Words for roots and related things in Celtic languages.

Tree roots in Eaves Wood. Silverdale, Lancashire

Proto-Celtic *wridmā, *wridā = root
Old Irish (Goídelc) frém [fʲrʲeːṽ] = root
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) frém, prém = root, source, origin, rootstock, race
frémach, prémach = roots, genealogical stock, abounding roots
frémaigid = intransitive, takes root
frémamail = radical, primary
Irish (Gaeilge) fréamh [fʲɾʲeːvˠ] = root, source, origin, rootstock, race, radical (in linguistics and chemistry)
fréamhach = roots, having roots, rooted, established
fréamhaí = derivative, radical
fréamhaigh = to root, spring, descend (from), derive (from)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) freumh [frʲɪəv] = root, source, derivation
freumhagach = pertaining to or abounding in small roots, fibrous
freumhag = small root, rootlet, fibre
freumhach = rooted, abounding in roots, steady, fundamental
freumhaichte = rooted, derived
freumhachadh = rooting, taking root, deriving, derivation, etymology
Manx (Gaelg) fraue [freːw] = bulb, derivation, radical, root
frauaghey = to root
frauee = derivative, primitive
fraueit = grafted, rooted
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gureid, gwreid = root
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwraidd [ɡwrai̯ð] = root, bottom, base, foundation, source, origin, ancestry
gwreiddiadur = etymological dictionary
gwreiddiaf, gwreiddio = to root, grow roots, take root, become ingrained or established, be rooted, be derived, ground, found, secure, establish
gwreiddiog = having roots, rooted, ingrained
gwreiddiol = original, primitive, innate, initial, established, hereditary
gwreiddyn = root, beginning, origin, source, nucleus, essence, foundation, reason, stock, pedigree
Old Cornish grueiten = root
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwredh, gwreydh, gwreidhen = root
gwredhan = a single root
gwrydhye = to take root, to be rooted
Cornish (Kernewek) gwrydhen = root
gwreydhek = original
gwreydhyel = radical
gwreydhyoleth = radicalism
Old Breton uraed = root
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gwrizienn, gruyzyenn, gruyzienn, grizyen = root
gwriziaouiñ gwriziañ, gwriziennañ = to take root, put down roots
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwrizienn = root, origin, base
gwriziañ = to take root, put down roots, ingrained

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wr̥h₂d-/*wréh₂ds (root). Words from the same roots include root, radish and wort (a liquid extracted from mash when making beer or malt liquor) in English, rot (root, source) in Swedish, rod (root) in Danish, wortel (carrot) in Dutch, Wurzel (root) in German, raíz (root, origin) in Spanish, raíz (root, origin) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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