Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hard Steel

Today we’re looking at the words for steel and related things in Celtic languages.

Steel

Old Irish (Goídelc) dúr = hard, hardy, resolute, rigid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dúr = rigid, hard, solid; difficult; hard to bear; strict, austere; hardy, resolute; unfeeling, dour, obdurate
Irish (Gaeilge) dúr = hard, rigid, solid; dour, grim, obstinate; dense, stupid, blunt, insensitive; sluggish
dúramán = dull-witted, stupid person
dúramánta = dull-witted, stupid
dúranta = dour, grim, morose, sullen
dúrantacht = dourness, sullenness
dúrapóg = surly person
dúrchroí = hard heart, hardness of heart
dúrchroíoch = hard hearted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dùr [duːr] = stubborn, intractable; obstinate, dull, stupid; persevering
durganta = rigid, stiff, hardened; robust, rigorous; obstinate, dogged; sullen, morose; grim, forbidding
Manx (Gaelg) douyr = mournful, uncomfortable, unhappy, afflicting
Proto-Brythonic *dʉr = hard, hard metal, steel
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dur = steel
Welsh (Cymraeg) dur [dɨːr / diːr] = steel, steel weapon; hard, cruel
duraidd = steely, hard, faithful, true
durawdr = steel sword or lance
dur bwrw = cast steel
edau ddur = wire
fel y dur = true as steel, like steel
llifddur = file, rasp
Cornish (Kernewek) dur = steel
dur dinamm = stainless steel
Breton (Brezhoneg) dir = steel
dir disvergi = stainless steel
kazeg-dir = bicycle (“steel mare”)

Etymology from the Latin dūrus (hard, rough, harsh), from the Proto-Indo-European *drew- (hard, fast), from *dóru (tree) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include the Scots word dour (hard, stern, severe, relentless), possibly via Middle Irish, which was also borrowed into English and means stern, harsh or forbidding; the French word dur (hard, tough, harsh), the Italian word duro (hard, tough, harsh), and the Spanish word duro (hard, form, solid) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include Celtic words for oak (tree), and the English words true, trough and trim [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) cruach [kɾˠuəx / kɾˠɔx] = steel
cruachghreanadóireacht = steel-engraving
cruachobair = steelwork
cruachphláta = steel-plate
cruachphlátáilte = steel-plated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruaidh [kruəj] = steel; stone anchor; hard, rocky ground
Manx (Gaelg) creoighey = steel

Etymology from the Irish crua (hard), from the Old Irish crúaid (hard, hardy, harsh, stern, strict), from the Proto-Celtic *kroudis (rude), possibly from *krū- (blood), from the Proto-Indo-European *krewh₂-. (blood) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) stàilinn [sdaːl̪ʲɪn̪ʲ] = steel
clòimh-stàilinn = steel wool
obraiche-stàilinn = steelworker
ionad-stàilinn = steelworks
Manx (Gaelg) staillin, steillyn, steillin = steel
staillinagh = steel-maker, steel
obbyr staillinagh = steelwork
ollan staillinagh = steel wool
snaie staillinagh = steel wire
towse staillinagh = steelyard

Etymology from the Old Norse stál (steel, sword), from the Proto-Germanic stahlą (steel), from the Proto-Indo-European *stek- (to be firm, stand fast) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Germanic root include steel in English, staal (steel) in Dutch, Stahl (steel) in German, and stål (steel, tool) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Castles & fortresses

Words for castles and fortresses in Celtic languages.

King John's Castle / Caisleán Luimnigh

Proto-Celtic *dūnom = stronghold
Old Irish (Goídelc) dún [duːn] = fort, fortress
Irish (Gaeilge) dún [d̪ˠuːnˠ] = fort; fortress; place of refuge, haven; residence, house; promontory fort; bluff
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dùn [duːn] = fortress, heap
Manx (Gaelg) doon [duːn] = fort, fastness, stronghold, bastion, earth fort, dun, fortified rock
Proto-Brythonic *din [ˈdiːn] = hill, fortified hill, fort
Gaulish dunum, *dūnom = fort
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) din = fort
Welsh (Cymraeg) din [dɪn / ˈdiːn] = city, fort, fortress, fastness, stronghold
dinas [ˈdɪnas / ˈdiːnas] = city, large town; town
Cornish (Kernewek) din [di:n] = fort
dinas [‘dinas / ‘dinɐz ] = fort
Old Breton din = fort, fortress
Breton (Brezhoneg) din = fort, fortress
dinas = bastion, stronghold

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *dʰuHnom (enclosure), from *dʰewh₂- (to finish, come full circle) [source]. The English words down (a (chalk) hill, rolling grassland), dune and town come from the Proto-Celtic *dūnom [source].

Proto-Celtic *katrixs / *katrik- / *kassrik- = fortification, fort
Old Irish (Goídelc) ca(i)thir [ˈkaθərʲ] = stone enclosure, fortress, castle; dwelling; monastic settlement, enclosure; monastery, convent; fortified city, city
Irish (Gaeilge) cathair [ˈkahɪɾʲ/kaːɾʲ] = city; enclosed church establishment, monastic city; circular stone fort; dwelling (place), bed, lair
Cathair an Phápa = Vatican City
cathair chorr = round fort
cathair ghríobháin = maze, labyrinth
cathróir = citizen
cathróireacht = citizenship
ardchathair, príomhchathair = capital city, metropolis
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cathair [kahɪrʲ] = city
cathair-bhaile = city (with city status)
cathair-stàit = city state
Manx (Gaelg) caayr = dwelling place, city

Etymology: unknown. Possibly related to the Old English hēaþor (enclosure, prison) or Serbo-Croatian kȍtar ( country, district) [source].

Proto-Celtic *kagrom = fort
Welsh (Cymraeg) caer [kaːɨ̯r / kai̯r] = fort, fortress, enclosed stronghold, castle, citadel, fortified town or city; wall, rampart, bulwark
Cornish (Kernewek) ker [kɛ:r / ke:r] = fort, fortress, hill fort, city
Breton (Brezhoneg) ker = town, village, villa

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *kagyom (pen, enclosure), from the Proto-Indo-European *kagʰyóm (enclosure, hedge) [source], which is also the root of words for hedge in Germanic languages, such as hedge in English, Hecke (hedge) in German and hæk (hedge, hurdle) in Danish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) caisel = fort, castle
Irish (Gaeilge) caiseal = (ancient) stone fort; unmortared stone wall; boundary wall (of church or cemetery); caslte (in chess); spinning top
caisleán [kəˈʃlʲɑːn̪ˠ / ˈkaʃl̠ʲɑːnˠ / ˈkaʃl̠ʲænˠ] = castle, mansion, cumulus (cloud)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caisteal [kaʃdʲəlˠ] = castle, fort, tower, garrison; turreted mansion
Manx (Gaelg) cashtal = castle, citadel, surrounding wall, bulwark, rook
Welsh (Cymraeg) castell [ˈkʰastɛɬ / ˈkʰastɛɬ] = castle, stronghold; castellated mansion; a kind of cloud; fortified town or city; village
Cornish (Kernewek) kastel = castle, hill fort
Breton (Brezhoneg) kastell = castle, fort, fortress

Etymology: from the Latin castellum (castle, fort, citadel, fortress, stronghold), a diminutive of castrum (fort) [source], from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱes- (to cut, cut off, separate) [source], which is also the root of words for castle in most European languages.

Proto-Celtic *frāti- = fort, rampart
*rāti- = a dugout, a digging
Gaulish ratin = appears in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) ráth [r͈aːθ] = earthen rampart surrounding a chief’s residence, fort, rath
Irish (Gaeilge) ráth [ɾˠɑː/ɾˠaːx] = earthen rampart, earthen ring-fort, rath, layer (of thatch)
ráthach = having earthen forts
ráth sneachta = snow-drift
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ràth [r̪ˠaː] = (ancient) fortress, mound, (ancient) royal seat; clearing, cleared swathe of land; fortress, barrow, village, town
Manx (Gaelg) raah = rath, ring-fort
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bedd-rawd = cemetery
Welsh (Cymraeg) beddrod = tomb, vault, grave, cemetery
Middle Breton bez-ret = cemetery
Middle Breton bered = cemetery

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *prehzt-i- (field). Possibly cognate with the Latin prātum (meadow) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyvelchy, gyuyllchi = circular fortress
Welsh (Cymraeg) cyfylchi = a kind of circular stronghold or fortress

Etymology: from cyfwlch (complete, entire, perfect, excellent). Found only in the placenames such as Dwygyfylchi [dʊɨɡəˈvəlχi], a village in Conwy county, which was first recorded as Dwykyvelchy in 1287 [source]. There is also Gyfylchi in the Afan Valley in Neath Port Talbot county [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dwellings

Words for dwelling / settlement / town in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *trebā = dwelling
Gaulish Atrebates = name of a tribe
Old Irish (Goídelc) treb = house, farm; household; tribe
Irish (Gaeilge) treibh [ˈtʲɾʲɛv] = house, homestead, farmstead; household, family; tribe, race
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = farming village
treubh [treːv] = tribe
Proto-Brythonic *treβ [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tref [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Welsh (Cymraeg) tre(f) [treːv] = town; town centre; dwelling(-place), habitation, residence, home; house (and surrounding land), homestead, farm, estate, cluster of houses; township; tribe
Cornish (Kernewek) trev [trɛ:v /tre:v] = farmsteads (singular: treven)
Old Breton treff = town, settlement
Breton (Brezhoneg) trev = town

Meni Bridge / Porthaethwy

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source].

This is also the root of the archaic English word thorp(e) (a group of houses standing together in the country; a hamlet; a village), which appears in place names such as Milnthorpe and Scunthorpe.

Related words in other languages include German Dorf (hamlet, village, town), Danish torp (village), Swedish torp (farm, cottage, croft), Icelandic þorp (village, farm), and Albanian trevë (country, region, village) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau