Region and Country

Words for region, country and related things in Celtic languages.

Marches 040519 884

Proto-Celtic *mrogis = border(land), march, mark; region, country, territory, province
Gaulish *brogis = border(land) (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) mruig [mruɣʲ] = cultivated land; march, borderland, country, territory
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bruig = land, cultivated land, holding, region, district, border, (farm)house, abode, hall, mansion, castle
Irish (Gaeilge) brugh = dwelling, mansion
brughaidh = landowner, hosteler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brugh [bruh] = broch, fortified tower, large house, mansion, fairy mound, underground house
brughadair [bru.ədɪrʲ] = broch dweller, fairy mound dweller, elf
brughaire [bru.ɪrʲə] = inhabitant of a fairy mound
Manx (Gaelg) brogh = broch
Proto-Brythonic *broɣ [ˈbroːɣ] = country, region, territory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bro = region, country, land
Welsh (Cymraeg) bro [broː] = region, country, land, neighbourhood, native haunt; border, limit, boundary, march; vale, lowland
broaidd = pleasant like a vale
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bro = country, region, land, territory, coast
Cornish (Kernewek) bro = country, land
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bro = country, nation, region
broa = to return to the country
broad = inhabitants, compatriots
broadel = national
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Gernev = Cornwall
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland
Breton (Brezhoneg) bro = counry(-side)
broadadur = naturalization
broadeladur = nationalisation
broadelañ = to naturalize (a person)
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *morǵ- (frontier, border). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish and Latin, include brolo (vegetable garden, orchard, grove) in Italian, and breuil (wood, copse, coppice) in French [source].

Words from the same PIE root include margin, mark (boundary, border, frontier) and march (a border region) in English, and marge (margin, markup) in French, margine (margin, border, edge) in Italian, and margen (margin, edge, leeway) in Spanish [source], Mark (a fortified border area, marches) in German, mark (field) in Danish, and marg (march, boundary) in Irish (via Old Norse) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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