Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Ferns and Bracken

Today we’re looking at the words for fern, bracken and related things in Celtic languages.

Maidenhair Spleenwort

Proto-Celtic *ɸratis, *frati- = fern, bracken
Gaulish ratis = fern, bracken
Old Irish (Goídelc) raithnech [ˈr͈aθʲnʲex] = fern, bracken
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) raith = fern, bracken
Irish (Gaeilge) raithneach = fern, bracken
raithneachán = ferny place
raithneachúil = ferny
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) raineach [r̪ˠan̪ʲəx] = fern, bracken; hashish, weed
raith [r̪ˠɛ] = fern, bracken
raineachail = abounding in fern, ferny, like fern
Manx (Gaelg) renniagh = fern, bracken
renniaghoil = ferny
Proto-Brythonic *rrėdɨn = ferns, bracken
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rhedyn = ferns, bracken
retinoc, redinauc, rhydynog = ferny
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhedyn [ˈr̥ɛdɨ̞n / ˈr̥eːdɪn] = ferns, bracken
rhedynen = fern
rhedyn eryraidd = bracken
rhedyna = to gather ferms
rhedynaidd = ferny
rhedyneg = ferny ground
rhedynog = ferny (land), abounding with ferns, fern-like, made of fern
Old Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Cornish reden = ferns, bracken
redenen, redanen = fern
Cornish (Kernewek) reden = ferns, bracken
redenen = fern
Middle Breton reden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern
Breton (Brezhoneg) raden = ferns, bracken
radenenn = fern

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *p(t)erH- (fern) [source].

The English word fern comes from the same PIE root, via the Old English fearn and the Proto-West-Germanic *farn [source].

Other words from the same PIE root include paparde (fern) in Latvian, paproć (fern) in Polish, and папрат (fern) in Bulgarian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Heather

Today we’re looking at the words for heather and related things in Celtic languages.

Heather

Proto-Celtic *wroikos = heather
Gaulish *wroika = heather
Celtiberian *broikios = heather
Old Irish (Goídelc) froích, fróech = heather
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fráech = heather
Irish (Gaeilge) fraoch [fˠɾˠeːx / fˠɾˠiːx / fˠɾˠiːx] = heather, heath, moor
fraochán = bilberry, whortleberry, ring-ouzel
fraochlach = heath
fraochmhá = heath
fraochmhar = heathery
fraoch bán = white heather
fraoch coitianta = Scotch heather, ling
píobaire fraoch = grasshopper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fraoch [frɯːx] = heather, ling
fraoch-geal = white common heather (Calluna vulgaris alba
fraoch-bheinn = heather-covered mountain
fraochan = whortleberry, blaeberry, lingonberry, cranberry
fraochach = heathy, heathery
Manx (Gaelg) freoagh = heather, ling, heath
freoagh bane = brier, white heather
freoagh marrey = sea fern
freoagh mooar = Scotch heather
Proto-Brythonic *gwrʉg [ˈɡwrʉːɡ] = heather
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gruc, gerug, gwrug = heather
Welsh (Cymraeg) grug [ɡrɨːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heather, ling heath
grug cyffredin = heather, ling, common heath, Calluna vulgaris
grugiar = (red) grouse, willow grouse, heath-hen
gruglus = heath-berries
gruglwyn = bush of heather, sweet broom
grugnythu = to nest or nestle in the heather
grugog = heath-covered, heathery, abounding in heather
Cornish (Kernwek) grug [ɡryːɡ / ɡriːɡ] = heath, heather, ling
grugyar = partridge
Middle Breton groegan = heather
Breton (Brezhoneg) brug = heather

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology unknown, possibly from a non-Proto-Indo-European root [source]. It’s uncertain where the Breton word brug comes from, but it’s likey that it was borrowed from the Latin *brūcus (heather).

The Spanish word brezo (heath) comes from the Vulgar Latin *broccius, from the Proto-Celtic *wroikos, as does the Galician breixo (heather) [source].

Words from the Gaulish root *wroikos (heather), via the Latin *brūcus (heather), include brugo (heather) and brughiera (heath, moor) in Italian, bruc (heather) and bruguera (heath) in Catalan, and bruyère (heather, heath, brier) in French [source].

Eilean Fraoch (Heather Isle) is a nickname for the Isle of Lewis / Eilean Leòdhais in the Western Isles / Na h-Eileanan Siar. Here’s a song about it:

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Druids

Today we’re looking at the words for druids in Celtic languages.

Druids

Proto-Celtic *druwits = druid, priest
Gaulish *druwits / *druwides = druid
Old Irish (Goídelc) druí [ˈdruːi̯] = druid, sorcerer, magician
Irish (Gaeilge) draoi [d̪ˠɾˠiː] = druid, wizard, magician, augur, diviner, trickster
draíocht = druidic art, druidism, witchcraft, magic, charm, enchantment
draíochtach = magicial, bewitching, entrancing
draíodóir = magician
draíodóireacht = magic, sly, cunning, hypocrisy, trickery, secretiveness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) draoidh [drɯj] = druid, sorcerer, magician, wizard
draoidheachd [drɯjəxg] = magic, sorcery, druidism
draoidheil [drɤjal] = druidic(al), magic(al)
ceò-draoidh = magic mist
eun-draoidh = augur
Manx (Gaelg) druaight = charm, druid
druaightagh = smithcraft, smithery, smithywork
druaightys = charming, druid, druidism, magic
Proto-Brythonic *drüw [ˈdryu̯] = druid, seer
Welsh (Cymraeg) dryw [drɨu̯/drɪu̯] = druid, seer
derwydd [ˈdɛrwɨ̞ð / ˈdɛrwɪð] = prophet, wise man, druid
derwyddaidd = druidical
derwyddiaeth = druidism, the druid cult
derwyddol = druidic, druidical
archderwydd = archdruid
Old Cornish druw = druid
Cornish (Kernewek) drewydh = druid
Breton (Brezhoneg) drouiz [ˈdruː.is] = druid
drouizek / drouizel = druidic
drouizelezh / drouiziezh = druidism

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *daru (oak) and *wid-/*windeti (to know, to see), from the Proto-Indo-European *dóru (tree) and *weyd (to see, know) [source].

The Gaulish words for druid were borrowed by Ancient Greek, as δρυΐδαι (druḯdai), and Latin, as Druidēs. The Latin word was borrowed into French as druide, which was borrowed into English as druid [source].

The Proto-Brythonic word *drüw was borrowed into Old English as drȳ (sorcerer, magician), which became drī(mann)/driʒ(mann) (sorcerer, magician) in Middle English [source]. A few modern druids use the word drymann, or something similiar, to refer to themselves.

Here’s a traditional Welsh tune called Y Derwydd (The Druid):

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Blubrry podcast hosting

Willow (trees)

Words for willow tree (salix) in Celtic languages:

Old Irish (Goídelc) sail = willow (tree), plank, beam
Irish (Gaeilge) saileach = willow (tree), sallow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seileach [ʃeləx] = willow (tree)
Manx (Gaelg) shellagh = willow (tree), proliferous, sallow, salivary, withy
Welsh (Cymraeg) helyg [ˈhɛlɪɡ / ˈheːlɪɡ] = willow (tree), osier
Cornish (Kernewek) helygk [ˈhɛlɪk] = willow (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) haleg = willow (tree)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European salək- (willow).

Sources: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/salix#Latin, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Willow Tree Reflection

Elm (trees)

Words for elm tree (ulmus) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *lēmos / *limos = elm (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lem [lʲɛmˠ] = elm (tree)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealgh) lemán = elm (tree)
Irish (Gaeilge) leamhán = elm (tree)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) leamhan [l̪ʲɛvan] = elm (tree)
Manx (Gaelg) lhiouan = elm (tree)
Proto-Brythonic *lēm- = elm (tree)
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwyf = elm (tree), elm-bark, made of elm or elm-bark, platform, loft, lime-tree, linden
Cornish (Kernewek) elow = elm (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) evlec’h = elm (tree)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁élem from *h₃es (mountain elm).

Sources: Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Elm Tree

Ash (trees)

Words for ash tree (fraxinus) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *osnistū / *osnos = ash tree
Old Irish (Goídelc) uinnius [ˈun͈ʲus] = ash (tree)
fuinnseóc = ash tree
Irish (Gaeilge) fuinseog = ash (tree), ash-handled implement
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uinnseann [ũĩn̪ʲʃən̪ˠ] = ash (tree), ash wood
fuinnseag = European / common ash (tree)
Manx (Gaelg) unjin = ash (tree)
Welsh (Cymraeg) onn [ɔn] = ash (tree / wood), spear
Old Cornish onnen = ash (tree)
Cornish (Kernewek) onn = ash (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) onn = ash (tree)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃es-nos from *h₃es (ash tree).

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

ash tree

Alder (trees)

Words for alder (tree) (Alnus glutinosa) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *wernā = alder (tree)
Gaulish uerna = alder (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fern [fʲer͈n͈] = alder (tree), shield, pole, stake
fernóc = alder (tree)
Irish (Gaeilge) fearnóg = alder (tree)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feàrna [fʲaːr͈n͈ə] = alder (tree), shield, mast
Manx (Gaelg) farney = alder (tree)
Proto-Brythonic *gwern = alder (tree)
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwern [ɡwɛrn] = alder (tree), made of alder; mast of a ship; (alder) stick, stave, shaft of lance; alder-grove, alder-marsh, swamp, quagmire; damp meadow; hell
Old Cornish guern = alder (tree)
Cornish (Kernewek) gwern [ɡwɛrn] = alder (tree), alders, mast, swamp, marshland
Old Breton guern / guaern = alder (tree)
Middle Breton guern = alder (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwern [ɡwɛrn] = alder (tree)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Hiking Through The Alders - Explore #315 6/23/12

Hazel (trees)

Words for hazel (tree) (corylus avellana) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *koslos = hazel (tree)
Gaulish corillus = hazel (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) coll [kol͈] = hazel (tree)
Irish (Gaeilge) coll = hazel (tree)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) coll [kɔul̪ˠ] = hazel (tree)
calltainn [kaul̪ˠdɪn̪ʲ] = hazel tree
Manx (Gaelg) coull = hazel (tree)
Welsh (Cymraeg) coll [kɨ̞ɬ / kɪɬ] = hazel (tree), sapling, twig
Old Cornish colwiden = hazel (tree)
Cornish (Kernewek) koll = hazel (tree)
Old Breton collin = hazel (tree)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kelvez = hazel (tree)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

IMG_5118

Birch (trees)

Words for birch (tree) (Betula) in Celtic languages:

Proto-Celtic *betwiyos / *betuyā = birch (tree)
Old Irish (Goídelc) beithe = birch (tree)
Irish (Gaeilge) beith = birch (tree)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beith [beh] = birch
Manx (Gaelg) beih = birch (tree)
Proto-Brythonic *bedu = birch (tree)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bedw = birch
Welsh (Cymraeg) bedw [ˈbɛdʊ / ˈbeːdu] = birch, birch grove; maypole; birch-rod
Old Cornish bedewen = birch
Cornish (Kernewek) besewen = birch
Middle Breton bezu = birch
Breton (Brezhoneg) bezv = birch

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷet- (resin, gum) [source], which is also the root of the English words cud and quid.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Birch Trees