Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm [ˈɛjl] = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos was possibly borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bolts and Locks

Today we’re looking at the words for locks, bolts and related things in Celtic languages.

shed door bolt lock

Proto-Celtic *klāwos = bolt
Old Irish (Goídelc) cló, cloë = nail, spike
Irish (Gaeilge) cló [klˠoː] = form, shape, appearance; impression, mould; print, type; nail, spike
clóbhuail = print
clóchur = (type) setting
clóchuradóir = type-setter
clódóir = printer, dyer
clódóireacht = printing; dyeing, colouring; misrepresentation
clóghrafaíocht = typography
clóphreas = printing press
clóscríobh = typing, typewriting; to type
cló-eagar = composition
cló-eagraí = compositor
cló-eagraigh = to compose
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) clò [kl̪ˠɔː] = cloth, woven material, tweed; print; imprint; spike, nail; peg, pin
clò-bhualadh = printing, publication, printout
clò-bhualadair = printer (machine & printing house)
clò-ghrafachd = typography
clò-sgrìobhadair = typist, typewriter
clò-shuidheachadh = typesetting
Clò na Hearadh = Harris Tweed
cruth-clò = font
Manx (Gaelg) clou = edition, print, printed matter, printing press, publication, type
clouder = printer
clougraafeeaght = typography
clouscreeudeyr = typist
clou doo, clou trome = bold type
clou Gaelgagh = Gaelic type
clou gorrym = blueprint
soiaghey clou = type-setting
soieder clou = type-setter
Proto-Brythonic *klọw = bolt
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) clo, klo = lock, bolt
Welsh (Cymraeg) clo [kloː] = lock, bolt; impediment, difficulty; brake; cluster, bunch; conclusion
ar glo = locked
clo clap, clo clec, clo clwt = padlock
clo rheswm = conclusion
cyfnod clo = lockdown
tan glo (ac allwydd) = locked (up), under lock and key
cload = locking, end, conclusion, closure
cloadwy = lockable, locked, final
cloëdig, cloiedig = locked, secure, closed, concealed, bound, confined
cloi = to lock, shut, bind, clinch, conclude
Old Breton clou = bolt
Middle Breton clao = bolt
Breton (Brezhoneg) klaou = gear, key, mesh

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *kleh₂w-os (bolt, bar, hook), from *(s)kleh₂w- (hook, crook, peg) [source].

Words from the same PIE root, via the Latin clāvis (key), include: chiave (key, spanner) in Italian, clé (key, wrench, spanner) and clef (clef (in music)) in French, clef, clavicle and clavichord in English, and llave (key, spanner, wrench, tap, spigot, switch) in Spanish [source].

I can’t find a cognate word in Cornish. A lock is a strother, and a bolt is a ebil. The origins of these words are not known.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sisters

Today we’re looking at the words for sister and related people in Celtic languages.

Sisters

Proto-Celtic *swesūr [ˈswe.suːr] = sister
Gaulish suiorebe = sister
Old Irish (Goídelc) siur [ˈsʲi.ur] = sister, kinswoman, female relation
derbṡiur [ˈdʲerʲvʲ.fʲi.ur] = sister (by blood / in a religious community)
sinserṡiur [ˈsʲinsʲerˌhi.ur] = elder sister
Irish (Gaeilge) siúr [ʃuːɾˠ] = sister, kinswoman; Sister (member of a religious community); (nursing) sister
deirfiúr = sister
deirfiúr athar = paternal aunt
deirfiúr máthar = maternal aunt
deirfiúr céile = sister-in-law
leathchúpla deirféar = twin sister
iníon deirféar = brother’s son, niece
mac deirféar = sister’s son, nephew
deirféar = sisterly
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) siùir [ʃuːrʲ] = sister (archaic)
piuthar [pju.ə] = sister
piùthrag [pjuːrag] = little sister, sis
piutharail [pju.əral] = sisterly
peathrachas [pɛrəxəs] = sisterhood, soroity
piuthar-chèile = sister-in-law
piuthar leth-aon = twin sister
piuthar-altraim = foster-sister
piuthar-athar = paternal aunt
piuthar-màthar = maternal aunt
Manx (Gaelg) shuyr [ʃuːr] = sister
shayragh, shuyroil = sisterly
shuyrys = sisterhood
shuyr (v)ayrey = aunt
shuyr gholtit = foster-sister
shuyr lannoonagh = twin sister
shuyr ‘sy leigh = sister-in-law
Proto-Brythonic *hwehir = sister
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chwaer = sister
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwaer [χwaːɨ̯r / χwai̯r] = sister, half-sister, female mate or partner; maiden, sweetheart, mistress; nun, sister (in hospital)
chwaer efell = twin sister
chwaer faeth = foster sister
chwaer fedydd = god-sister
chwaer yng nghyfraith = sister-in-law
hanner chwaer = half-sister, step-sister
chwaerol = sisterly
chwaeroliaeth = sisterhood
Old Cornish huir = sister
Cornish (Kernwek) hwor = sister
hanter-hwor = half-sister
Old Breton guoer = sister
Middle Breton hoer = sister
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hoar = sister
c’hoarig = sis, little sister; twin sister
c’hoarelezh = sisterhood
c’hoar-gaer, c’hoareg = sister-in-law, stepsister

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *swésōr (sister) [source].

Here’s a traditional Scottish Gaelic song about sisters – A’ phiuthrag ’sa phiuthar

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brothers

Today we’re looking at the words for brother and related people in Celtic languages.

Brothers

Proto-Celtic *brātīr [ˈbraː.tiːr] = brother
Gaulish *bratir = brother
Old Irish (Goídelc) bráthair [ˈbraːθirʲ] = brother, cousin, kinsman
bráthardacht = brotherly
bráthardae = brotherly, fraternal
derbráthair = brother (by blood), from derb (certain) & bráthair
sinserbráthair = elder brother, senior kinsman
Irish (Gaeilge) bráthair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = brother (member of a religious community), friar, kinsman; monkfish, angelfish
bráithriúil = brotherly
bráithriúlacht = brotherliness
deartháir = brother, male sibling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bràthair [ahɪrʲ] = brother, male sibling
bràithreil = brotherly
bràthair-altraim = foster brother
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
bràthair-màthar = maternal uncle
bràthair-cèile = brother-in-law
comh-bhràthaireil = fraternal
leth-bhràthair = half-brother
Manx (Gaelg) braar = brother, monk, friar
braar ayrey = parternal uncle
braar mayrey = maternal uncle
braar keeilley, braar ‘sy leigh = brother-in-law
braar lannoonagh = twin brother
braaragh, braaroil = brotherly, fraternal
braarys = brotherhood
jarroo-vraar = blood brother
lhiass-vraar = stepbrother
lieh-vraar = half brother
Proto-Brythonic *brọdr = brother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brawt, braud, bravt = brother
Welsh (Cymraeg) brawd [brau̯d] = brother, half-brother, male relative; clansman, fellow-countryman, male friend, fellow-man, like-minded person; monk; friar
brawd crefydd = friar, brother of a religious order
brawdoliaeth = brotherhood, brotherliness, brotherly feeling, brotherly love, fraternity, fellowship, relationship
brawdoli = to fraternize
brawdoldeb = brotherliness, brotherhood, brotherly love
brodorol = brotherly, fraternal; native, indigenous, vernacular
brawdyn = (little) brother, poor brother, wretch, male friend
Cornish (Kernwek) broder [taːz/tæːz] = brother
hanter-broder = half-brother
broder da = brother-in-law
brederedh = brotherhood
Old Breton brotr = brother
Middle Breton breuzr = brother
Breton (Brezhoneg) breur [ˈbrøːr] = brother
breur gevell = twin brother
breur-kaer, breureg = brother-in-law
breur-laezh, breur-mager = foster brother
breurel = fraternal
breuriezh = frairie
breuriad = siblings
hantervreur = half-brother

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰréh₂tēr (brother) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Festive Feasts

Today we’re looking at the words for festival, feast and related things in Celtic languages.

Crowds with St David's Flags / Tyrfa, Baner Dewi Sant

Proto-Celtic *lītus = feast, celebration
Old Irish (Goídelc) líth [l͈ʲiːθ] = festival
Irish (Gaeilge) líth [ˈfʲeːlʲə] = festival, festivity, rejoicing; (good) omen, good luck, prosperity
lítheach = festive
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = proserity, happiness
Breton (Brezhoneg) lid = ceremony, rite, worship, jubilation

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *leyH- (flow) [source].

Proto-Celtic *westā = food, feast
Old Irish (Goídelc) feis, fess, feiss = entertainment, feast; night’s lodging
Irish (Gaeilge) feis [fʲɛʃ] = festival, carnival; act of sleeping, accommodation, entertainment, bed and supper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fèis [feːʃ] = festival
fèist [feʃdʲ] = entertainment, feast
fèistear [feːʃdʲər] = entertainer
fèisteas [feːʃdʲəs] = entertainment
Manx (Gaelg) feish = assembly, carnival, festival, fete
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwest [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = night’s stay/lodging, night’s sleep/rest, lodging, hospitality, welcome, entertainment, provision, maintenance, food-rent, feast, banquet; guest, visitor
gwestu = to spend a night, sleep, rest, lodge, visit, feast, borrow, beg, sponge (upon)
gwesty = lodging, guest-house, inn, hotel
gwestya = to lodge, live in lodgings, show hospitality to (guests), welcome
gwestywr = landlord, host, innkeeper, hotelier
Cornish (Kernewek) gwester = guest
gwesti = guesthouse
gwestva = hospitality
Old Breton guest = feast

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes- (to reside) [source].

Proto-Celtic *wlidā = food, feast
Old Irish (Goídelc) fled [fʲlʲeð] = banquet, feast
Irish (Gaeilge) fleá [fʲlʲaː / fʲlʲɑː / fʲlʲæː] = (drinking) feast
fleá cheoil = festival of music
fleách = festive, convivial
fleáchas = festivity, conviviality
fleadhaigh = to feast, carouse<
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fleadh [flɤɣ] = feast, reception
fleadh-bainnse = wedding reception
fleadhach [flɤɣəx] = feasting, banqueting, entertaining
fleadhadh = (act of) conviving, gathering for feasting/td>
Manx (Gaelg) fleah = banquet, feast
fleah foalley = barbeque
Proto-Brythonic *gwleð [ˈɡwlɛːð] = feast, banquet
Old Welsh guled = feast, banquet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwledd = feast, banquet
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwledd [ɡwleːð] = feast, banquet, repast, carousal, revelry, sumptuous meal
gwleddu = to partake of a feast or banquet, feed with relish or enjoyment, carouse, revel, observe a festival
gwleddol = convivial, festive, banqueting, feasting, feaster
gwleddoldeb = festivity
gwleddwr = banqueter, guest, frequenter of feasts, reveller, carouser
Cornish (Kernewek) gwledh = banquet
Old Breton gloê = feast, banquet

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *wldeh₂, from *welh₁- (to wish, desire, want) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) féil = festival, feast-day
Irish (Gaeilge) féile [ˈfʲeːlʲə] = festival, feast (day)
féilire = calendar
féiltiúil = pertaining to festival, festive; periodic, recurrent, regular, punctual
féiltiúlacht = observance of feast days, seasonableness, regularity, punctuality
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) féill [feːl̪ˠ(ə)] = feast, festival, holy day fair, sale, market
féilleachd [feːl̪ˠəxɡ] = festivity, festivities
Manx (Gaelg) feaill [ˈsolan] = festival, holy day
feailley = feast, festival, fête, holiday, holy day, sacred
feaillys = festivity, sacredness, vacation
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyl, gŵyl = holiday, holy-day, religious festival
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = holiday, holy-day, religious festival, fête; watch, guard, vigil
gŵyl y Banc = Bank Holiday
Middle Cornish goil = festival, holiday
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = fair, feast, festival, vigil, wake
Gool Enys = carnival
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = (religious) festival, fête

Etymology from the Latin vigilia (wakefulness, watch), from vigil (awake), from the Proto-Indo-European *weǵ- (to be strong) [source].

The English words vigil, vigilant come from the same Latin root, and wake and watch come from the same PIE root, via Proto-Germanic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Yearning

Today we’re looking at the words for longing, yearning and related things in Celtic languages.

hiraethceltic09

Proto-Celtic *sīraxto- = roof
Gaulish siraxta = longing
Old Irish (Goídelc) sírecht = lack, longing, sadness
Irish (Gaeilge) síreacht = wistfulness, longing, plaint, plaintive music
síreachtach = wistful, longing, plaintive (music)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sireachd [ʃirʲəxg] = (act of) searching, seeking
Manx (Gaelg) shirrey = seeking, solicitation
Proto-Brythonic *hiraɨθ = nostalgia, longing, yearning, homesickness
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hiraeth, hyreyth = longing, yearning, nostalgia
Welsh (Cymraeg) hiraeth [ˈhɪraɨ̯θ/ˈhiːrai̯θ] = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia, wistfulness, homesickness, earnest desire
hiraethgar = full of longing, yearning, wistful
hiraethiad = a yearning
hiraethol = sad, longing, yearning, hankering, wistful, nostalgic
hiraethu = to long, yearn, be earnestly desirous, sorrow, grieve
hiraethus = yearning, hankering, longing, wistful, sorrowful, eager, ardent, longed for, desired
Middle Cornish hireth, hyreth, hereth = longing, an earnest desire, regretting, regret
Cornish (Kernewek) hireth [ˈhɪrɛθ] = loneliness, longing, nostalgia, yearning
hirethek = homesick, lonely, longing, yearning
Old Breton hiraez = yearning, desire
Middle Breton hirrez, hirez, hireh, hireah = yearning, desire
Breton (Brezhoneg) hiraezh = yearning, desire, aspiration
hiraezhiñ (da) = to yearn (for), desire, aspire (to)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *siros (long), from the Proto-Indo-European *seh₁- (long, lasting), and the Proto-Celtic *anxtu (slaughter), from the Proto-Indo-European *neḱ- (perish, disappear) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cuma = grief, sorrow
Irish (Gaeilge) cumha [kuː / kuə] = loneliness, homesickness, parting sorrow
cumhach = lonesome, homesick, wistful, nostalgic
miancumha = longing, yearning
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cumha [kũ.ə] = lament, (act of) lamenting
cumhach [kũ.əx] = mournful, sorrowful

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *qem/qom (hum) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) fadaíocht [kuː / kuə] = lengthiness, longsomeness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fadachd [fadəxg] = longing, yearning; length
Manx (Gaelg) foddeeagh = homesick, longing, nostalgic
foddeeaght, foddiaght = distance, fervent, desire, hankering, longing, nostalgia

Etymology: from the Old Irish fota (long) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Key Openings

Today we’re looking at the words for to open, keys and related things in Celtic languages.

Crete thru open doors

Proto-Celtic *koros = putting, casting
*exs-koris = the opener
Old Irish (Goídelc) cor [kor] = putting, setting, throwing
eochair = key
Irish (Gaeilge) cor [kɔɾˠ] = to turn, turn, turning movement, cast, lively air, reel
corach = turning, twisting
coradh = to turn, bend
eochair [ˈɔxəɾʲ] = key, clef
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) car [kar] = to bend, spin, turn, twist, trick, fraud, movement, job, task
iuchair [ˈɔxəɾʲ] = key, clef
Manx (Gaelg) cor = twirl
ogher = key, peg, headstone, keystone, clef, legend
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) agory, agori, egor = open
egoriad = key
Welsh (Cymraeg) agor [ˈaɡɔr] = to open, unlock, unfasten, undo, loosen, disclose, divulge, reveal, declare, expound, explain, interpret
agored = open(ed), ajar, clear, dilated, spread, broad, wide
agoredrwydd = openness
agoriad = key, opening, hatch, aperture, gap, entrance
agoriawdr = opener, (musical) clef
agorwr / agorydd = opener, expounder, interpreter
Middle Cornish ygor(i) = to open
ygor = open
Cornish (Kernewek) ygor(i), egor(i) = to open
ygor, egor = open
ygorys, egerys = opened
ygeryans, egeryans = opening
Middle Breton igueriff, igor = open
Breton (Brezhoneg) digor = open
digoriñ = to open

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European (s)ker- (to turn, curve) [source].

From the same PIE root we get the Latin word cancer (crab, tumor, cancer, lattice, grid), and related words in other languages, such as cancer, canker and incarcerate in English, and cangrejo (crab) and cáncer (cancer) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Brythonic *alchwedd = key
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) allwed = key
Welsh (Cymraeg) allwedd [ˈaɬwɛð/ˈaɬwɛð] = key, corkscrew, pedal
allweddu = to key or type, keyboard
allweddair = keyboard, password, buzz-word, catchword, slogan
allweddog = bearing/having keys, keyed
allweddol = key, critical, pivotal, crucial, strategic
Old Cornish alped = key
Middle Cornish alwheth = key
Cornish (Kernewek) alhwedh = key
alhwedha = to lock
alhwedhor(es) = treasurer
Middle Breton alhouez = key
Breton (Brezhoneg) alc’hwez [ˈal.ɣwe/ˈal.ɣwɛs] = key
alc’hweziek = keyed

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)kleh₂w- (hook, peg) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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