, proximity; relationship
focus = near, close
bean fagas, bean ḟogas = kinswoman
Irish (Gaeilge) agus (⁊) [ˈɑɡəsˠ/ˈaɡəsˠ] = and, while, although, as
agusóir = halting, inarticulate, speaker
aguisín = addition, addendum
fogas [ˈfˠʌɡəsˠ] = nearness, closeness, near, close
fogasghaol = near relationship, near relative
foisceacht = nearness, proximity
bráthair fogas = near kinsman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) agus (⁊) [agəs] = and, plus, as, while, although
agusan = Tironian/Gaelic ampersand (⁊)
fagas [fagəs] = close, near
fagasg [fagəsg] = proximity, nearness
fagasachd [fagəsəxg] = adjacency, nearness, proximity
fagasach [fagəsəx] = adjacent
faisg [faʃgʲ] = close, near
faisgead [faʃgʲəd] = degree of nearness/proximity
Manx (Gaelg) as = and, as
faggys = almost, close, contiguous, handy, near, nearby, neighbouring
faggys-yalloo = closeup
faggysaght = adjacency, nearness
Old Welsh ha, hac, hay, ac = and
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) a(c)= and
agos = near, close
agoseieit = close relations or friends
Welsh (Cymraeg) a(c) [a(k), a(ɡ)] = and
agos [ˈaɡɔs / ˈa(ː)ɡɔs] = near, close, almost, nearly, on the verge of, about to
agosâd = a drawing near, approach
agosaf, agosi = to draw near, approach
agosaol = approaching
agoseiaid = close relations or friends
agosiad = close relation or friend
agosrwydd = closeness, nearness, proximity
agoster = closeness, nearness, proximity
Old Cornish ha = and
ogos = near, close
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) ha(g), a = and
ogas, oges, ogos, agos = near, neighbouring
Cornish (Kernewek) ha(g) [ha(ɡ)] = and, plus, while
hag erel (h.e.) = etc.
hag oll = moreover
ogas = adjoinging, close, near, almost, nearly, vicinity
ogas ha = approximately
ogas lowr = approximate
yn ogas, en ogas = closely, nearby
ogasti, ogatti = almost, nearly
Old Breton a, ha, hac = and
ocos = near, close
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ha, hag, ham, haz = and
hag all, ha a, hag e-se = etc.
hogos, hegos, ogos, egos = almost, barely, close, near
hogoster, hogosder = proximity
hogozik, hogosicq, hogosic = almost, close, near
Breton (Brezhoneg) ha(g) = and
hag all (h.a.) = etc.
hogos = near, close, almost
hogosder = proximity

Etymology: not known [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language,, Am Faclair Beag, Fockleyreen: Manx – English Dictionary, Online Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Lexicon cornu-britannicum : a dictionary of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall, Gerlyver Kernewek, Devri : Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

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Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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