Sticks and Rods

Today we’re looking at words for sticks, rods and related things in Celtic languages.

Plaster lath

Proto-Celtic *slattā = staff, stalk
Old Irish (Goídelc) slat = rod, lath, twig; ceremonial rod, staff; branch of a tree; scion, youth, stripling; yard (measure of length)
Irish (Gaeilge) slat [sˠl̪ˠɑt̪ˠ/sˠlˠat̪ˠ] = rod, slender stick, cane, switch, wand, yard, outskirts
slatach = rodlike, made of rods, wickered
slatáil = beat with a switch or birch
slataire = slip (of a person), sapling, tall supple youth
slatamáil = (act of) birching
slatfhear = slender supple man
slatóg = small rod, twig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slat [sl̪ˠahd] = long stick, rod, yard (measure), penis
slatag = small branch, twig
slat Ghàidhealach = Highland yard (8′)
slat-tomhais = standard, yardstick
slatan-draoidheachd = magic wand, fairy wand
Manx (Gaelg) slat(t) = batten, birch, cane, mace, rail, rod, slat, stem, switch, verge, wand
slat hendreil = lightning-rod
slat hows(h)e = criterion, yardstick
slat hummee = dipper, dipstick
slattag = perch, small rod, small stick, stripe, swizzle stick, twig
Proto-Brythonic *llaθ = rod, staff, stick, spear, beam, rafter, pole
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lath = rod, staff, wand, stick
Welsh (Cymraeg) llath [ɬaːθ] = rod, staff, wand, stick, lath, spear, lance, spar, rafter, beam, offshoot, descendant
llath Gymreig = Welsh yard (about 40 inches)
llathaid = yard’s length, yardstick, length of rod, pole or perch, square yard
lathen = rod, wand, staff, stick, lath
llathennaf, llathennu = to measure, be critical (of)
hudlath = magic wand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lath = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) lath = stick, staff, yard
Old Breton lath = pole, rod
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lazh, laz, lah = pole, rod
Breton (Brezhoneg) lazh = slat (of a plough), board, batten

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a substrate language of northwestern Europe [source].

Words that may be related include lath (a thin, narrow strip, fastened to the rafters) in English, Latte (batten, lath, slat) in German, lat (slate, lath, ruler, yardstick) in Dutch, and lata (can, tin, plate) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hooks and Crooks

Today we’re looking at hooks, crooks and related words in Celtic languages.

Hook

Proto-Celtic *bakkos = hook, (curved) stick
Old Irish (Goídelc) bacc = angle, bill-hook, corner, hindrance, mattock
Irish (Gaeilge) bac = balk, hindrance, barrier, mattock, bend (in a river), (door) step
bacadh = to balk, hindrance
bacainn = barrier, obstruction, obstacle, blocking
bacainneach = barring, obstructing, blocking
bacán = hinge-hook, crook, peg
bacánach = crooke, hinged
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bac [baxg] = hindering, impeding, obstructing, restraining, restricting, hindrance
bacadh = to hinder, impede, obstruct, restain, restrict, ban
Manx (Gaelg) bac = balk, disability, disqualification, drawback, handicap, moratorium, objection, obstacle, pull back, snag, trap
Old Welsh bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bach = hook, grapple, mattock
Welsh (Cymraeg) bach [baːχ] = hook, grapple, mattock, hoe, fish hook, shepherd’s crook; hinge, pivot; nook, angle, corner, bend
bachiad = a hooking, turning, curving, winding, bending
bachog = hooked, barded, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachogrwydd = hookedness, crookedness, incisiveness
bachol = hooking, grappling, grabbing, grasping, greedy
bachu = to hook, anchor, connect, attach, fasten
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bah = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) bagh = hook
bagha = to trap
Old Breton bah = hook
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bach, bac’h = hook for uprooting potatoes or seaweed, big hook
bac’hig = little fang, hook, staple
Breton (Brezhoneg) bac’h = (fish) hook

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bachall (crook, crozier) in Irish, bagl (crook, crozier) in Welsh, pail in English, and possibly bok (side, flank, hip) in Czech, Polish and Slovak [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Up Above

Today we’re looking at up, over, above and related words in Celtic languages.

The Crowded Summit of Snowdon
A quiet day on the summit of Snowden / Dydd tawel ar gopa’r Wyddfa

Proto-Celtic *ouxsos = above
*ouxselos = high, elevated
Gaulish *uxelos = high, elevated
Old Irish (Goídelc) úas [uːa̯s] = above, over
anúas [aˈn͈uːa̯s] = from above
súas = up, upwards, back (in time), forward on (in time),
túas = up, above, of heaven, above (mentioned)
úasal = high, lofty, noble, high-born, gallant, genteel, honourable
Irish (Gaeilge) suas [ˈɡaɾʲəmʲ/ˈɡɪɾʲəmʲ] = up, to higher place or station, at, towards, a high level, to the south, onwards, backwards, on high, risen
anuas = down (from above)
thuas = up, in higher place, in the south, put up, on top, successful, profiting
uasal [ˈuəsˠəlˠ] = noble, high-born, aristocratic, gentle, gallant, genteel, lofty, precious, fine, hallowed, enchanted, inhabited by fairies
na huaisle the good people, the fairies
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) suas [suəs] = up, upwards, upright, standing
shuas [huəs] = above, aloft up (location), upper
a-nuas [əˈn̪ˠuəs] = down(wards) / up(wards) – towards the speaker
uasal [uəsəl̪ˠ] = noble, nobleman, nobility, high-minded, genteel
Manx (Gaelg) seose = heavenwards, up, upward, upwards
heose = above, aloft, up, upper
neose = down, downward, downwards
ooasle = aristocratic, classy, creditable, dignified, esteemed, gentlemanly, goodly, highborn, honourable, illustrious, lofty, lordly, magnificent, noble, respected
Brythonic *ʉx [ˈʉːx] = above, on top of, over
*ʉxel [ʉˈxɛːlˑ] = high, elevated
Old Welsh uuc = above, on top of, over
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) uch = above, on top of, over
uchel = shigh, tall, exalted
Welsh (Cymraeg) uwch [ɨ̞u̯χ/ɪu̯χ] = above, on top of, over, on, beyond, in front of
uchel [ˈɨ̞χɛl/ˈiːχɛl] = high, tall, exalted, important, solemn, sublime, splendid, excellent, noble, stately, respectable, commendable
uchelder = high place, height, highness, nobility
uchelaf, uchelu = to raise, heighten, exalt, increase
uchelwr = landed, proprietor, freeholder, landlord, gentleman, nobelman, aristocrat, a superior
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) uhel = high, lofty, elevated
uhelder = height, highness
uhelle = to raise up on high, to exalt
Cornish (Kernewek) a-ugh = above
a-ugh dhe = over
ughel = high, grand, loud, tall
ughelder = height, loudness
Old Breton uh = on high
uchel = high
Middle Breton (Brezonec) uc’h = on high
uhel = high, noble, generous
uhelaat = to increase, rise in the sky, raise
uheladur = to shrug, enhancement
uhelañ = the highest point
Breton (Brezhoneg) uhel [ˈy.ɛl] = high, uphill, upstream
uhelaat = to promote
uc’hek = maximal

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ewpso- (above) from *h₃ewps- (high, elevated) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Peace and Fairies

Today we are giving peace a chance in Celtic languages, and visiting some fairy mounds.

Eisteddfod 2018: A oes heddwch?
A oes heddwch? (Is there peace?)

Proto-Celtic *sedom = tumulus, peace
*sīdos = tumulus, peace, mound (inhabited by fairies)
Old Irish (Goídelc) síd = fairy mound, fairy, wondrous, enchanting, charming, delightful
síde = fairy people, fairies
sídach = of a fairy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) side = fairy mound
Irish (Gaeilge) [ʃiː] = fairy mound
síth = peace, peace-offering, appeasment, pardon, forgiveness
síthe = fairy, bewitching, enchanting, deceptive, delusive
síofrach = elfin, fairy-like
síog = fairy
sián = fairy mound
bean sí = banshee, fairy woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìth [ʃiː] = fairy, peace, (fairy) hill, (fairy) mound
sìoth [ʃiəh] = peace
sìothshaimh [ʃiːhəv] = peacefulness, tranquillity
Manx (Gaelg) shee = peace; fairy, fairylike, fairy spirt, sprite
sheean = fairy hill, knoll, charm, fortune
sheeaghan = fairy spirt
sheeoil = composed, peaceable, peaceful, peace-loving
ben shee = banshee, fairy woman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) het, hed = peace, tranquillity, calm
Welsh (Cymraeg) hedd [heːð] = peace, tranquillity, calm, serenity, quiet, dwelling, residence
heddgar = peace-loving, peaceable, peaceful
heddlu = police (force)
heddwas = police officer
heddwch = peace, concord, public order and security
heddychu = to make or restore peace, be reconciled, become pacified or appeased
heddychwr = peacemaker, appeaser, conciliator, pacifist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hedh = tranquillity, peace
hedhwch = peace, quietness, tranquillity
hedhy = to peace make, cause quite, tranquillize, rest, cease, stop
Cornish (Kernewek) hedh = halt, pause, respite
Old Breton hed = peace
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hezañ, heziñ, hezek = to cease, stop, remain, delay
Breton (Brezhoneg) hez = peace (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *sed- (to sit) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include possibly words for to sit in Celtic languages, and chair, nest, seat and sit in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flour

In this post we’re looking into words for flour and related things in Celtic languages.

Skiing slope of flour

Proto-Celtic *mlātos = flour
Gaulish *blatos = flour
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blawd, blaỼt = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) blawd = flour, meal, powder
blawdaidd = mealy, floury, friable
blodiaf, blawdiaf, blawdio = to grind into meal, produce flour, become powdery, turn to dust, sprinkle (with) flour
blodiwr, blawdiwr = flour or meal merchant
Old Cornish blot = flour, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blot, blês = flour, meal
Cornish (Kernewek) bleus = flour
bleus hesken = sawdust
bleus leun = wholemeal
bleusa = to flour
Old Breton blot = flour
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleud = flour, powder
bleudañ = to flour
bleudek = floury
bleud brazed = wholemeal flour
bleud goellet = self-raising flour
bleud gwinizh = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ml̥h₂-tó-s, from *melh₂- (to crush, grind) [source]. Words from the same root include melancholy and melanin in English, and μελανός (melanós – black, dark, blue, bruised) in Greek [source].

Old Irish (Góidelc) men = flour
Irish (Gaeilge) min [ˈmʲɪnʲ/ˈmʲɨ̞nʲ] = meal; powedered matter
min choirce = oatmeal
min chruithneachta = wheatmeal
min sáibh = sawdust
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) min [min] = flour, meal, grounds, filings
min-fhlùir = flour
min-eòrna = barley flour/meal
min-sheagail = rye flour
min-chruithneachd = wheat flour
muileann-mine = flour mill
Manx (Gaelg) meinn = meal
meinn chorkey = oatmeal
meinn churnaght = wheatmeal flour
meinn hoggyl = rye meal
meinn oarn = barley meal
meinn saaue = sawdust

Etymology: unknown

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) peyllyeyt, peillit = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) paill = pollen, flour
peill(i)aid = flour, fine flour, wheat flour, white flour, powder
peilliaid gwenith = (fine) wheat flour
peilliaid haidd = barley flour
peilliaid rhyg = rye flour

Etymology: from the Latin pollen (fine flower, powder, dust), from the Proto-Indo-European *pel- (flour, dust) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Latin pulvis (dust, powder, ashes), include polve (dust, ashes) in Italian, polvo (dust, powder) in Spanish, poussière (dust) in French, and pulverise (to render into dust or powder) in English [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) plúr [pˠlˠuːɾˠ] = flour, flower
plúr geal = white flour
plúr cruithneachta = wheaten flour
plúrach = floury, farinaceous; flower-like, pretty
plúraigh = to effloresce
plúróg = pretty girl
plúrscoth = choicest flower, pick, choice
plúrú = efflorescence
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flùr [fl̪ˠuːr] = flour
flùr lom = plain flour
flùr-éirigh = self-raising flour
Manx (Gaelg) flooyr = flour
flooyr churnaght = wheaten flour
grine-flooyr = cornflour
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) fflwr = flour
Welsh (Cymraeg) fflŵr [fluːr], fflowr = flour (in South Wales)
fflŵr can = wheat flour

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman flur (flower), from the Old French flor (flower), from the Latin flōrem (flower), from flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Italic *flōs (flower, blossom), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (flower, blossom) [source].

The English words flour, flower, flora, blossom and bloom come from the same roots, as does the French word fleur (flower) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flowers

Words for flower, blossom and related words in Celtic languages.

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Proto-Celtic *blātus = flower, blossom
Old Irish (Goídelc) bláth = flower, blossom, bloom
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth [bˠl̪ˠɑː/bˠl̪ˠaː] = blossom, flower; bloom, beauty, prime; prosperity, abundance
bláthach = floral, flowering
bláthadóir = florist
bláthadóireacht = cultivation of flowers
bláthaigh = to blossom, bloom
bláthóg = floret
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) blàth [bl̪ˠaː] = bloom, blossom, flower; consequence, effect; heyday
blàthaich = (to) flower, flourish
blàthach = flowery
Manx (Gaelg) blaa [bleː] = bloom, blossom, flower; heyday, pride
blaaghey = to bloom, blossom, bud, flourish, flower
blaagheyder = florist
blaaoil = floral, florid, flowery
Proto-Brythonic *blọd = flower
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blodeuyn, blodeun, blodeuoed = flower
blodeu, blodev, bloden, blawt, blawd = flowers
Welsh (Cymraeg) blodyn [ˈblɔdɨ̞n / ˈbloːdɪn] = flower, bloom, blossoms, florets, flowering plant, petal
blodau = flowers, blooms, blossom, florets; flowering plant
blodeuad = flowering, blooming, blossoming
blodeua(f), blodeuo = to flower, bloom, blossom, bud; flourish, thrive, prosper; mature, gather flowers; to menstruate
blodeuaidd = floral, flower-like, flowering, floriform
blodeuas = bouquet
blodeuddwyn = floriferous, flower-bearing
Old Cornish blodon = flower, blossom
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) blodon, bledzhian, bledzhan = flower, blossom
Cornish (Kernewek) bleujen [ˈblɛdʒən] = blossom, flower
bleujyowa = to blossom, flower
bleujyowek = flower bed
Old Breton bloduu = blossom, flower
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bleuzff = blossom, flower
Breton (Brezhoneg) bleuñv [blœ̃w] = flowers, flowering; apogee; menstruation
bleuã‘venn = flower
bleuñveg = flowerbed
bleuñvell = jewel, floret
bleuñvellek = flowery
bleuñvin = to flower, blossom, flourish

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰleh₃- (bloom, flower) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include bloom, blossom, blade, flower, flour and flourish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Buying and Purchasing

Words for to buy, purchase and related words in Celtic languages.

image illustrating words for to buy in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *kʷrinati = to buy
Old Irish (Goídelc) crenaid [ˈkʲrʲeniðʲθ] = to buy, purchase, sell
do·aithchren = to redeem, ransom
fo·cren [foˈkren] = to buy, purchase, hire
in·cren = to buy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crenaid = buys, obtains, sells, dispenses
do-cren = purchases
do-aithchren = buys back, redeems
fo-cren = buys, purchases, pays, hires, recompenses
Irish (Gaeilge) crean [cɾʲanˠ] = to obtain, purchase, bestow, spend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) crean = to consume, remove, purchase, marketplace (obsolete)
Proto-Brythonic *prɨnad = to buy
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prinit, prynnu = to buy
Welsh (Cymraeg) prynu [ˈprənɨ / ˈprəni] = to buy, purchase, exchange, redeem, ransom
prynu cath mewn cwd = to buy a pig in a poke
prynedig = bought, purchased, redeemed
prynedigaeth = redemption, buying, purchase
prynedigol = redeeming, redemptive, redeemed
prynwr, prynydd = buyer, purchaser, customer, redeemer
prynwriaeth = comsumerism, redemption
prynwriaethol = comsumerist
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) prenne = to take, buy, purchase, redeem, expiate, pay for
Cornish (Kernewek) prena = to acquire, buy, purchase
prena kath yn sagh = to buy a pig in a poke
prenas = purchase
prenassa = to go shopping, to shop
prenasser, penassores = shopper
prener = buyer, customer, purchaser
Old Breton prenaff = to buy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prenaff = to buy
prener, prenouréss = buyer
Breton (Brezhoneg) prenañ = to buy
dasprenañ = to redeem
rakprenañ = to pre-purchase
prener, prenerez = buyer
prenadenn = acquisition
prener = buyer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷrinéh₂ti, from *kʷreyh₂- (to buy) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include क्रीत (krīt – bought, purchased) and क्रेता (kretā – buyer, purchaser) in Hindi [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cennach = bargin, purchase, transaction
cennaigid = to buy, purchase
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cennach = bargin, transaction, compact
cennaigid = buys, purchases, redeems, saves
cennaigtheóir = redeemer
Irish (Gaeilge) ceannaigh [ˈcan̪ˠəɟ/ˈcan̪ˠə/ˈcan̪ˠiː] = to buy, purchase, redeem, suborn, bribe
ceannach = purchase
ceannachán = purchase, purchased article
ceannaí = buyer, purchaser, dealer, merchant
ceannaíocht = buying, purchasing, dealing, trading
ceannaitheoir = buyer, purchaser, redeemer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceannaich [kʲan̪ʲɪç] = buy, purchase
ceannach = buying, purchasing, purchase, trading, commerce, trade, reward, bribe
Manx (Gaelg) chionnys = to buy. compel
chionnaghey = to buy, purchase
kionnee = to buy
kionnaghey = to buy, buy in, buying, purchase, purchasing, redeem
kionneeaght = buy, merchandise, purchase, traffic, redemption

Etymology: from the Old Irish cenn (head) and -aigid (suffix that turns a noun into a verb) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hammers

Words for hammer and related things in Celtic languages:

Hammer

Proto-Celtic *ordos = hammer
Gaulish Ordo-vices = placename, tribal name
Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = hammer
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = sledgehammer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [ɔːr̪ˠd] = hammer; cock, hammer (of a fireman): rounded but steep mountain
òrd-fiodha = mallet
òrd-ladhrach = claw hammer
òrd-mòr = sledgehammer
Manx (Gaelg) oard = hammer, sledgehammer
oard inginagh = claw hammer
gaal-oard = steam hammer
Proto-Brythonic *orð = hammer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ord, orth, yrd, orð = hammer
Welsh (Cymraeg) gordd [ɡɔrð] = hammer, mallet, sledgehammer
gorddio = to hammer with a mallet, drive with a sledgehammer
gordd haearn = sledgehammer
gordd bren = wooden mallet
Old Breton ord = mallet, hammer,
Middle Breton orz, horz = mallet, hammer,
Breton (Brezhoneg) horzh = mallet, gavel, hammer, pestle
horzhig = sledgehammer
horzh-fuzuilh = rifle butt

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃erg-dʰh₁o-, from *h₃erg- (to perish) and *dʰeh₁- (to do) [source].

Ordovīcēs is the Latin name for a Celtic tribe who lived in what is now North Wales (where I live) and nearby parts of England. In Common Brittonic there were known as *Ordowīcī. The Ordovician geological period (c. 485 – 443 million years ago) is named after them as rocks associated with that period were first found in their former territory by Charles Lapworth in 1879 [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) casúr [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = hammer
casúr ladhrach = claw hammer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) casar [kasər] = small hammer, gavel, knocker
Manx (Gaelg) casoor = hammer (of a gun)

Etymology: from the Anglo-Norman cassur, from the Latin quassō (I shake, quake, wave, flourish), from quatiō (I shake, agitate), from the Proto-Indo-European *kʷeh₁t- (to shake) [source].

Words from the same Latin roots include quash (to suppress, crush) in English, casser (to break) in French, and cascar (to crack, split, hit) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Brythonic *morθul = hammer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) morthol, morthwl, morthuyl, mwrthol, myrthwyl = hammer
Welsh (Cymraeg) morthwyl [ˈmɔrθuɨ̯l / ˈmɔrθui̯l] = hammer, mallet
morthwylio = to hammer, beat with a hammer, forge
morthwylwr = hammerer
morthwylfa = forge, smithy
morthwyl drws = door knocker
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) morthol = hammer
Cornish (Kernewek) morthol = hammer, beetle, maul
mortholya = to hammer
Middle Breton morzol = hammer
morzol dor = door knocker
Breton (Brezhoneg) morzhol = hammer
morzholad = hammer blow
morzholat = to hammer
morzholer = hammerer, horthumper
morzholig = hammer
morzhol-dor, morzhol an nor = door knocker

Etymology: from the British Latin *mortulus, from the Latin martulus (hammer), from marculus (small hammer), possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *melh₂tlo-, from *melh₂- (to grind) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Surfaces

Words for surface, skin and related things in Celtic languages:

Swans on Llyn Padarn / Elyrch ar Lyn Padarn

Proto-Celtic *tondā = surface, skin
Gaulish *tondā = surface, skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) tonn, tond = surface, skin
Irish (Gaeilge) tonn [t̪ˠɑun̪ˠ / t̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / t̪ˠʌn̪ˠ] = surface, skin
faoi mo thoinn = under my skin, within me
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tonn [tɔun̪ˠ] = skin, hide
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tonn, ton, ton(n)en = ley, unploughed land
Welsh (Cymraeg) ton [tɔn] = ley, unploughed land, turf, sod, sward, green, lawn, (earth’s) surface’ skin, rind, crust, peel, appearance, look
tonnen = skin, rind, crust, peel, surface, sod, sward, bog, swamp, quagmire
tondir = ley, lea-land
toniaraf, toniaru = to cover with planks, boards, etc
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ton = unploughed land, meadow, lay
Cornish (Kernewek) tonn = grass
Old Breton tonnenn = rind, surface
Middle Breton ton = rind, surface
Breton (Brezhoneg) tonn = rind, surface

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tend- (to cut off). Words from the same Gaulish / Proto-Celtic roots include tonne in English and French, tunna / tonna (tun, box) in Latin, and tona (surface, kin, bark) in Galician [source].

Proto-Celtic *krokkeno- = skin
Old Irish (Goídelc) croiccenn [ˈkrokʲen͈] = skin, hide, bark, husk
Irish (Gaeilge) craiceann [ˈkɾˠacən̪ˠ / ˈkɾˠæcən̪ˠ] = skin, surface
cruachraicneach = hide-bound
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) craiceann [krɛçgʲən̪ˠ] = skin, parchment
craiceannaiche = skinner
far-chraiceann = epidermis
fo-chraiceann = hypodermic
pàipear-craicinn = parchment
Manx (Gealg) crackan [ˈkraːɣən] = skin, pelt, fur, hide, rind, peel, slough
crackanagh = (of the) skin, cutaneous
aachrackan = veneer
fochrackanagh = hypodermic
crackan screeuee = parchment
Proto-Brythonic *krʉn = skin
Old Welsh groen = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) croen, cruyn, croyn, crwyn = skin, hide, pelt
Welsh (Cymraeg) croen [kroːɨ̯n / krɔi̯n] = skin, hide, pelt, peel, rind, surface, crust; film; a crusty or contemptible fellow
croeni, croenio = to form skin, skin over, heal up
croendenau = thin-skinned, sensitive, easily hurt, touchy
croendew = thick-skinned, insensible, insensitive, callous
croenen = thin skin, cuticle, pellicle, film
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) crochen = skin
Cornish (Kernewek) kroghen = hide
kroghen lagas = eyelid
kroghendanow = sensitive
Middle Breton kroc’hen, krec’hen, krec’hin = skin, crust, membrane
Breton (Brezhoneg) kroc’hen [ˈkʁoːχɛn] = skin, crust
kroc’henenn = membrane

Etymology: probably loaned from a non-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Servants

Words for servants, ploughmen and related people in Celtic languages.

Tour Scotland March Horse Ploughing

Proto-Celtic *ambaxtos = servant
Gaulish *ambaxtos = vassal, high-ranking servant
Old Irish (Goídelc) amus = servant
amsach = mercenary
Irish (Gaeilge) amhas = hireling, servant, mercenary, hooligan
amhsach = wild, unruly
amhasóireacht = hooliganism
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amhas [au.əs] = savage, wild person, madman
amhsach = wild, uncontrollable, stupid, dull
Proto-Brythonic *ammaɨθ [amˈmaɨ̯θ] = servant, worker, labourer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amaeth = ploughman, husbandman, farmer, agriculture
Welsh (Cymraeg) amaeth [ˈameɨ̯θ / ˈamei̯θ] = ploughman, husbandman, farmer, agriculture, ploughmanship, tillage
amaethadwy = farmable, cultivable
amaetha(f), amaethu = to farm, husband, plough, cultivate
amaethdir = arable land, land suitable for cultivation, farm land
amaethdy = farmhouse
amaethddyn = agriculturalist, farmer
amaethedig = farmed, cultivated, cultured
amaethyddiaeth = agriculture, farming
Cornish (Kernewek) ammeth = agriculture, farming
Old Breton ambaith = agriculture, farming

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ambi- (around),‎ *ageti (to drive) and‎ *-os, from the Proto-Indo-European word *h₂m̥bʰi-h₂eǵ- (drive around) [source].

The English word amassador comes from the same root, via the Middle English ambassadore from the Anglo-Norman ambassadeur (ambassador), from the Old Italian ambassadore, from the Old Occitan ambaisador (ambassador), from ambaissa (service, mission, errand), from the Medieval Latin ambasiator (ambassador), from the Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌱𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌹 (andbahti – service, function), from the Proto-Germanic *ambahtaz (servant), from the Gaulish *ambaxtos [source]. The word embassy comes from the same Gaulish word [source].

Proto-Celtic *wastos = servant
Gaulish *wassos = young man, squire
Old Irish (Goídelc) foss = attendant, man-servant, servant
Proto-Brythonic *gwass = boy, servant
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guas, gwas = boy, lad, servant
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwas [ɡwaːs] = boy, lad, stripling, youngster, young man; servant, attendant, employee, officer, vassal, slave
gwasanaeth = service, attendance, a ministering, office, duty, employment
gwasanaethu = to serve, be a servant, attend, wait upon, minister
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guas = servant
gwas = a youth, servant, one of the common people, a mean person, a fellow, rogue, rascal
gwasanaeth = attendance, service, bondage, slavery
Cornish (Kernewek) gwas = chap, fellow, guy, servant
gwas hwel = workman
gwas ti = housemaker
Old Breton guos = vassal, man, husband, farmer
Middle Breton goas = vassal, man, husband, farmer (who rents a farm)
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwaz [ˈɡwaːs] = (young) man, vassal, valet, servant, husband, mermaid

Etymology: possibly comes from the Proto-Indo-European word *upo-sth₂-o-s (standing beneath) [source].

The English word vassal comes from the same Celtic roots, via the Old French vassal, the Medieval Latin vassallus (manservant, domestic, retainer), from the Latin vassus (servant) from the Gaulish *wassos [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) seirbísech = auxiliary, ancillary, servant, agent
Irish (Gaeilge) seirbhíseach = servant
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seirbheiseach [ʃerʲevɪʃəx] = servant, servitor
seirbheisiche = servant
Manx (Gaelg) shirveishagh = attendant, clergyman, minister, servant, server, vassal

Etymology: from the Old French servise (service, servitude, vasselage), from the Latin servitium (slavery, servitude, service), from servus (servant, serf, slave) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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