Eyebrows

Words for eyebrow, eyelash, eyelid and related things in Celtic languages.

002-365 Nothing But Eyebrows

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *abrant- = eyelid
Old Irish (Goídelc) abra = eyelash
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) abra eyelash, eyelid
fabra = eyelash, eyelid, fringe
Irish (Gaeilge) fabhra, abhra = eyelash, (eye)brow
fabhraí = fringe
fabhraíoch = pertaining to eyelashes, ciliary
fabhrán = cilium
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) abhra [aurə] = eyelid, eyelash
abhrad [aurəd] = eyelid, eyelash
fabhra [faurə] = eyelid, eyelash, fringe
fabhrad [faurəd] = eyelid, eyelash, fringe
Manx (Gaelg) ferroogh = eyelash, eyelid
Proto-Brythonic *abrant = eyelid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amrant, amraỽt = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
Welsh (Cymraeg) amrant [ˈamrant] = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow
ar amrant = in the twinkling of an eye, instantly
amrantaf, amrantu = to blink, wink, shut (eyes), doze, slumber sleep, fall asleep
amrantiad = twinkling of an eye, instant
amrantun = nap, sleep
amrantyn = twinkling of an eye, moment, instant, eyelid
Old Cornish abrans = eyebrow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) abrans = eyebrow
Cornish (Kernewek) abrans [ˈabrans] = eyebrow
Middle Breton abrant = eyebrow
abrantec = with large eyebrows
Breton (Brezhoneg) abrant [ˈa.brãnt] = eyebrow
abranteg = finicky, pernickety, haughty, supercilious, punctilious
abrantek = with large eyebrows

Etymology: related to Proto-Celtic *brū- (brow), from PIE *h₃bʰrúHs (eyebrow) [source]. Words from the same roots include brim, brine, brow and front in English, front (forhead) in French, and bryn (brow, edge, crest, ridge) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *malaxs, = eyelid
Old Irish (Goídelc) mala = eyebrow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mala = eyebrow
Irish (Gaeilge) mala [ˈmˠɑl̪ˠə] = eyebrow, brow, slope, incline
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mala [mal̪ˠə] = eyebrow, brow
malairneach [mal̪ˠər̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = frowning
malach [mal̪ˠəx] = having / pertaining to eyebrows
Manx (Gaelg) mollee = brow, eyebrow
Middle Breton maluen = eyelid, eyebrow
maluennec = having big eyebrows
Breton (Brezhoneg) malvenn [ˈmal.vɛn] = eyelid, eyelash, eyebrow, canopy
malvenneg = ciliated
malvennek = having big eyebrows
malvennin, malvenniñ = to blink

Etymology: from PIE *ml̥Hdʰo- [source]. Words from the same roots include brim, brine, brow and front in English, front (forhead) in French, and bryn (brow, edge, crest, ridge) in Swedish [source].

Old Welsh (Kembraec) ail = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ael = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead, edge, border, hem, side, summit
aeldew = thick-browed
Welsh (Cymraeg) ael [aːɨ̯l / ai̯l] = eyebrow, eyelid, brow, forehead
aeldew = thick-browed
aeldrist = sad-faced
aeldrwm = heavy-browed, frowning
aeliad, aelio = to protrude
aeliog = (big-/large-)browed, large-brimmed
Old Breton (Brethonoc) guorail = eyebrow

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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The End

Words for end, after and related things in Celtic languages.

Kyle of Lochalsh / Caol Loch Aillse

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *dīwedom = end
Old Irish (Goídelc) dead [ˈdʲe] = end, conclusion, limit
déidenach = final, last
deired [ˈdʲerʲəð] = remainder, residue, end, rear, conclusion
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dead, deud, diud = end, conclusion, limit
i ndead, inna dead = below, further on, after, behind, since
co dead = forever, to the end, always
fo deoid = = at last, in the end, ultimately
deired = remainder, residue, end, rear, conclusion
deiredach = coming at the end, latest, last
Irish (Gaeilge) diaidh [dʲiəɟ / dʲiə]
as diaidh = after, behind
diaidh ar/i ndiaidh = gradually
i ndiaidh [əˈnʲiəɟ / əˈn̠ʲeːj] = after, later, subsequently
ina ndiaidh sin [ɪnˠə ˈjiə ʃin] = afterwards, after that
deireadh = end, conclusion, termination
deireanach = last, late, latter, recent
deireanaí = lateness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dèidh [dʲeː] = after
an dèidh [ən̪ʲˈdʲeː] = after, behind
dèidheanach = last, hindmost
deireadh [dʲerʲəɣ] = end, rear, stem, remains, leftovers
deireannach [dʲerʲənˠəx] = final, last, ultimate, hindmost, latter, late, tardy, slow, posterior, backward
Manx (Gaelg) jei = afterwards, after, behind
jei shoh = henceforth
jei-cheeayllagh = retarded, backward
jerrey = back, close, conclusion, effect, end, expiration, expiry, extreme, finale, finish
jerrinagh = absolute, belated, closing, end, final, last
jerrinaght = absoluteness, final, finality
Proto-Brythonic *diweð [ˈlɔːn] = end, ending
Old Welsh (Kembraec) diued = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) diuet, diwet, dyuet, diwed, diỽed = end, close, conclusion
diwedho, diwed = to end, finish, close
diwedar, diweddar = late, recent, modern, deceased
Welsh (Cymraeg) diwedd [ˈdɪu̯ɛð] = end, close, conclusion, consumation, termination, extremity, death, event, issue
diweddaf, diwedd(u) = to end, finish, close, terminate, perish, put an end to
diweddar [dɪu̯ˈɛðar] = late, recent, modern, deceased
diweddaru = to modernize, get or become late
diweddaf [dɪu̯ˈɛθav] = last, final, previous, most recent
ar y diwedd = in the end, at the end, at last, ultimately, finally
o’r diwedd = at last, finally
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diwedh, dewedh = an end, bound, goal, limit
diwedha = late, utmost
diwedhas = late
diwedhe = to end, finish, accomplish
diwedhva = an ending place, end, conclusion
Cornish (Kernewek) diwedh = end, outcome
heb diwedh = endlessly, continuously, eternal
war an diwedh = at long last, finally, in the long term
diwedha = to end, expire
diwedhans = expiry
diwedhes = late
diwedhva = destination, end, ending
diwedhys = ended, late, over
Old Breton diued = end
Middle Breton divez, diuez = end
diuezaff = last, final
Breton (Brezhoneg) diwezh [ˈdiwːɛ(s)] = end, final
diwezhañ [di.ˈweː.zã] = last, final
diwezhat [diˈweː(z)at] = late, remained, backward
diwezhataat = to postpone, adjorn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *dīwedeti (to stop), *dī- (from, away) and *wedeti (to lead), from Proto-Indo-European *wédʰeti (to lead), from *wedʰ- (to bind, secure, pledge, guarantee, lead) [source]. Words from the same roots include engage, gage, wage, wager and wed in English, and gager (to guarantee, wager, bet) in French [source]. The word Taoiseach (the Head of the Irish government), possibly comes from the same roots [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Glens and Valleys

Here are some words for valley, glen and related things that are found in some or all of the Celtic languages, and related words in other languages.

Strath Croe
Strath Croe

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *stratos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) srath = grassland, swarth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) srath, sreth, sraith = grass, sward, valley, bottom, meadow or grassy place near a river, fine, tax
Irish (Gaeilge) srath [sˠɾˠa(h)] = river valley, low-lying land along a river
srathach = bottom, low-lying, marshy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) srath [sdrah] = strath, wide valley, vale
srathach = pertaining to or abounding in straths / wide valleys
Manx (Gaelg) strah = level valley, plain, strath, flatness
Proto-Brythonic *strad = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ystrad, istrad, ystrat = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystrad [ˈəsdrad] = (floor of a) valley, vale, plain
Old Cornish stræt = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Middle Cornish (Cernewec strat = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Cornish (Kernewek) stras = flat valley, low lying land, lowland
Old Breton (Brethonoc) strat = bottom, low ground
Middle Breton (Brezonec) strat = bottom, low ground
Breton (Brezhoneg) stad [strɑːt] = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *str̥h₃tós (stretched, spread), from *sterh₃- (to spread, extend, stretch out [Source]. Words from the same roots include sternum, strategy, stratus, stray, street (a type of cloud) and stratosphere in English, estrato (layer, stratum, stratus [cloud]) in Spanish, and sarnu (to trample, tread, ruin) in Welsh [Source].

Cwm Idwal
Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *kumbā = valley
Transalpine Gaulish *cumba = valley
Gaulish *kumba = valley
Irish (Gaeilge) com [kʌmˠ] = coomb, cirque, mountain recess
Proto-Brythonic *komm = valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cum, cwm(m), kwm = a deep narrow valley, dale, dingle
kwm(m)an = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
kwmarch, cwmaearch = ravine, dingle, little valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwm [ˈəsdrad] = a deep narrow valley, coom, glen, dale; hollow, bowl-shaped depression
cwmach = a stoop
cwman = hump, stoop, hunchback, rump
cwmanu = to stoop, hunch
cwmanllyd, cwmanog = hunchbacked, crooked, bent
cwmarch = ravine, dingle
Middle Cornish (Cernewec cum = a valley opening downwards, from a narrow point, a dingle
Cornish (Kernewek) komm = cirque, corrie, cwm
Middle Breton (Brezonec) comm = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
Breton (Brezhoneg) komm [ˈkɔ̃mː] = combe, small valley, (water) trough, river-bed
komman, kommañ = to form hollows
kommek = forming hollows

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kumbʰos / *kumbʰéh₂, either from PIE *kew- (bend) or a from non-Indo-European substrate [Source].

Words from the same roots include cwm, combe (a valley or hollow, often wooded and with no river; a cirque) in English, combe (combe) in French, and coma (combe, cwm, cirque; an alpine meadow situated between two peaks) in Catalan [Source].

A dingle is a small, narrow or enclosed, usually wooded valley [Source].

Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain
Glenfinnan / Gleann Fhionnain

Proto-Celtic *glendos = valley
Old Irish (Goídelc) glenn [ɡʲlʲen͈] = valley
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glenn = valley, hollow, depression
glennach = having vales or hollows, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) gleann [ɟlʲɑun̪ˠ(h) / ɟlʲɑːn̪ˠ / ɟlʲan̪ˠ] = glen, hollow
gleann = abounding in glens, hollow-backed, wavy (hair)
gleanntán = small glen, dell, dale
gleanntóir = glensman, dalesman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gleann [glaun̪ˠ] = glen, valley
gleannach [glan̪ˠəx] = having or related to glens, steep sided
gleannan [glan̪ˠan] = small glen / valley
gleann crochte = hanging valley
gleann sgoraidh = rift valley
Manx (Gaelg) glion(e) [ɡlʲɔᵈn] = valley, glen, vale, creek
Proto-Brythonic *glɨnn [ɡlɨnː] = glen, dale, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glynn, glyn = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley
Welsh (Cymraeg) glyn [ɡlɨ̞n / ɡlɪn] = glen, dingle, dale, dell (wooded) valley, gloom, distressing experience
Middle Cornish (Cernewec glen, glyn = valley (through which a river flows), a woody valley, dale
Cornish (Kernewek) glynn, glydn = deep wooded valley, glen
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glenn, glen = earth, country
Breton (Brezhoneg) glen = bottom, low ground

Etymology: the Proto-Indo-European *glendos (shore). Words from the same root include klit (dune) in Danish, klettur (rock, crag, cliff) in Icelandic, and cleit (rocky outcrop, cliff, reef) in Scottish Gaelic [Source].

The Irish word ailt refers to a steep-sided glen, ravine, height or cliff. There are cognate words in other Celtic languages, such as allt (hill, slope, cliff) in Welsh [More details].

Nant Gwrtheyrn
Nant Gwrtheyrn

Proto-Celtic *nantos / nantus = stream, valley
Gaulish nanto, nantu = valley
Proto-Brythonic *nant [nant] = stream, river, valley
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nant = river, stream, brook
Welsh (Cymraeg) nant [nant] = river, stream, brook, rivulet; torrent, ditch, valley, glen, dale; ravine, gorge
nentig, nennig = small stream
Middle Cornish (Cernewec nans = valley, dale, ravine
Cornish (Kernewek) nans [nans / nænz] = dale, vale, valley
krognans = hanging valley
Old Breton (Brethonoc) nant = valley with watercourses
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nant, ant = valley with watercourses
Breton (Brezhoneg) nant [nãnt] = valley with watercourses (found in place names – archaic)

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *nemetom (sacred place, sanctuary), from the Proto-Indo-European *nem- (to give, take, distribute) [source].

The Francoprovençal word nant (stream) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots [source], as does the French place name Nanterre [source], the Irish word neimheadh (sanctuary, privilege of rank, holy thing), and the Breton word neved / neñved (sanctuary) [source].

More details of words for Streams and Currents in Celtic languages.

Old Welsh (Kembraec) t(o)nou = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tnou, tonou, tyno, tino = valley, vale, hollow, dale
Welsh (Cymraeg) tyno = valley, vale, hollow, dale, plain, green
Cornish (Kernewek) tnow = dale, valley-bottom
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tenou, tnou = bottom, lower part, valley
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tnou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley
trauyen = valley
Breton (Brezhoneg) traoñ, traou [trãw] = bottom, lower part, valley (found in place names)
traoñienn [ˈtrãw.jɛn] = valley

Etymology: unknown [Source].

Another Welsh word for valley is dyffryn [ˈdəfrɨ̞n / ˈdəfrɪn], which comes from dwfr (water) and hynt (course, way). There are no cognates in other Celtic languages, as far as I can discover [Source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Meaty Flesh

Today we’re looking at the words for meat, flesh, breast and related things in Celtic languages.

MEAT

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kīkos = breast
Primitive Irish ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐ (ccica-) = breast
ᚉᚉᚔᚉᚐᚋᚔᚅᚔ (ccicamini) = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) cích [kʲiːx] = breast
Cíchmuine [ˈkʲiːxmunʲe] = male given name
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cích [kʲiːx] = pap, breast, nipple, teat
cíchech, cīgech [ˈkʲiːxʲəx] = big-chested
Cichmuine, Cichmhuine, Cíchmaine = male given name
Irish (Gaeilge) cíoch [ciəx] = breast, pap, papilla, protuberance
cíochach = mammary
cíochbheart = bra(ssiere)
cíoch-chruthach = mammiform
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cìoch [kʲiəx] = breast, pap
cìochach [kʲiəxəx] = mammary, pertainning to breasts, ample-bosomed
cìochag
cìoch [kʲiəxag] = valve, small breast
cìocharan [kʲiəxan] = suckling infant
Manx (Gaelg) keeagh [kiːx] = breast, bud, nipple, pap, teat
keeaghagh = mammary
Proto-Brythonic *kig = meat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cic, kic = meat
cigva meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cicbran, cicuran, kigvrain, kicfran = raven
kicawc, kigawc = meaty, fleshy
kiccyd, kygyd, kigydd = butcher
Welsh (Cymraeg) cig [kiːɡ] = meat, flesh
cigaf, cigo = to fatten, become fleshy
cigaidd = meaty, fleshy, bloody, cruel, carnivorous,
cigfa meat market, butcher’s shop, shambles, slaughter-house, carnage
cigfran = raven
cigog = meaty, fleshy
cigydd = butcher
Old Cornish cic, chic = meat, flesh
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cig, kig = meat, flesh
cigliu = flesh-coloured
cigver, kiguer = flesh-fork
Cornish (Kernewek) kig = meat, flesh
kiger, kigores = butcher
kigereth = butchery, slaughterhouse
kigliw = flesh (colour), pink
kigti, kigva = butcher’s, butchery, slaughterhouse
Old Breton cic = meat, flesh
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quic = meat, flesh
quicguec = fleshy, muscled
Breton (Brezhoneg) kig [kiːk] = meat, flesh
kigder = overweight
kigek = fleshy, muscular, plump
kigenn [ˈkiːɡɛn] = complexion, muscule
kigennan, kigennañ = to build muscule, to heal
kigennek [kiˈɡɛnːek] = muscule
kiger [ˈkiːɡɛr] = butcher
kigerezh [ki.ˈɡɛː.rɛs] = butcher’s shop

Etymology: assumed to be of expressive/imitative origin [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) brollach = breast, bosom, chest
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brollach, brothlach = breast, bosom, chest
Irish (Gaeilge) brollach [bˠəɾˠˈl̪ˠax/ˈbˠɾˠɔl̪ˠəx] = breast, bosom, front, beginning, preface, prologue
brollaiocht = close wrestling
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brollach [brɔl̪ˠəx] = bosom, breast, bust, chest, brisket
Manx (Gaelg) brollagh = bosom, breast

Etymology: related to the Old Irish bruinne (breast) and brú (belly) [source]. See also the post about Hills

Proto-Celtic *weɸolis = flesh, meat (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) feóil, féuil [fʲeːu̯lʲ] = flesh, meat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) feóil, feól = flesh, meat
feólaigid = to make or form flesh
feólairecht = butchery, slaughter
feólamail = the flesh, worldly
feólmar = fleshy
Irish (Gaeilge) feoil [fʲoːlʲ/fʲɔːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feoilteach = carnivorous
feoilteoir = carnivore
feoilséantóir = vegetarian
feoilaire = butcher
feoilmhar = fleshy, fat, flabby
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feòil [fjɔːl̪ˠ] = flesh, meat
feòil-itheach [fjɔːl̪ˠ içəx] = carnivorous
feòil-itheadair [fjɔːl̪ˠ içədɪrʲ] = carnivore
feòil-sheachnair = vegetarian
Manx (Gaelg) feill [feːlʲ] = flesh, meat
feillagh = fleshy, meaty
feill-eeagh = carnivorous
feilleyder = butcher
feill-haghnagh = vegetarian (adj)
feill-haghneyder = vegetartian (person)

Etymology: uncertain [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cnes = skin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cnes, cnis, cneis, cneas = skin, surface, body, flesh, bosom, breast
Irish (Gaeilge) cneas [cnʲasˠ/cɾʲasˠ] = skin, good appearance
cneasach = covered with skin, cutaneous
cneasaí = close companion, spouse, healer
cneasaigh = to cicatrize, heal
cneasluiteach = skintight
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cneas [krʲẽs] = skin, bosom
cneasachadh [krʲesəxəɣ] = (act of) squeezing, tightening, pressing, making slender, curing, healing
Proto-Brythonic *knōto- = flesh (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) knaud, cnaut, knaỽt, knawt = flesh
knowdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
knaỽtaỽl, knaỽdaỽl, knoawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnawd [knau̯d] = flesh
cnawdaidd = pertaining to the flesh, carnal
cnawd(i)edig = fleshy, carnal
cnawdiad = incarnation, putting on of flesh
cnawdiaf, cnawdio = to incarnate, gather flesh, be conceived
cnawdig = fleshy, carnal, fat, plump
cnawdol = bodily, carnal, physical, sensual, fleshy, plump
Cornish (Kernewek) kneus = skin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kneud = carnality, fleshliness (?)

Etymology: possibly from PIE *kneu-t- [source].

More Celtic words for breast and meat can be found on the posts about Hills, Central Hearts, Baskets, Wings, Bones, Fatty Lard and Food

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lies and Deceit

Words for deceit, treachery, conspiracy and related things in Celtic languages.

Colonial Conspiritors

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *mratrom = deceit, betrayal, treachery
Old Irish (Goídelc) mrath [ˈmr͈aθ] = deceiving, betraying
marnaid [ˈmar͈n͈ɨðʲ] = to betray, deceive, delude
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brath =
mairnid = to betray, deceive, delude
Irish (Gaeilge) brath [bˠɾˠɑh/bˠɾˠah] = perception, feeling, detection, spying, betrayal, expectation, intention, dependence, reliance
braith [bˠɾˠa/bˠɾˠaç] = to perceive, feel, spy out, note, betray, sense, intend, expect, depend on
braiteach = perceptive, alert, wary, sensitive, treacherous
braistint = perception
braiteoir = sensor
brathadóir = betrayer, spy, informer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brath [brah] = betraying, giving away, betrayal, knowledge
brathadair [brahədɪrʲ] = betrayer, informer, traitor
brathadh = betraying, giving away, betrayal, treason, informing on
brathach [brahəx] = traitorous
brathaich = (to) betray, inform on
Manx (Gaelg) brah = betray, disclose, betrayal, disclosure
brahder = detector, traitor, betrayer, informer
braheyder = betrayer, traitor
Proto-Brythonic *brad = treachery, betrayal, deceit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) brat, brad = treachery, betrayal, deceit, guile, ruse, conspiracy, treason
bradu = to commit treachery, betray, deceive, plot, conspire
bradedic = treacherous, deceitful
bradaỽc, bradouc, bradog, bradoc = treacherous, deceitful, guileful, false
bratwr, bradỽr, bradwr = traitor, betrayer
bradychu, bredychu = to betray, be disloyal, deceive
Welsh (Cymraeg) brad [braːd] = treachery, betrayal, deceit, guile, ruse, conspiracy, treason
bradaf, bradu = to commit treachery, betray, deceive, plot, conspire
bradedig = treacherous, deceitful
bradog = treacherous, deceitful, guileful, false, traitor, deserter
bradwr, bradydd = traitor, betrayer
bradwriad = conspiracy
bradychu = to betray, be disloyal, deceive, reveal unintentionally
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bras = conspiracy, plot (?)
Cornish (Kerneweg) bras = conspiracy, plot
brasa = to conspire, plot
braser, brasores = conspirator, plotter
Old Breton (Brethonog) brat = deception, betrayal
Middle Breton (Brezonec) barat = deception, betrayal
Breton (Brezhoneg) barad [ˈbɑː.rat] = deception, betrayal, perfidy
baradañ = to betray
barader = traitor
baraderezh = treachery

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic marnati (to betray), possibly from Proto-Indo-European *mr̥-né-h₂-ti from *merh₂- (to crumble, destroy), which is also the root of merja (to squash, crush, bruise) in Icelandic [source].

Proto-Celtic *brenkā = lie
Old Irish (Goídelc) bréc [bʲrʲeːɡ] = lie, falsehood, deception, exaggeration
brécach [ˈbʲrʲeːɡax] = lying, false, deceitful
brécaid = to deceive, entice, seduce
brécairecht = cunning, deceit, deception
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bréc, brég = falsehood, lie, deception
brécach, brégach = lying, deceitful, counterfeit, false, entice, coax
brécaid, bréicid = to deceive, lead astray, entice, seduce, decoy
brécaire = liar, deceiver, flatterer, hypocrite
brécán = plaything, toy
Irish (Gaeilge) bréag [bʲɾʲeːɡ] = lie, falsehood, false; to cajole, coax
bréagach [ˈbʲɾʲeːɡəx] = liar, lying, false
bréagadh = coaxing, cajolery
bréagadóir = liar, deceiver, cajoler, wheedler
bréagadóireacht = falsehood, deceit, cajolery, wheedling
bréagán [ˈbʲɾʲeːɡɑːnˠ] = toy, plaything
bréagchéadfa = hallucination
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) breug [brʲiag] = falsehood, lie, untruth, deceiving, artificial, fake, false
breugach [brʲiagəx] = deceitful, dishonest, false, lying
breugadair [brʲiagədɪrʲ] = liar
breugadh [brʲiəgəɣ] = coaxing, cajoling, enticing, soothing
breugag [brʲiagag] = little lie, lying woman
breugaireachd [brʲiəgɛrʲəxg] = habit of lying, mendacity
Manx (Gaelg) breag = lie, fallacy, sham, fiction, invention, untruth
breagagh = lying, false, imitation, extravagant, fictious, spurious
breageraght = equivocation, lying
breagerey = liar, romancer, storyteller, dissembler
breageyder = fabler, fibber, leg-puller
breagerys = lying
breigey = to beguile, cajole, coax, entice, decoy, lure, persuade, seduce, wheedle

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European bʰrenḱ- from *merh₂- (to deviate, corrupt) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Colourful Hues

Words for colour, hue, pigment and related colours in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *līwos = colour
Gaulish *lios = colour
Old Irish (Goídelc) [ˈtane] = lustre, beauty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lí, li = beauty, lustre, glory, complexion, slendour, appearance, pallor
Irish (Gaeilge) [l̠ʲiː] = colour, complexion, lustre, sheen, pigment(ation)
líú = (act of) colouring, painting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = paint, colour, tinge, hue, complexion, properity, happiness
lìth [l̪ʲiː] = lustre, gloss, splendour, complexion, hue
lìtheach [l̪ʲiː] = greasy, slimy,slippery
Manx (Gaelg) lhee = pigment, pigmentation
Proto-Brythonic *lliw = colour
Old Welsh liu = colour, hue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llyu, lliw, lliỽ, llyw = colour,hue
lliwyav, lliwaw = to colour, paint, dye
lliỽyd, lliwyd = dyer, colourer, painter
Welsh (Cymraeg) lliw [ɬɪu̯] = colour, hue, tint, complexion, countenance, colouring
lliwddall = colourbind
lliwgar = colourful, vivid, beautiful, handsome
lliw(i)af, lliw(i)o = to colour, tinge, paint, dye
lliw(i)og = coloured, tinted, dyed, painted
lliwydd = dyer, colourer, painter
Old Cornish liu = colour
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) liu, lyw = colour, dye, hue
liue = to colour, paint
liuor = painter, dyer
Cornish (Kernewek) liw = colour,dye, paint
liwa = to colour, dye, paint
liwans = painting
liwus = colourful
liwayans = painting, picture
liways = coloured, dye
Old Breton (Brethonoc) liu = colour, ink, dyed
Middle Breton (Brezonec) liu, liou = colour, ink, dyed
liuaff = to colour, dye, paint
Breton (Brezhoneg) liv [liw] = colour, ink, paint, dyed
livañ [ˈliː.vã] = to colour, dye, paint, depict
livek [ˈliːvek] = coloured
liver, livour [ˈliː.vɛr/ˈli.wːər] = painter, colourist
livus [ˈliːvys] = dye, picturesque

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *slih₂-wó-s from *(s)leh₃y- (blueish, plum-coloured) and *-wós (creates adjectives from verb stems) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include livid, lurid and sloe in English, slíva (plum) in Czech, and possibly lloer (moon) in Welsh, loor (moon) in Cornish and loar (moon) in Breton [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dath [daθ] = colour, dye
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dath = colour, dye, hue, tint, complexion
dathach = coloured
dathaid, daithaigid = colours, dyes, stains
dathamail = coloured, fine, handsome, beautiful, comely, graceful
dathugud = colouring, dyeing, painting
Irish (Gaeilge) dath [d̪ˠax/d̪ˠɑh/d̪ˠah] = colour, dye
dathach = coloured
dathadóir = colourist, dyer, painter, exaggerator, fictionist
dathadóireacht = (act of) dyeing, painting
dathaigh = to colour,dye, paint
dathannach = multi-coloured, gaily-coloured, colourful, glowing
dathdhall = colour-blind
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dath [dah] = colour, colouring, dye, pigment, dying, hue, tint, staining, suit (of cards)
dathach [dahəx] = coloured, colourful
dathachadh [dahəxəɣ] = colourising, dyeing, staining
dathadair [dahədɪrʲ] = dyer, colourist
dathail [dahal] = colourful
dathte [dahdʲə] = coloured
Manx (Gaelg) daah = colour, dye, hue, paint, pigment, singe, stain, tincture
daahagh = coloured, stainable
daahder = colourer, colourist, dyer, exaggerator, painter
daahit = coloured, dyed, painted, pigmented, stained
daahoil = colourful, picturesque, well-coloured

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) gné = appearance, form, kind, sort, species
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gné = kind, species, appearance, form, way, manner
Irish (Gaeilge) gné [ɟnʲeː/ɟɾʲeː] = species, kind, form, appearance
gnéitheach = specific, of good appearance
gnétheacht = specificity
gnéthigh = to regain appearance, mend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnè [grʲɛ̃ː] = sex, gender, genre, kind, sort, temper, disposition, genus, species
gnè-fhàs [grɛ͂ː aːs] = evolution
gnè-eòlas = typology
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
gorne = colour, hue, tint
Welsh (Cymraeg) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
agne = colour, tincture
gorne = colour, hue, tint, tincture, blush, brightness, appearance, aspect

Etymology: from PIE *ǵenh₁- (to produce, beget, give birth) [source]. Words from the same roots include gender, general, generate, genius and germ in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Long Distance

Words for long, far, distant and related things in Celtic languages.

A White Rumped Shama male in the hot sun

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *sīros = long
Gaulish siros = long
Old Irish (Goídelc) sír [sʲiːr] = lasting, constant
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sír = long, lasting, constant
Irish (Gaeilge) síor- [ʃiːɾˠ / ʃiəɾˠ] = perpetual, continual, ever-
síoraí = eternal, perpetual, unceasing, continual, constant, perservering
síoraigh = to perpetuate
síoraíocht = eternity, permanence, lastingness, constancy
síorchaint = talking continually, never-ending talk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìor- [ʃiər̪] = continual(ly), perpetual(ly), incessant
sìorrachd [ʃiərˠ̪əxg] = eternity
siorraidh [ʃiər̪ʲɪ] = eternal, everlasting
Manx (Gaelg) sheer- = continuous, perennial, endless, permanent, ever, continual, consant
sheeraghey = to perpetuate
sheer dy sheer = continually
sheer-riaght = eternity
Proto-Brythonic *hit [ˈhiːr] = long, tall
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hir = long
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hir, huy, hwy = long, tall, lenghty, extensive, tedious
hiraeth, hyreyth = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia
hiraethu, hiraethav = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirfaith, hirveith, hirueith, hir vaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
Welsh (Cymraeg) hir [hiːr] = long, tall, lenghty, extensive
hiraeth [ˈhɪraɨ̯θ/ˈhiːrai̯θ] = grief or sadness after the lost or departed, longing, yearning, nostalgia, wistfulness, homesickness, earnest desire
hiraethaf, hiraethu = to long, yearn, sorrow, grieve
hirder = length, longitude
hirhaf, hirhau = to lengthen, prolong, extend
hirfaith = long, prolonged, vast, long-winded, tedious
hirian = lanky person, tall slim fellow, gangrel, long, tall
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hir, hŷr = long, tall, prolix, tedious, dilatory
hirenath = a length of time, a long time, duration
hireth, hyreth = longing, an earnest desire, regretting, regret
hirgorn = trumpet
Cornish (Kernewek) hir = long, tall
hirder = length, tallness
hireth = homesickness, longing, loneliness, nostalgia, yearning
hirthek = homesick, longing, lonely, yearning
hirhe = to lengthen
hirneth = a very long time, tedium
hirwelyek = long-sighted
Middle Breton hyr, hir, hirr = long, far
hirder = length, anxiety
Breton (Brezhoneg) hir [ˈhiːr] = long, more
hiraat [hiˈrɑːt] = to lengthen, lie down
hiraezh [hi.ˈrɛːs] = impatience, haste, nostaligia, melancholy
hiraezhus [hiˈrɛːzys] = impatient, nostaligic
hirded [ˈhir.det] = length
hirder [ˈhirdɛr] = length, anxiety
hirnezh [ˈhirnəs] = length, boredom, melancholy
hirvoudus [hirˈvuːdys] = lamentable, moaning, plaintive

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-ró-s, from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include menhir (a single tall standing stone as a monument) in English and French (borrowed from Breton maen-hir), soir (evening) in French, sedert (since) in Dutch, seit (since, for) in German, and hidas (slow, stupid) in Finnish [source].

Proto-Celtic *siti- = length
Old Irish (Goídelc) sith- = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) sith- = long
Old Welsh (Kembraec) hit = length
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) hyt, hyd = length, height, duration
hyduod = continuance, continuation
Welsh (Cymraeg) hyd [hɨːd / hiːd] = length, height, duration, until, throughout, during
hydaeth = length, longitude
hydfod = continuance, continuation
hydiog = lengthy, long, tall
hydol = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) hes, hês, heys, hŷs = longitude, length, duration
Cornish (Kernewek) hys, hes = extent, length
hys-ha-hys = altogether, end to end
a-hys = along
dhe-hys = at length
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hit = length
Middle Breton (Brezonec) het = length
Breton (Brezhoneg) hed [ˈheːt] = length, longitude, ordered
hedan, hedañ = to lengthen
a-hed = along, throughout
hed-ha-hed = all along

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *seh₁-tó- (lengthened), from *seh₁- (long, lasting) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) fota [ˈfoda] = long
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fota, fata = long, enduring
Irish (Gaeilge) fad [fˠɑd̪] = length, distance, duration, extent
fada [ˈfˠɑd̪ˠə / ˈfˠad̪ˠə] = long, far
fadáil = delaying, lingering, dilatoriness
fadáoch = tall man, long fellow
fadáocht = lengthiness, longsomeness
fadálach = slow, tardy, dilatory, lingering, tedious
fadálacht = tardiness, tediousness
fadó = long ago
fadó fadó = once upon a time
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fad [fad] = length, duration
fada [fadə] = long, far, lanky, tall
fadachadh [fadəxəɣ] = elongating, lengthening
fadachd [fadəxg] = longing, yearning, length
fadal [fadəl̪ˠ] = delay, tediousness, longing
fadalach [fadəl̪ˠəx] = late, tardy, tedious, wearisome
fada air ais = backward, oldfashioned, uncool
fada air astar = far off / away
o chionn fhada = a long time ago, for a long time
Manx (Gaelg) foddid = distance, remoteness
foddey = afar, distance, far, markedly, remote(ly), long
foddey er-dy-henney = long ago, long since
foddey ersooyl = far afield, far away, outlying
foddey-hannaghtyn = lingering, long-distance
foddeeaght = distance, fervent desire, homesickness, longing, nostalgia

Etymology: from Old Irish fot (length), from PIE *wasdʰos (long, wide), from *h₁weh₂- (empty, wasted). Words from the same roots include waste and vast in English, and vaste (profound) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *kēnos = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) cían [kʲiːa̯n] = distant, far, lasting, long, since
cíana = distance, length, long time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cían = long, enduring, far, distant
cíana = length, distance
Irish (Gaeilge) cian [ciənˠ] = length of time, age, distance, distant time, long, distant
cianaimsir = a long time
cianaistear = long, tedious, journey
cianamharc = distant view
cianaois = old age
cianaosta = long-lived, very old, pristine, primeval
cianda = distant, remote
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cian [kʲian] = distant, far off, faraway, long, tedious, weary
cian-aimsir = antiquity
cian-chonaltradh = telecommunication(s)
cian-fhada = extremely long distance

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷello- = far
Gaulish pelignos = stranger, foreigner, born far away
Old Welsh (Kembraec) pel = far, distant, remote
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pell = far, distant, remote
bellbell, bell-bell, pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig, pelledic = far (off), remote
pellynnic, pellennic = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellau, pellav = to go far
pellter, pellder, pelther = (great) distance, remoteness
Welsh (Cymraeg) pell [pɛɬ / peːɬ] = far, far-off, far-away, distant, remote, far-reacing, long (time), far (in the past of future), late
pellbell = further and further, very far (off)
pelledig = far (off), remote
pelledd = entire extent, total duration, the whole, entirety
pellennig, pellynnig = far-away distant, remote, ancient
pellhaf, pellhau = to go far (from), distance oneself (from), to cause (sb/sth), to be far (from), to postpone
pellter = (great) distance, remoteness, length (of time), distant place
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = farther, longer
pellder = distance, remoteness
pellear = a long time
pelly = to render distant, to remove far off, to drive away
Cornish (Kernewek) pell = distant, remote, far, long
pella = extreme, farther, farthest, further, furthest, utmost, moreover
pellder = distance, long time, remoteness
pellgomunyans = telecommuication
pellgowsel, pellgowser = (tele)phone
pellgowsell = mobile-phone
pellhe = to banish, move away, send away
pellskrifen = fax telegram
pellweler = telescope
pellwolok = television
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pell = distant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pell = distant
pellhat = to get away from
Breton (Brezhoneg) pell [pɛlː] = far, long, late
pellaat [pɛˈlɑːt] = to move away
pellad = long time
pelladur, pellded = distance
pellder = distant, length of time
pellgemenn = remote control
pellgomz [ˈpɛl.ɡɔ̃ms] = telephone
pellidigezh = distance
pellwel = television

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *kʷel-so- from *kʷel- (to turn, revolve around, sojourn). English words beginning with tele-, such as telescope and telephone, come from the same PIE roots [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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A Bit of Bitterness

Words for bitter, sour and related things in Celtic languages.

A pint at Cafe Cargo

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *swerwos = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) serb [sʲerv] = bitter, bitterness
serbae = bitterness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serb = bitter, hurtful, grievous, disagreeable, harsh, discordant
serbae, seirbe = bitterness, asperity
Irish (Gaeilge) searbh [ˈʃaɾˠəvˠ / ˈʃarˠu(ː)] = bitter, sour, acid
searbhaigh = to sour, embitter, become bitter
searbhán = bitter person, bitter herb, bitters
searbhánta = bitter, acrid
searbhas = bitterness, sourness, acidity
searbhasach = bitter, acrimonious
searbhóg = bitter person, bitter woman, bitter drink
searbhú = embitterment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searbh [ʃɛrɛv] = bitter, sour, tart, disagreeable, acidic
searbh-chainnt = sarcasm
searbh-ghlòr = cacophony
searbh-nhilis = bitter-sweet
duine searbh = disagreeable person
fion searbh geal = dry white wine
leann searbh = bitter (ale)
’s searbh an fhirinn = the truth hurts
Manx (Gaelg) sharroo = acid, acrid, acrimonious, bitter, cutting, embittered, sardonic, sour, tart, unpalatable, vitriolic
sharrooaghey = to embitter
sharrooane = bitters
sharrooid = bitterness
lhune sharroo = bitter (ale/beer)
Proto-Brythonic *hwerw = bitter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chuerv, chuerw, chwerw, chuero, chỽerw = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh
chwerwy, cwherwa = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwder, chweruder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwed, chỽerỽed = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwerw [ˈχwɛru/ˈχweːru] = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh, rough, severe, sharp, surly, hurtful, angry, irate, spiteful, cross, cruel, sorrowful
chwerwaf, chwerwi = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwaidd = bitter, sharp
chwerwder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwedd = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) chuero, wherow = bitter, cruel, hardhearted
Cornish (Kernewek) hwerow = bitter, harsh, sharp
hwerowder = acrimony
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hueru = bitter
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hueru, fero, huerhue = bitter
hueruentez = bitterness
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwerv [χwɛʁw] = bitter
c’hwervaat = to make or become bitter
c’hwervded, c’hwervder, c’hwerventez, c’hwervoni = bitterness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *swer- (to ache, to fester, wound, injury). Words from the same root include sword in English, chwarren (gland, knot in wood, boil, ulcer) in Welsh, zweren (to swear, pledge, declare under oath) in Dutch, and schwären (to fester, hurt, suppurate) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷereti, gʷorti- = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) goirt [ɡor͈ʲtʲ] = bitter, salty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) goirt = hungry, starved, bitter, sour, salt, sharp, keen
Irish (Gaeilge) goirt [ɡʌɾˠtʲ / ɡɔɾˠtʲ] = salt, saline, salted, bitter
goirte = saltiness, salinity, brackishness, bitterness
goirteamas = saltiness, bitterness, salt food
goirtigh = to salt, pickle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goirt [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲ] = sore, painful, sour, salted
goirteas [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəs] = pain, ache, painfulness
goirtear [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲər] = miser, mean/stingy person
goirte [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲə] = soreness, painfulness, sourness, acerbity, saltiness
goirteachadh [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəxəɣ] = hurting, afflicting, acidifying, making sour, leavening
Manx (Gaelg) gort = acid, bitter, brackish, rank, vinegarish, vinegary, sour, hurt, poignant, acrid, acrimony
gortaghey = hurt, hurting, maim, pain
gortagh = beggarly, frugal, grudging, hurt, meagre, miser

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷorti-, from *gʷʰer- (warm, hot). Words from the same root include barmy, furnace, gore, thermal and warm in English, and garstig (rude, nasty, beastly, foul) in German [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Muddy Mires

Words for mud and related things in Celtic languages.

HFF 44

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *latyos = moist
Old Irish (Goídelc) lathach [dʲerɡ] = mud, mire
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lathach, laithech, lathaig = mire, puddle, quagmire, morass
Irish (Gaeilge) lathach [ˈl̪ˠɑhəx / l̪ˠaiç] = mud, slush, slime
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lathach [l̪ˠa.əx] = mire, ooze, sludge, quicksand
lathach-mhòine = peat-bog
lathach sàile = saltmarsh
lathachach [l̪ˠa.əxəx] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathachail [l̪ˠa.əxal] = muddy, oozy, sludgy
lathadh = besemearing, (be)numbing, heat (in cats)
Manx (Gaelg) laagh = mire, mud
laagh vog = sludge
laaghagh = muddy, sludgy, slushy
laaghan = muddy place, slough
Proto-Brythonic *llėd = mud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaid = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze
lleidyawc = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaid [ɬai̯d] = mud, mire, dirt, clay, slime, ooze, quagmire, quicksand, dregs
lleidfa = muddy or clayey place
lleidfysgaf, lleidfysgu = to, knead, work clay, bespatter with mud or dirt, bedraggle, bemire
lleidiaf, lleidio = to turn into mud or clay, become sodden
lleidiog = muddy, clayey, miry, oozy, slimy
lleidiogaf, lleidiogi = to become muddy or miry
lleidiogrwydd = muddiness, ooziness, turbidity
lleidiol = full of mud, muddy, miry, clayey
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lued, luth, lyys, lys, lŷs = mud, mire, dirt, filth
luedic = miry, filthy, stinking
lyys haal = salt-marsh
Cornish (Kernewek) leys [lɛɪz] = mud, slime
leysek = mire
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lec’hid = slime, silt
Breton (Brezhoneg) lec’hid = slime, silt
lec’hidadur = siltation
lec’hidan, lec’hidañ = to silt up, become gelatinous, viscous
lec’hideg = mudflat
lec’hidus = muddy

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lat- (damp, wet). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) láp = mud, mire, sin, vice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) láip [l͈aːb] = mud, mire, sin, vice
Irish (Gaeilge) láib [l̪ˠɑːbʲ/l̪ˠæːbʲ] = mud, mire; to muddy, spatter
caoch láibe = mole
oitir láibe = mud-bank
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làb [l̪ˠaːb] = mire, mud, muddy puddle, day’s labour
làbach [l̪ˠaːbəx] = marsh, swamp
làbachas [l̪ˠaːbəxəs] = swampiness, bogginess
làban [l̪ˠaːban] = mire, mud, muddy place, dirty work, drudgery, wet and muddy person
làbanachadh [l̪ˠaːbanəxəɣ] = smearing, daubing, dirtying, wallowing, bedraggling, drenching
làbrach [l̪ˠaːbarəx] = miry, muddy, dirty, dirty/unkempt person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loob = slime, sludge
Cornish (Kernewek) loub = slime, sludge
louba = to lubricate

Etymology: probably related to lathach [source].

Proto-Celtic *kʷrīyess = clay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cré [kʲrʲeː] = clay, earth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cré, cre = clay, earth
créda, criadta, criata, creodae = clayey, earthen, fictile (pliable, moldable)
Irish (Gaeilge) cré = clay, earth, dust
créachadh = (act of) earthing, moulding
créafóg = clay, earth
crécholúr = clay pigeon
cré-earra = earthenware
créúil = clayey, earthy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) criadh [krʲiəɣ] = clay
criadgadair [krʲia.ədɪrʲ] = potter
criadhadaireachd [krʲia.ədɪrʲəxg] = pottery
Manx (Gaelg) cray = ash, clay, pipe clay
crayee = ceramic, earthen
crayoil = clayey, earthy
Proto-Brythonic *prið [ˈpriːð] = clay, mud, earth
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) prid, pridd = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddo = to cover with earth, bury
pridell, priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil
priddled, priddlyd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty,
Welsh (Cymraeg) pridd [priːð] = soil, earth, dust, ground, clay, mortar, plaster
priddach = soil, earth, clay, earthenware
pridd(i)af, pridd(i)o = to cover with earth, bury, plaster, daub
priddawr = potter
pridd-dom = dirt, mud, clay
priddell = clod, sod, dust, soil, grave, potsherd, brick, tile
priddfaen = brick, (earthenware) tile for making bricks
priddl(l)yd = earthy, earthen, dirty, dusty, uncouth
priddwr = mason, plasterer, burier
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) pri, pry, prî = mould, earth, clay
prian, prían = clayey ground
Cornish (Kernewek) pri = clay, mud
priek = clayey
prien = clay ground
priweyth = pottery
priweythor, priweythores = potter
priweythva = clay-works, pottery
Old Breton (Brethonoc) pri = clay, mudt
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pry = clay, mud
Breton (Brezhoneg) pri [priː] = clay, mud, mortar
priaj = ceramic
prian, priañ = to coat with clay
priasell = waste, quagmire
priasellek = full of clay mud
prieg = clayey, muddy

Etymology possibly from Proto-Indo-European *krey- (to siftm separate, divide). Words from the same roots include latex in English, latãkas (chute, gutter, duct) in Lithuanian, and lag (to wet, moisten) in Albanian [source].

Middle Breton (Brezonec) fanc, fancq, fang, fank = mud, excrement
Breton (Brezhoneg) fank [ˈfãŋk] = mud, excrement
fankan, fankañ = to poop
fankeg = muddy

Etymology from Norman fanque (mud) [source] from Old French fange (mud, addle, mire), from Vulgar Latin *fanga/*fangus (mud), possibly from Frankish, from Proto-Germanic *fanją (swamp, fen). The French words fange (filth, mire, debauchery) and fagne (marshland, fen), and the Catalan word fang (mud) come from the same roots [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaka, lacca, llacca = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slome
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaca [ɬaka] = mud, sludge, mire, dirt, muck, puddle, filth, slime
llaceilyd = muddy, miry, dirty

Etymology from Middle English lake/laca (lake, stream; ditch, drain, sewer), from Old French lac (lake) or Latin lacus (lake, basin, tank), to-Italic *lakus (lake), from Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool) [source].

Proto-Celtic *lutā = dirt, mud
Gaulish *lutos = swamp
Celtiberian *lutā = swamp
Old Irish (Goídelc) loth [ˈloθ] = mire, mud, swamp, marsh
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) loth, lath = mud, mire, quagmire, marsh
Irish (Gaeilge) lodair = to cover with mud, muddy, to wallow in mire, grovel
lodán = stagnant pool, puddle
lodar = miry place, slough, soft, flabby person
lodartha = muddy, slushy, slobby, soft, flabby, grovelling, abject, base, vulgar
lodarthacht = muddiness, slushiness, softness, flabbiness, abjectness, baseness, vulgarity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lod [l̪ˠɔd] = pool, pond, marsh
lodagan = small pool of water
lodan = puddle, small pool, small marsh

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *lew- (dirt, mud) [source].

Lutetia, the Gallo-Roman town founded in 52 BC that became Paris, gets it’s name from the Gaulish word *lutos (swamp) [source]. It was known as Lutetia Parisiorum by the Romans.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Through and Through

Here are some words for through, across, over and related things in Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *trē = through
Old Irish (Goídelc) tre [tʲrʲe] = through
trium = through me
triut = through you (sg)
triit = through him
tree = through her
triunn = through us
triib = through you (pl)
treu, tréu = through them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tri, tre, tré, trí [tʲrʲe] = through, along, across, by means of
tríom(sa) = through me
triut, tréot = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trethe, trithe = through her
trínn(e) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Irish (Gaeilge) trí [tʲɾʲiː] = through, within, throughout, on account of, by mean of
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tre [edər] = through
tríom(sa) = through me
tríot(sa) = through you (sg)
tríd(sean) = through him
trínn(e) = through her
tríthi(se) = through us
tríbh(se) = through you (pl)
tríothu(san) = through them
Manx (Gaelg) trooid = through, betwixt
my hrooid = through me
dty hrooid = through you (sg)
e hrooid = through him
e trooid = through her
nyn drooid = through us / you (pl) / them
Proto-Brythonic *truɨ = through
Old Welsh troi = through
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) trui, trwy, drỽy = through
trwof, drwof = through me
trwot, drwot = through you (sg)
trwyddo, drwyddo = through him
trwyddi, drwyddi = through her
trwom, drwom = through us
trwoch, drwoch = through you (pl)
trwyddynt, drwyddynt = through them
Welsh (Cymraeg) trwy, drwy [truːɨ̯/trʊi̯] = through(out), from end to end, over, across, along, while, by (means of), according to, because of
trwyddo (f)i = through me
trwyddot ti = through you (sg)
trwyddo fe/fo = through him
trwyddi hi = through her
trwyddon ni = through us
trwyddoch chi = through you (pl)
trwyddyn nhw = through them
trwyenaf, trawenu = to go (over, through), cross, bring through
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre = through
Cornish (Kernewek) dre = through via, by means of , per
dredhov = through me
drehos = through you (sg)
dredho = through him
dredhi = through her
dredhon = through us
dredhowgh = through you (pl)
dredha = through them
dre bub rann/radn = throughout
dre happ = by chance, by the way, incidentally
dre wall = accidentally, by accident
drefen = because of, on account of
Old Breton (Brethonoc) dre = through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dre, der, tre = through
dreizoff = through me
drezoude = through you (sg)
dreizaff = through him
drezi, dredi = through her
dré-omb = through us
dreizoch = through you (pl)
drezo, drede, dreze = through them
Breton (Brezhoneg) dre [dreː] = through, by, with
drezon = through me
drezout = through you (sg)
drezañ = through him
drezi = through her
drezomp = through us
drezoc’h = through you (pl)
drezo, dreze = through them
dre gant = percent
dre guzh = in secret
dre zegouezh = by chance, by accident

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂-/*ter- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include thorough and through in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *taras = through, across
Old Irish (Goídelc) tar = across, over, through
thorum(sa) = over me
torut(su) = over you (sg)
tarais = over him
tairse = over her
torunn(i) = over us
toraib = over you (pl)
tairsiu = over them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tar = over, across, covering
torum, torom, toram = over me
torut, torot, thorad = over you (sg)
tarais, taris, tairis = over him
tarsi, tairs = over her
torunn, torund = over us
toraib thoruibh = over you (pl)
tairis, tairise = over them
Irish (Gaeilge) thar [haɾˠ/hæɾʲ] = over, above, across, by, past, through, beyond, more than
tharam(sa) = over/beyond me
tharat(sa) = over/beyond you (sg)
thairis(-sean) = over/beyond him
thairsti(se) = over/beyond her
tharainn(e) = over/beyond us
tharaibh(se) = over/beyond you (pl)
tharstu(san) = over/beyond them
thar bord = overboard
thar sáile = overseas
thar téarma = overdue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) thar [har] = across, over
tharam(sa) = over me
tharad(sa) = over you (sg)
thairis(-san) = over him
thairte(se) = over her
tharainn(e) = over us
tharaibh(se) = over you (pl)
tharta(san) = over them
thar bòrd/stoc = overboard
thar chnoc is sloc fuar fad ás = over the hills and far away
thar chuain = overseas, across the sea
thar tomhais = beyond measure
Manx (Gaelg) har [har] = across, beyond, former
harrish = above, across, beyond, bygone, over, trans
harrym(s) = over me
haryd(s) = over you (sg)
harrish(yn) = over him
harree(ish) = over her
harrin(yn) = over us
harriu(ish) = over you (pl)
harroo(syn) = over them
har cheer = overland
har mooir = oveasea
harrish as tarrish = over and over
harrish boayrd = overboard
harrish shen = furthermore, moreover
harrish yn traa = overdue
Proto-Brythonic *tra(ns) = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond
Welsh (Cymraeg) tra = very, extremely, exceedingly, beyond, the other side of, over, across, more than, above
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tra, tre = beyond, over
Cornish (Kernewek) dres = beyond, during, in the course of, over, past, through
dres an gwartha = over the top
dres mor = overseas
dres nos = overnight
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tra = through, across, by means of
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tra = through, across, by means of
Breton (Brezhoneg) tra [tʁa] = while
tramor [traˈmoːr] = overseas

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *térh₂-t (to get through, cross over) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include trans- in English, très (very) in French, tras (behind, after) in Galician, and tras (after, behind, beyond) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *trāns(s) = across
Old Irish (Goídelc) trá [traː] = then, therefore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trá, tra, thra = then, therefore, so, however, but, on the other hand
Irish (Gaeilge) trá = then, indeed, however
Proto-Brythonic *trọs = strong, powerful, potent, mighty (?)
Old Welsh traus = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) traỽs, traus, traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty
artraus, ar traỽs. ar y draỽs, ar traws = across, over, upon, about
trowsi = to move/cut across, cross
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
Welsh (Cymraeg) traws = strong, powerful, potent, mighty, cruel, oppresive, cross, transverse, oblique, slanting
ar draws = across, over, upon, about
traws(i)af, trawsu, traws(i)o = to move/cut across, cross, turn sideways
trawsedd = perverseness, obstinacy, rebellion
trawseddaf, trawseddu = to offend, transgress
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tres = adverse, cross, forward
adres = across
Cornish (Kernewek) treus = pass
treusfurvyaz = transform
a-dreus = across
Old Breton (Brethonoc) tros = traverse, distance
Middle Breton (Brezonec) treuz, treus, trez = traverse, distance
Breton (Brezhoneg) treuz [trøːs] = traverse. distance, height
a-dreuz = across, traverse
treuzer = ferry
treuzerezh = crossing
treuzfurmin = to transform
treuzkas = to transmit
treuzkaser = transmitter
treuzlat = transfer

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *terh₂- (to cross over, pass through, overcome) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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