Down Under

Words for down, below, under and related things in Celtic languages.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) ís = below
sís = down, downwards, northwards
anís = below, from below
tís = below
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ís = below, under
sís, sis = down, downwards, northwards, below, onwards, throughout, onwards
sísana, siosina, sisana = here below, below
anís, = (from) below, beneath
tís = below, in the north
Irish (Gaeilge) síos [ʃiːsˠ] = down (away from the speaker), to lower place or station, hanging down, drooping, trailing, to the north, to a lesser centre or remote district, following
síos suas = upside down, topsyturvy
aníos = up (from below), from the north
thíos = down, in a lower place, in the north, below, farther on in a book, written down, entered (in a ledger, etc), on the fire
thíosluaite = undermentioned
thíos-sínithe = undersigned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìos [ʃiəs] = down (away from the speaker), downwards, below
shìos [hiəs] = down, below
a-nìos [əˈn̪ʲiəs] = up, upwards (towards from the speaker)
a-sìos [əˈʃiəs] = down, downwards
sìos ‘nad inntinn = depressed
a’ dol sìos = going down, experiencing a downturn, charging (in battle)
cuir sìos = to put/lay/set down
is mar sin sìos = and so on
Manx (Gaelg) sheese = below, down, downward(s)
brishey sheese = to analyse, analysis, break down, rend
sheese lesh = down the hatch, down with
soie sheese = to settle, sit down
heese = beneath, down, downhill, hereafter, lower end, under, knock-down (prices)
neese = from below up, upwards
Old Welsh is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) is, iss = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
iss-hau, isheir = to sink, sink down or lower
issot, isod = under, underneath, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than; before; lower, inferior, poorer
isâf, isáu = to come/go lower, to reduce in rank, lower the pride of, debase, degrade, humble, humiliate
isafaf, isafu = to minimize, reduce, lower
isafiad = (one’s) inferior
isod = under, underneath, below, beneath, on earth, lower down, later, further
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) isa = lowest
isot = downwards
Cornish (Kernewek) a-is = below, lower
Old Breton isel = low
Middle Breton (Brezonec) is = lower, below
Breton (Brezhoneg) is = lower, below
isdouarel = underground

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot), from *ped- (to walk, step) [source]. Words from the same roots include íseal (low) in Irish, ìosal (low, humble) in Scottish Gaelic, isel (low) in Welsh and related words for low in other Celtic languages, Fuß (foot) in German and pie (foot) in Spanish [more details].

Proto-Celtic *uɸo/*ufo- = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) fo = beneath, through, throughout, towards, under
fo bésad = after the manner of, like
fo bíthin = because (of)
fo chétóir = at once, immediately
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fo, fa, fá = under, underneath, into, through, about, around
Irish (Gaeilge) faoi [fˠiː] = beneath, below, bearing, supporting, about, round, against
faoi cheann = by, at, the end of
faoi adhall = in heat
faoi bhaile = at home, around
faoi bhun = beneath
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fo [fɔ] = under, underneath, below, beneath, subordinate
fo-dhearg = infrared
fo-inntinn = subconscious
fo-ros = undergrowth
fo chleòca = under cover, in secret
Manx (Gaelg) fo = below, beneath, under, sunken, dependent, underlaying, subsidiary, junior, assistant
fo aggle = aghast, alarmed, awestricken
fo arrey = under surveillance
fo chiuney = beclamed
fo druaight = charmed
fo-heer-vooar = subcontinent
Old Welsh guo, gu =under, rather, somewhat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwo, gwa, go = under, rather, somewhat
goaruoel = rather bald, baldish
Welsh (Cymraeg) go = under, rather, somewhat, slightly, partly, small, exceeding
go agos = near, almost
go dde = right, dexterous
go lew = pretty fair, middling
go is = beneath
goarfoel = rather bald, baldish
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) go = rather
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gou, gu, go, fo, uo = under
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwa-, gou- = under, sub-

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *upo (under, below). Words for high in Celtic languages come from the same root, as does sub(marine) in English, sumo (highest, greatest) in Spanish and summo (hightest, greatest, great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tanā = (point in) time
Old Irish (Goídelc) tan = when, time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tan, tain = time, while, point of time, when, whenever, until, before
Irish (Gaeilge) tan [tan] = time, occasion, once upon a time, once
(an) tan = at the time that, when, whenever, since
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàn [taːn] =time, season
an tàn = when, at the time
Proto-Brythonic *tan =under
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dan, tan = under, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) tan [tan] = until, under, while
dan = under, below, beneath, underneath, on the inside, less than, until, while, because, since
o dan = under
tan lw = under oath
dan yr awyr, tan awyr = under the sky, in the open air
dan ddaear = underground
dan din = sneaky, deceitful, stealthy, secret, illicit
dan y don = under water
dan draed = underfoot, in the way
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tan = under, beneath, below
(yn) dan = under, beneath
danva = a hiding place, concealment
Cornish (Kernewek) yn-dann = below, beneath, under, underneath
yn-dann alhwedh = under lockdown
yn-dann dava = in touch
yn-dann dhor = underground
yn-dann dhowr = underwater
yn-dann gel = in secret, secretly
yn-dann hatt = confidential
yn-dann with = care of (c/o)
Old Breton tan, dan = under
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dan = bottom, back, under, underneath
Breton (Brezhoneg) dan = basement, subsoil
dindan = under, on, sub-
dindan-douar = underground, secret
dindan-vor = underwater

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥néh₂ (a stretch), from *ten- (to stretch). Words from the same root include contain, tenant, tone and tune in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Take Note!

Words for note, mark and related things in Celtic languages.

note, mark, sign

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) not = contraction, mark, sign
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) not, nod = mark, sign, sign of contraction in writing, note, bear in mind
nodmar = significant
Irish (Gaeilge) nod [n̪ˠɔd̪ˠ/n̪ˠʌd̪ˠ] = scribal contraction, abbreviation, hint
nodaire = professional scribe
nodaireacht = notation, profession of scribe
nóta = (musical) note, brief record, annotation, short letter
nótáil = to note (down)
nótáilte = notable
nótaire = notary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nòd(h) = note
nòta = (written) note
nòtachadh = annotation
nòtaire = notary
dubh-not = crotchet, quarter note
geal-not = minim, half note
cruinn-not = semibreve, whole note
bun-nòta = footnote
nòta-deiridh = endnote
Manx (Gaelg) notey = note
noatey = banknote
Proto-Brythonic *nod = mark, brand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nod, not, nôd = target, goal, aim, etc
nottwy, nodi, notto = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
Welsh (Cymraeg) nod [noːd] = target, goal, aim, fame, renown, notoriety, mark sign, symbol, note, banknote, verse (in Bible)
nodach = short notes, jottings, odds and ends, trifles
nodadwy = noteworthy, notable, remarkable
nod(i)af, nodi(o) = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nod(i)edig = noted, marked, appointed, set, specified
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
nodyn [ˈnɔdɨ̞n/ˈnoːdɪn] = target, aim, mark, token, note
atalnod = punctuation mark, comma
collnod = apostrophe ’
cysylltnod = hyphen –
dyfynnod = ‘quotation mark’
ebychnod = exclamation mark!, sign of aspiration (h)
hirnod = cîrcûmflêx
hynod = remarkable, notable
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nôd, nos = mark, token
notye = to note, observe, denote
Cornish (Kernewek) nos = mark, token
nos devyn = quotation mark
nos -junya = hyphen
nosedhek = notable
nosya = to notate
nosyans = notation
noten = note
notenna = to notate (music)
notennans = notation
notennyans = annotation
noter, notores = notary, solicitor
notya = to note
notyans = memo
notyes, notys = notable
Old Breton not = note
Middle Breton (Brezonec) not = note, mention
notabl, notapl = notable
notadur = notation, (religious) censure
Breton (Brezhoneg) notenn = note
not = note
notañ, notiñ = to note
notapl = notable
notadur = notation

Etymology: from Latin nota (mark, sign, note), which is of unknown origin. Words from the same Latin root include note in English, note (note, mark, grade, bill) in French, Note (note, grade, mark) in German, and nota (note, memo, mark) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Boats and Ships

Words for boat, ship and related vessels in Celtic languages.

Douglas / Doolish

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *longā- = boat, vessel
Old Irish (Goídelc) long [l͈oŋɡ] = boat, ship
longfort = camp, encampment, stronghold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) long, longa = boat, ship, vessel, long-ship, galley; vessel, container; house; bed
longphort, lonngport = camp, encampment, temporary stronghold, mansion, princely dwelling; stronghold, fortress
Irish (Gaeilge) long [l̪ˠɔŋ] = ship, vessel, container, house
longbhá = shipwreck
longbhac = embargo (on ships), naval blockade
longbhoth = (navel) dock
longbhriste = shipwrecked
longcheárta, longchlós = shipyard
longfort = camp, stronghold, fortified residence
longlann = dockyard
longmhar = abounding in ships
longtheach = boat-house
longthógáil = shipbuilding
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) long [l̪ˠɔuŋg] = ship
longas = shipping, shipment
longart = seaport
long-adhair = airship
long-bhriste = shipwreck
long-chasgadh = embargo
long-fhada = galley (ship)
long-fhànais = spaceship
long-lann = dockyard
long-phort = seaport
long-thogail = shipbuilding
Manx (Gaelg) lhong [loŋ] = ship, vessel
lhong aer = airship
lhong-chaardee = boatyard, shipyard
lhong chrowal = hovercraft
lhong liauyr = longship
lhong-phurt = basin, seaport
lhong spoar = spaceship
lhong spooillee = pirate ship
lhuingys = fleet, shipping
Proto-Brythonic *llong = ship, vessel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) loggou, log, llogeu, llong = ship, boat
llongi = to embark, ship
llongeidiev, llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llog porth, llogborth, llong-borth = seaport, haven, harbour
long-dorr = shipwreck
longhawl, llonghavl. llongawl = nautical, maritime, naval
llongỼyr, llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
Welsh (Cymraeg) llong [ɬɔŋ] = ship, boat; the Great Bear (Ursa Major)
llongaf, llongi = to embark, ship
llongaid = shipload, shipful, shipment, cargo
llongborth = seaport, harbour, dock, quay
llongdor = shipwreck
llongol = nautical, maritime, naval
llongwr = seaman, sailor, mariner
llong awyr = airship, aeroplane
llong y diffeithwch, llong dir = ship of the desert, camel
llong ofod = spaceship, spacecraft
llong hofran = hovercraft
llong danfor(ol) = submarine
Old Breton locou = ship, boat

Etymology: possibly from the Latin (navis) longa ([long] boat), or from an unknown source [Source].

Proto-Celtic *nāwā- = boat
Old Irish (Goídelc) nau, nó = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) nó, noe = boat (generally a small one, propelled by oars)
Irish (Gaeilge) nae [n̪ˠeː] = boat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) noe = large vase, bowl
Welsh (Cymraeg) noe = (wooden) vessel used in making butter, kneading dough, etc. shallow dish, bowl, pan, basin, laver, wooden trough
noeaid = dishful
Cornish (Kernewek) new = sink, trough, washbasin
new doos = trough
new-droghya = sheep dip
Middle Breton (Brezonec) néau, néff, neo, nev = trough, bucket
néay-doas, neo-doaz, nev-doaz = kneading-trough
Breton (Brezhoneg) nev = trough, bucket

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *néh₂us (boat), from *(s)neh₂- (to swim) [Source]. Words from the same roots include navy, navigate, andnautical in English [Source].

Old Irish (Goídelic) bát = boat
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bát, bád = boat
Irish (Gaeilge) bád [bˠɑːd̪ˠ/bˠaːd̪ˠ] = boat
bádóireacht = (act of) boating
bád iascaigh = fishing boat
bád seoil = sailing boat
bád tarrthála = lifeboat
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàta [baːhdə] = boat, craft
bàtaireachd = boating
bàta-aigeil = submarine
bàta-asieig = ferry boat
bàta-falbhain = hovercraft
bàta-iasgaich = fishing boat
bàta-sàbhalaidh = lifeboat
bàta-siùil = sailing boat
Manx (Gaelg) baatey [ˈbɛːðə] = boat, even keel
baateyrys = boating
baatey assaig = ferry boat
baatey bieauid = speedboat
baatey eeastee = fishing boat
baatey etlagh = seaplane
baatey sauaillagh = lifeboat
baatey
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bat, bad = boat
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
Welsh (Cymraeg) bad = boat, barge, (small) ship
badaid = boatful
badlong = ketch, pinnace
badwr = boatman, waterman, ferryman
bad acbub = lifeboat
bad pysgota = fishing boat

Etymology: from Old English bāt (boat) or from Old Norse bátr (boat), both of which come from Proto-Germanic *baitaz (boat, ship), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeyd- (to break, split) [Source].

The English word boat comes from the same roots, as do words for boat in many other languages [Source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scaf, scaffu, scafa = ship
Irish (Gaeilge) scafa [sˠkɑfˠə] = ship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgoth [sgɔh] = skiff
sgothag = little skiff, small yacht, cutter
sgiof [sgʲif] = skiff (boat)
sgib [sgʲib] = small ship (archaic)
Manx (Gaelg) skiff = skiff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) esgraff, yscraff, ysgraff = boat, barge, ferry
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgraff, sgraff = boat, barge, skiff, ferry, ship, raft
ysgraffbont = pontoon
ysgraffwr, ysgraffydd = ferryman, boatman, bargee
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scath = boat
scath hîr = long boat
Cornish (Kernewek) skath = boat
skathik = dinghy
skath hir = barge
skath kloos = raft
skath tan = motor-boat
skath sawya = lifeboat
skath-wolya = sailing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) scaph, scaff, sqaff, skaf = skiff
skavat, skafad = contents of a skiff
Breton (Brezhoneg) skaf = skiff, landing net

Etymology: possibly from Latin scapha (a light boat, skiff), from Ancient Greek σκάφη (skáphē – light boat, skiff), from σκᾰ́πτω (skáptō – to dig, delve); or from Old Norse skúta (small craft, cutter) [Source].

Proto-Celtic *lestrom = vessel, pot
Old Irish (Goídelic) lestar = vessel, container, beehive
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lestar = vessel, container, beehive, ship, boat
lestarach = frequented by ships
Irish (Gaeilge) leastar [ˈl̠ʲasˠt̪ˠəɾˠ] = vessel, container (for liquids), cask, firkin, (wash) tub, punt (boat), tub; squat, dumpy person
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leastar = small boat, cup, vessel, furniture of a house
Proto-Brythonic *llestr = vessel, container
Old Welsh lestir = vessel, container
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llestri, llestyr = vessel, container
llestreit, llestraid, llestred = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestryn, llestrun = small vessel, small barrel, boat
Welsh (Cymraeg) llestr [ɬɛstr/ˈɬɛstɛr] = vessel, bushel, ship, boat, beehive, womb, uterus
llestraid = vesselful, caskful, tubful, bushel
llestrwr = maker of vessels, potter
llestryn = small vessel, small barrel, boat, human body
Old Cornish lester = vessel, container
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lester = vessel, ship
golowlester = a light-vessel, a lamp
Cornish (Kernewek) lester = dish, ship, utensil vessel
lester eth = steam boat
lester-bargesi = hovercraft
lester=gwari = yacht
lester-sedhi = submarine
annedh lester = houseboat
lestrier = (kitchen) dresser
lestriva = dockyard
lestryn = container
Old Breton lestr = ship, vessel, container
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lestr = ship, vessel, container
lestr-dre-dan = steamship
lestr-kroazer, lestr-reder = cruiser
Breton (Brezhoneg) lestr [ˈlɛstʁ] = vessel, container, ship
lestr-spluj[lɛs.ˈplyːʃ] = submarine
aerlestr [ˈɛʁlestʁ] = aircraft
lestrañ [ˈlɛstrã] = to board, load (a vehicle)
dilestrañ [diˈlɛsːtrã] = to disemark

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *pleḱ- (to fold, weave). The Goidelic words were possibly borrowed from Proto-Brythonic [Source].

Kogge

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cwch, cŵch = boat, beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwch [kʊχ] = boat, beehive
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) coc = boat
Cornish (Kernewek) kok = fishing boat
Middle Breton (Brezonec) couc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouc’h = cover of a beehive, hull (of a boat)
kouc’hañ = to cover (a beehive)

Etymology: possibly cognate with the English word cog (a clinker-built, flat-bottomed, square-rigged mediaeval ship of burden, or war with a round, bulky hull and a single mast; a small fishing boat), which comes from Middle Dutch cogghe (clinker-built, flat-bottomed sailing cargo ship of the Middle Ages), from Proto-Germanic *kuggō, from PIE *gugā (hump, ball) [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, Cleasby & Vigfusson Old Norse dictionary

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Ceilidh Companions

Words for companion, ceilidh and related things in Celtic languages.

Cèilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig
Ceilidh at Sabhal Mòr Ostaig in the Isle of Skye / Cèilidh aig Sabhal Mòr Ostaig san Eilean Sgitheanach

Proto-Celtic *kēlyos = companion, servant
Primitive Irish ᚉᚓᚂᚔ (celi) = follower, devotee (genitive)
Old Irish (Goídelc) céile [ˈkʲeːlʲe] = client, companion, husband, liege, servant, spouse, subject, vassal
céilide [ˈkʲeːlʲiðʲe] = visit, visiting
coicéile = companion, comrade, friend, friendship
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) céile, ceile, céli = servant, bondsman, vassal, subject, fellow, companion, husband
céileachas = adultery
céilide = visit, act of visiting
coicéile, cocéle, coceli = vassal, bondsman, companion, fellow, friend
coicéilsine, cocéilsine, cocélsine = fellowship, clientship
Irish (Gaeilge) céile [ˈceːlʲə] = companion, spouse
céileachas = companionship, cohabitation, copulation
céilí = friend call, visit, social evening, Irish dancing session
céilíoch = person fond of social visits, sociable person
céilíocht = sociableness, companionableness
céiliúil = companionable
coigéile = mate, companion
coigéilsine = fellowship, companionship
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cèile [kʲeːlə] =fellow, partner, significant other, spouse, counterpart
cèile-còmhraige = opponent, antagonist
cèile-pòsta = married partner (husband or wife)
cèileach [kʲeːləx] = entertaining
cèileachadh [kʲeːləxəɣ]= participating/sharing in, twinning, partnering (of a city)
cèiliche [kʲeːlɪçə] = visitor
cèilidh [kʲeːlɪ] = ceilidh, visit, (act of) visiting
cèilidheach [kʲeːlɪjəx] = companionable, fond of company, sociable
Manx (Gaelg) keilley = match
dy cheilley = joined, together
e cheilley = fellow
ry-cheilley =en masse, together, with each other
kaylee = ceilidh
Proto-Brythonic *kuɨlð = servant, companion
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cilit, cilid, kilid, kilyd = servant, companion
Welsh (Cymraeg) cilydd [ˈkɪlɨ̞ð/ˈkiːlɪð] = fellow, companion, neighbour, enemy, other
cilyddol = reciprocal, mutual
at ei gilydd = together
gyda’i gilydd = together
ei gilydd = each other
o bryd i’w gilydd = from time to time
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cele = companion, fellow, one of two
Cornish (Kernewek) kila = companion
Old Breton kiled = friend
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kile = the other (one), friend
Breton (Brezhoneg) kile = associate, stooge, colleague, sidekick

Etymology: possibly the Proto-Celtic word originally meant ‘wayfarer’, from Proto-Indo-European *ḱey- (to settle, to be lying down) [source].

The English word ceilidh [ˈkeɪli] (an informal social gathering where traditional Irish or Scottish folk music is played, with dancing and storytelling; a ceilidh dance; to dance a ceilidh) was borrowed from Scottish Gaelic and/or from Irish [source]. Someone who attends a ceilidh is apparently a ceilidher [source].

The Welsh equivalent of a ceilidh is a twmpath, which also meanings hillock, knoll, mound, pile, gathering or assembly. It’s also a known as a twmpath dawns (folk-dance, barn dance, public dance) or noson lawen (“merry/joyful evening”). In Cornish a ceilidh is a troyll, which also means spiral or swirl, and in Breton they are known as fest-noz [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Near and Close

Words for near, close and and and related things in Celtic languages.

A group of meerkats

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *onkus = at
*onkus-tus = near, close, and
Old Irish (Goídelc) ocus [ˈoɡus] = near, close, nearness, proximity, and
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ocus, acus = and, near, nearness, proximity
com(ḟ)ocus, comacus = near, proximate, neighbouring; equidistant, proximity; relationship
focus = near, close
bean fagas, bean ḟogas = kinswoman
Irish (Gaeilge) agus (⁊) [ˈɑɡəsˠ/ˈaɡəsˠ] = and, while, although, as
agusóir = halting, inarticulate, speaker
aguisín = addition, addendum
fogas [ˈfˠʌɡəsˠ] = nearness, closeness, near, close
fogasghaol = near relationship, near relative
foisceacht = nearness, proximity
bráthair fogas = near kinsman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) agus (⁊) [agəs] = and, plus, as, while, although
agusan = Tironian/Gaelic ampersand (⁊)
fagas [fagəs] = close, near
fagasg [fagəsg] = proximity, nearness
fagasachd [fagəsəxg] = adjacency, nearness, proximity
fagasach [fagəsəx] = adjacent
faisg [faʃgʲ] = close, near
faisgead [faʃgʲəd] = degree of nearness/proximity
Manx (Gaelg) as = and, as
faggys = almost, close, contiguous, handy, near, nearby, neighbouring
faggys-yalloo = closeup
faggysaght = adjacency, nearness
Old Welsh ha, hac, hay, ac = and
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) a(c)= and
agos = near, close
agoseieit = close relations or friends
Welsh (Cymraeg) a(c) [a(k), a(ɡ)] = and
agos [ˈaɡɔs / ˈa(ː)ɡɔs] = near, close, almost, nearly, on the verge of, about to
agosâd = a drawing near, approach
agosaf, agosi = to draw near, approach
agosaol = approaching
agoseiaid = close relations or friends
agosiad = close relation or friend
agosrwydd = closeness, nearness, proximity
agoster = closeness, nearness, proximity
Old Cornish ha = and
ogos = near, close
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) ha(g), a = and
ogas, oges, ogos, agos = near, neighbouring
Cornish (Kernewek) ha(g) [ha(ɡ)] = and, plus, while
hag erel (h.e.) = etc.
hag oll = moreover
ogas = adjoinging, close, near, almost, nearly, vicinity
ogas ha = approximately
ogas lowr = approximate
yn ogas, en ogas = closely, nearby
ogasti, ogatti = almost, nearly
Old Breton a, ha, hac = and
ocos = near, close
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ha, hag, ham, haz = and
hag all, ha a, hag e-se = etc.
hogos, hegos, ogos, egos = almost, barely, close, near
hogoster, hogosder = proximity
hogozik, hogosicq, hogosic = almost, close, near
Breton (Brezhoneg) ha(g) = and
hag all (h.a.) = etc.
hogos = near, close, almost
hogosder = proximity

Etymology: not known [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Teanglann.ie, Am Faclair Beag, Fockleyreen: Manx – English Dictionary, Online Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Lexicon cornu-britannicum : a dictionary of the ancient Celtic language of Cornwall, Gerlyver Kernewek, Devri : Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

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Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hundred

Words for a hundred and related things in Celtic languages:

hundred

Proto-Celtic *kantom = hundred
*kantometos = hundredth
Gaulish *canta = hundred
Old Irish (Goídelc) cét [kʲeːd] = hundred, a hundred people/warriors, troops, battalions
cétmad [ˈkʲeːdṽað] = hundredth
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ced, céit, cét = hundred, a hundred people/warriors, troops, battalions
cétach, cetach = hundredfold, possossing a hundred
cétmad = hundredth
Irish (Gaeilge) céad [ciːa̯d̪ˠ/ceːd̪ˠ] = hundred, century, hundredweight, great, long
céadach = hundredfold, great, immense
céadú = hundredth
céadchosach = centipede
céad míle fáilte = a hundred thousand welcomes
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceud [kʲiəd] = hundred
ceudamh [kʲiadəv] (100ᵐʰ) = hundredth 100ᵗʰ)
ceudad [kʲiədəd] = percent, percentage
ceud mìle fàilte = a hundred thousand welcomes
ceudameatair = centimetre
ceudamhail [kʲiədəval] = percentile
ceud-chasach = centipede
ceudach [kʲiədəx] = hundredfold
Manx (Gaelg) keead [kiːəd] = hundred, century
keeadoo = hundredth
keead blein = centenary
keead filley = hundredfold
keead liauyr/mooar = long hundred
keead-choshagh = centipede
Proto-Brythonic *kant [kant] = hundred
Old Welsh cant = hundred
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cant, can = hundred
canvet, canuet, kannvet, canved = hundredth
cantref, cantrew, cantreuyt = hundred, cantred, province, district
Welsh (Cymraeg) cant, can [kant/kan] = hundred, a host, hundredweight, percentage; century
canfed (100fed) = hundredth (100th), centesimal, century
canrif = century
cantref = hundred, cantred, province, district
cantro = a hundred times, many times, twisted many times
cantroed = centipede, a hundred feet
cantwll = a hundred holes, riddled with holes
hanner cant = fifty
cant a mil = a hundred and one, a large number
can diolch = many thanks
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cans = hundred
canquyth, canswyth = a hundred times
Cornish (Kernewek) kans = hundred
kansves = hundredth
kansbledhen = century
kanskradh = centigrade
kanskweyth = a hundred times
kansplek = hundredfold
kansran = percent(age)
Old Breton cant = hundred
Middle Breton (Brezonec) cant, cantt, can, chant = hundred, 100 pounds (lb)
canuet, cantvet, cantved = hundredth
cantved = century
candad, cantad = around hundred
cant(-)doubl = centuple
cantenier, candener, candenyer = centurion
Breton (Brezhoneg) kant [kãn(t)] = hundred
kantvet [ˈkãn.vet] = hundredth
kantved [ˈkãn.vet] = century
kantad [ˈkãn.tat] = around hundred

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ḱm̥tóm (hundred) [source].

Words from the same roots include hundred, century, centigrade, hecatontome (a very large number of books) and hecatologue (a code of 100 rules) in English, and words related to hundred in other Indo-European languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Thirty

Words for thirty and related things in Celtic languages.

thirty

Proto-Celtic *trīkontes = thirty
Gaulish tricontis = thirty
Old Irish (Goídelc) trícha [ˈtʲrʲiːxo] = thirty
tríchatmad = thirtieth
tríchtaige = thirty day period
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trícha, triúcha, tricha, triocha, tricho = thirty
tríchatmad, trichatmad, trichadmadh = thirtieth
tríchtaige, trichtaigi = period of 30 days/years, etc
tríchtach, tríteach = thirty-fold, consisting of 30
trícha cét = a military force, political or terrirtorial unit; of force of fighting men, cantred, barony (lit. ‘300’)
Irish (Gaeilge) tríocha = thirty
tríochadú = thirtieth
na tríochaidí = the thirties
tríocha céad = large territorial division, barony
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) trichead [triçəd] = thirty
tritheadamh (30ᵐʰ) = thirtieth (30ᵗʰ)
na tritheadan = the thirties
Manx (Gaelg) treead = thirty
Proto-Brythonic *trigont = thirty
Old Breton tricont, trigont = thirty
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tregont = thirty
tregontad = about thirty
tregontet, tregontvedenn, tregontvet = thirtieth
tregontkementiñ, tregontvedenniñ = to multiply by thirty
tregontvloaziad = a period of 30 years
Breton (Brezhoneg) tregont [ˈtreːɡɔ̃n(t)] = thirty
tregontved = thirtieth
tregontvedenn = thirtieth part
tragontad = around thirty

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tridḱómt (thirty) from *tri- (three) and *déḱm̥ (ten) [source].

Words from the same roots include thirty in English, tridhjetë (thirty) in Albanian, երեսուն [jɛɾɛˈsun] (thirty) in Armenian, trenta (thirty) in Italian and trente (thirty) in French, and words for thirty in other Indo-European languages [source].

Thirty is also trideg (three-ten) in Welsh in the decimal version of the numbers. For other words for thirty, see the post about words for ten, as thirty is 10 on 20 in the vigesimal system.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Twenty

Words for twenty and related things in Celtic languages:

twenty

Proto-Celtic *wikantī = twenty
Gaulish uoconti = twenty
Old Irish (Goídelc) fiche [ˈfʲixʲe] = twenty
fichetmad = twentieth
fichtige = twenty day/year period
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fiche, fichet, fichit, fichtea = twenty, a score
fichetmad, fichatmath, fichetmudh = twentieth
fichetech = pertaining to twenty
fichtige = a period of twenty (days, years, etc)
Irish (Gaeilge) fiche [ˈfʲɪhə/ˈfʲɪçə/fʲiː] = twenty
(an) fichiú = twentieth
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fichead [fiçəd] = twenty, a score
ficheadamh [fiçədəv] (20ᵐʰ) = twentieth (20ᵗʰ)
fichead-shliosnach = icosahedron (a polyhedron with 20 faces)
fichead-fillte = twentyfold
Manx (Gaelg) feed [fiːdʒ] = twenty, a score
feedoo, (yn) eedoo = (the) twentieth
feed cheead = two thousand (twenty hundred)
Proto-Brythonic *ʉgėnt = twenty
Cumbric giggy, jiggit = twenty
Old Welsh uceint = twenty
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ugein, ugeint, vgein = twenty
vgeinvet, ugeinuet = twentieth
ugeinwyr, vgainwyr, vgain-wr, vgain-ŵr = twenty men
Welsh (Cymraeg) ugain [ˈɪɡai̯n/ˈiːɡai̯n] = twenty, score, twenty-pound note
ugeinfed [ɪˈɡei̯nvɛd] (20fed) = twentieth
ugeiniol = pertaining to twenty, denoting twenty
ugeinw(y)r = twenty men
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ugans, hugens = twenty, a score
Cornish (Kernewek) ugens, ugans = twenty
ugensves = twentieth
Old Breton ucent = twenty
Middle Breton (Brezonec) vgent, uiguent, ugent = twenty
ugentved = twentieth
ugentvedenn = twentieth part
ugentad = around twenty
ugentvedenni, ugentvedenna = to divide by twenty
ugentveder = a commemoration of 20 years
ugentvederel = vigesimal (20-base numeral system)
Breton (Brezhoneg) ugent [ˈyːɡẽn(t)] = twenty
ugentvet = twentieth
ugentvedenn = twentieth part
ugentad = around twenty

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dwi(h₁)dḱm̥ti (twenty) from *wídḱm̥ti (twenty) [source].

Words from the same roots include بیست‎ (bist – twenty) in Persian (Farsi), बीस (bīs – twenty) in Hindi and Nepali, বিশ (biś – twenty) in Bengali and વીસ (vīs – twenty) in Gujarati, and words for twenty in some other Indo-European languages languages [source].

Incidentally, the English words twenty, and words for twenty in other Germanic languages, are not cognate. Instead they come from the Proto-Germanic roots *twain- (two) ‎and *-tigaz (group of ten) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Spears and Javelins

Words for spear, javelin and related things in Celtic languages:

BXP135630

Proto-Celtic *gaisos = spear
Gaulish *gaisos = spear
*Ariogaisos = male given name
Old Irish (Goídelc) gae [ɡai̯] = javelin, spear, penis
gae cró = gush of blood, haemorrhage, unhealed wound
gae gréne = sunbeam
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gae, ga = spear, javelin; ray, beam
ga-ín = little javelin
gaíde = armed with a spear
Irish (Gaeilge) ga [ɡa/ɡaː/ɡah] = spear, dart, sting, ray (of light), radius, suppository, (fishing) gaff
ga-chatóideach = cathode ray
ga-gréine = sunbeam
ga-gealaí = moonbeam
ga-shiméadracht = radial symmetry
gáma-gha = gamma ray
X-gha = X-ray
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gath [ɡah] = dart, beam, ray (of light), sting, barb, knot (in wood), shooting pain, sprout
gath-gealaich, gath-luain = moonbeam
gath-grèine = sunbeam
gath-leusair = laser beam
gath-x, gath-òmair = X-ray
gath cathod = cathode ray
gath-solais = ray of light, light beam
Manx (Gaelg) goull = beam, dart, ray
goull eayst = moonbeam
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guaew, gvoev, gwaew, gwayw = lance, spear, javelin
gwaewdwnn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwaew ffon, gwaiw ffon = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwayw [ɡweɨ̯.ʊ/ˈɡwei̯.u] = lance, spear, javelin; shooting pain, stab, stitch, pang
gwaywawr, gwaywor = spearman, lancer, pikeman
gwaywdwn = with broken spear, bold, broken by pain
gwayw-fwyell = halberd
gwaywffon [ˈɡweɨ̯wfɔn/ˈɡwei̯wfɔn] = speak, lance, javelin, pike
Old Cornish (hoch-)wuyu = spear
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guw = spear. lance, javelin
Cornish (Kernewek) guw = spear
guwa = to spear
Old Breton (guu)goiou = spear
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goaff, goaf, goao, gwaf = spear, stamen, boat hook
Breton (Brezhoneg) goaf = spear, pike, javelin, stamen

Etymology: from Proto-Germanic *gaizaz [ˈɣɑi̯.zɑz] (spear, pike, javelin), from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰoysós (throwing spear), from *ǵʰey- (to throw, impel) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gezi [ɡe̞.s̻i] (arrow) in Basque (via Latin and Gaulish), գայիսոն [ɡɑjiˈsɔn/kʰɑjiˈsɔn] (sceptre) in Armenian (via Ancient Greek), gaesum (a Gaulish javelin) in Latin, and γαῖσος [ɡâi̯.sos] (a Gaulish javelin) in Ancient Greek [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include garfish (any fish of the needlefish family Belonidae) in English [source], geer (spear) in Dutch, Ger (spear) in German, geir (spear) in Icelandic, keihäs (spear, javelin, pike) in Finnish, [source].

My surname, Ager, possibly comes from the same Proto-Germanic root as well, via the Old English name Ēadgār, from ēad (happiness, prosperity), and gār (spear) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic