Short Cuts

Words for short, cut and related things in Celtic languages:

Scout Cardigan Corgi

Proto-Celtic *birros = short
Old Irish (Goídelc) berr [bʲer͈] = short
berraid = to shear, clip, shave, cut, shear, tonsure
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) berr, bearr = short
berrad = to cut, clip, shave, cut, tonsure
Irish (Gaeilge) bearr [bʲɑːɾˠ/bʲaːɾˠ] = to clip, cut, trim, cut (hair), shave, fleece (sb)
bearradh = cutting
bearrthóir = trimmer, shearer
bearrthóireacht = trimming, cutting speech
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beàrr = short, brief (archaic)
beàrr [bjaːr̪ˠ] = to cut, shave, crop, shear, pare, prune, clip, poll, dehorn
Manx (Gaelg) baarey = to bare, clip, cut, dress, poll, prune, shave, trimmed
baareyder = barber, cutter, shaver, clipper
baarys = tonsure
Gaulish *birros = a coarse kind of thick woollen cloth; a woollen cap or hood worn over the shoulders or head<
Proto-Brythonic *bɨrr [ˈbɨr͈] = short
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) birr, byrr = short, small, brief
bŷr-brŷd = a short meal of meat
uyrder, byrder = shortness, brevity
Welsh (Cymraeg) byr [bɨ̞r/bɪr] = short, small, brief, concise, condensed, abrupt, curt, stingy, sparing, deficient, faulty
byrbryd = light meal, lunch, snack
byrbwyll = rash, reckless, thoughtless
byrder = shortness, brevity, smallness, conciseness, scarity, deficiency
byrdra = shortness, brevity, smallness, curtness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber = short, diminutive, brief
beranal = asthma, shortness of breath
Cornish (Kernewek) berr [bɛɹ] = short, brief
berrhe = to abbreviate, shorten
berrheans = abrreviation
berrskrifa = to summarise
berrwelyek = short-sighted
Middle Breton (Brezonec) berr, ber, bèr = short, brief
berr-ha-berr = very short, shortly briefly
berraat = to shorten, abbreivate, reduce
berradenn = shortening
berradur = abbreviation
Breton (Brezhoneg) berr = short, brief
berr-ha-berr = very short, shortly briefly
berradenn = shortening
berradur = abbreviation

Etymology: unknown

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Latin and Gaulish, include beret in English, béret (beret) in French, berret (cap) in Gascon, biretta (a square cap worm by Roman Catholic priests) in English and Italian, berretto (beanie, cap) in Italian, barrete (biretta, cap) in Portuguese, birrete (biretta) in French, and βίρρος [ˈβir.ros] (a type of cloak or mantle) in Ancient Greek [source].

Proto-Celtic *gerros = short
*gari- = short
Old Irish (Goídelc) gerr, gearr = short, a short time, castrated
gerraid = to cut, mutilate, shorten, carve
garait [ˈɡarədʲ] = short
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gerr [ɡʲer͈] = short
gairaid = to cut short, cut off, mutilate
garit, garait, gairit = short (time/distance/length)
Irish (Gaeilge) gearr [ɟɑːɾˠ/ɟaːɾˠ] = short; to cut, shorten, reduce
gearrachán = cutting remark
gearradh = cutting, cut, levy, rate, speed
gearrán = gelding, pack-horse, small horse, nag, strong-boned woman
gearróg = short bit, scrap, short drill or furrow, short stocky girl, short answer
gearrthóg = cutting, snippet, trimmings, cutlet
gearrthóir = cutter, chisel
gairid [ˈɡaɾʲədʲ] = short, near, close
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geàrr [gʲaːr̪ˠ] = short, thick-set, squat, dumpy, brief, concise, succinct, scanty; to cut, carve, sever, dock
goirid [gɤrʲɪdʲ] = short, brief, brusque
giorraich [gʲir̪ɪç] = abbreviate, abrige, shorten, curtail
giorrachadh [gʲir̪ˠəxəɣ] = abbreviation, abridgement, summary
Manx (Gaelg) giare = abbreviated, abridged, abrupt, brief, brusque, compact, concise, curt, short, summary
giarey = to abbreviate, abridge, axe, carve castrate, clip, cut
girraghey = to abbreviate, abridge, contract, shorten

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰer- (short). Words from the same PIE root include ह्रस्व [ˈɦɾɐs̪.ʋɐ] (short, small, dwarfish, little, low; a dwarf) in Sanskrit, and ह्रस्व [ɦɾəs̪.ʋᵊ] (a short vowel) in Hindi, and possibly girl in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Scratching Scrapes

Words for scratch, scrape and related things in Celtic languages:

Scratch Cat

Proto-Celtic *skrībbāti = to scratch
Old Irish (Goídelc) scrípaid = to scratch
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scrípaid, scripad, scripadh = to scratch
Irish (Gaeilge) scríob [sˠcɾʲiːbˠ / ʃcɾʲiːbˠ] = to scrape, scratch
scríobach = abrasive, scraping, scratching, scratchy
scríobadach = scraping, scratching, scrawl
scríobadh = to scrape, scratch, scrapings
scríobaire = scraper, scribing-iron, scriber
scríobálaí = scraper, miser
scríobán = grater
scríobaitheamh = abrasion
scríoblach = scrapings, scraps
scríoblíne = scratch
scríobóg = (little) scratch, scraping, niggardly woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgrìob [sgrʲiːb] = scrape, scratch, grate
sgrìobadh [sgrʲiːbəɣ] = scratching, scraping, score, scratch, scrape, grating
sgrìobag [sgrɔːbag] = slight scratch/scrape, index/pointer finger
Manx (Gaelg) screeb = abrasion, scolding, score, scrape, scratch
screebage = cockleshell, scar, scratch, flourish
screebagh = abrasive, fricative, frictional, scraping, scrapy, scratchy, itchy
scrabey = to abrade, chafe, claw, dress, friction, grate, graze, itch, rasp, scrape, scratch, scrawl; clawing, scraping, scratching
Welsh (Cymraeg) (y)sgrap, sgrâp = scraper, scratch, scrape
sgrapad = scratch, scrape
sgrap(i)af, sgrap(i)o = to scratch, scrape (together)
(y)sgraper = scraper
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scrivinas = to scratch, claw
Middle Breton (Brezonec) skrab = scratching
skrabad = cut
skrabadenn = a big scratch
skrabadur = scraping
skrabañ, skrabat = to hurry up, to scratch
skraberezh = scratching
Breton (Brezhoneg) skrabañ = to scratch

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kreybʰ- (to scratch, to tear) [source]. The Welsh words come from the English scrape.

Words from the same roots include scribble, scribe, script, shrift and shrive in English, and scritta (writing, notice, sign) and scrìvere (to write, spell) in Italian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Baskets

Words for baskets and related things in Celtic languages.

Baskets

Proto-Celtic *kleibo = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) clíab = basket, breast, chest, ribcage
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) clíab = basket, skep, bee-hive, coracle, currach, breast, bosom
cliabach = slender-bodied
cliabaire = infant
cliabán = cradle, bird-trip, bird-cage
Irish (Gaeilge) cliabh [klʲiəvˠ/klʲiəw] = ribbed frame; body, chest, bosom; creel, pannier basket
cliabhadóir = creel-maker
cliabhadóireacht = creel-making
cliabhaire = basket-carrier, travelling poultry-dealer
cliabhán = cradle, wicker cage
cliabhrach = bodily frame, chest, thorax; (person of) large frame
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cliabh [kliəv] = basket, creel, pannier, ribcage, straightjacket
cliabhadh [kliəvəɣ] = (act of) putting into a creel
cliabhan = small creel, small hamper, wreckage, broken timbers
cliabhadair, cliabhair [kliəvədɪrʲ] = basket-maker
Manx (Gaelg) clean = pannier, potato creel, twig basket; cot, cradle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kauell, cawell = basket, pannier, cradle
cawelleit = basketful, hamperful, quiverful
Welsh (Cymraeg) cawell = basket, pannier; cradle; fish-trap, creel, cage; quiver; belly, breast
cawellaf, cawellu = to put into a hamper or basket; cradle
cawellaid = basketful, hamperful, quiverful
cawellig = little basket
cawellwr = basket-maker, maker of wicker fish-traps
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cawal, cauwal, cowal = hamper, basket, pannier
cawel gwanan beehive
Cornish (Kernewek) kowel = hamper, basket, cage
kowel gwenen beehive
kowel-gwari = playpen
kowella = to cage
Old Breton cauell, cauèl, queuel, qavell = cradle, trap, locker
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kavell, kavel, kevell, cauell = cradle, trap, locker
kavell-bez = tomb
kavellad = contents of a trap
kavellañ = to put in a basket
Breton (Brezhoneg) kavell = cradle, trap, locker
kavell-bez = tomb

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱley- (to lean) [source]. Celtic words for fence, hurdle, lattice and related things come from the same root: more details, as do words for left and related things.

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish and Latin, include claie (wicker rack, trellis, hurdle) in French and cheda (wattled laterals at the base of a traditional cart) in Galician [source].

Words from the same PIE root include client, climate, clinic, incline and lean in English, leunen (to lean) in Dutch, lehnen (to lean) in German, chinàre (to bend) in Italian, and clemente (lenient) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ces = basket
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ces = basket, hamper, pannier, bee-hive, skep, causeway of hurdles
Irish (Gaeilge) cis [cɪʃ] = wicker container, basket, crate, plaited or crossed twigs as support for causeway
ciseach = wattled causeway, improved path, footbridge, over soft ground or drain, hamper
ciseachán = breadbasket, stomach
ciseán = (wicker) basket
ciseadóir = wicker-worker, basket-maker
ciseadóireacht = wicker-work, basketry
ciseog = shallow basket (for potatoes, etc)
cispheil = basketball
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cis [kʲiʃ] = (large) woven/wicker basket, wickerwork panel, hurdle
ciseach [kʲiʃəx] = wickerwork path/bridge
ciseag, cisean, ciosan = small woven basket or creel, kishie
cisean [kliəvədɪrʲ] = basket-maker
Manx (Gaelg) kishan = skep
kishan pabyr = waste paper basket
kishan shellan = hive

Etymology: from Old Norse kista (chest, box), from Latin cista (trunk, chest, casket), from Ancient Greek κίστη (kístē – box, chest, casket), from Proto-Indo-European *kisteh₂ (woven container) [source].

Words from the same roots include chest in English, kist (chest, box, trunk, coffer) in Scots, Kiste (box, crate, case, chest) in German, ciste (chest, coffer, treasure, fund) in French, cesta (basket, hamper) in Spanish [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bascaed = basket
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) basgaid [basgɪdʲ] = basket
basgaid-arain = breadbasket
basgaid-bidhe = hamper
basgaid-sgudail = wastebasket
ball-basgaid = basketball
Manx (Gaelg) basca(i)d, baskad, bastag = pannier, potato creel, twig basket; cot, cradle
bastag arran = breadbasket
bastageyr = basket maker
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) basged, bascet, basced = basket, basketful
basgedeit = basketful, hamperful
Welsh (Cymraeg) basgeg = basket, basketful
basgedaf, basgedu = to place in a basket, to make baskets
basged(i)aid = basketful, hamperful
basgedwaith = basketry, basketwork, wickerwork
basgedwr, basgedydd = basket-maker
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) basced = basket
Cornish (Kernewek) basket = basket

Etymology: from Middle English basket, from Anglo-Norman bascat (basket), possibly from Late Latin bascauda (a woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork), from Proto-Celtic *baskis (bundle, load), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle), or non-Indo-European source.

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic [source].

Other words from the PIE root *bʰask- include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].

There are more details on the Burdensome Loads Celtiadur post, and the Celtic Pathways Baskets episode.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Burdensome Loads

Words for loads, burdens and related things in Celtic languages.

Worker carrying rice seedlings to her field

Proto-Celtic *baskis = bundle, load
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) basc = circular necklet or neckband
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) basc = round, red, scarlet (archaic)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) beich = burden, load
Welsh (Cymraeg) baich [bai̯χ] = burden, heavy load, labour, duty, sin, sorrow, woe, responsibility, a load, a dry measure
baich gwaith = workload
beichiaf, beichio = to burden, load, weigh (down), overwhelm, encumber
beichiedig = burdened, laden
beichiog = pregnant, expectant, burdened, laden, fertile, prolific, teeming
beichiogaeth = pregnancy
beichiogaf, beichiogi = to become pregnant, impregnate, conceive
beichiogi = pregnancy, conception, feture, childbirth, delivery (of child)
Cornish (Kernewek) begh = burden, load
begh-ober = workload
beghus = burdensome, onerous
beghya = to burden, impose upon, overload
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bec’h = burden
bec’hiet = loaded, charged, full
bec’h(i)us = heavy, overwhelming, oppressive
bec’h-bec’h = with great difficulty
bec’hiadurezh = oppression
Breton (Brezhoneg) bec’h = difficulty, effort
bec’hiad = load, charge, responsibility, burden
bec’hadenn = physical effort
bec’hded = saturation

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle, band), or from a non-Indo-European source. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bascauda (woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork) in Late Latin, bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic (via Aragonese or Galician) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) aire = load, burden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aire, oire, ere = load, burden
Irish (Gaeilge) eire = load, burden
eireadóir = encumbrancer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eire [erʲə] = burden, load
eireach [erʲəx] = burdensome, heavy
Manx (Gaelg) errey = burden, impost, imposition, load
thie errey = infirmary
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) areu = burden, sorrow, grief
Welsh (Cymraeg) arau = burden, sorrow, grief

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) úalach = burden, load, duty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úalach = burden, charge, load, duty, obligation
Irish (Gaeilge) ualach = load, burden
ualaigh = to load, burden, encumber
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uallach = round, red, scarlet (archaic)

Etymology: possibly from uala (shoulder), a version of guala (shoulder), from Middle Irish gúala (shoulder), from Old Irish gúalu (shoulder), from Proto-Indo-European *gew (to bend, curve) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include giro and gyre (a swirling vortex) in English, giro (turn, twist, rotation) in Italian, and giro (turn, spin, tour) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fees and Charges

Words for fee, charge and related things in Celtic languages.

the tally

Proto-Celtic talī = pay
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) táille = reckoning, account, amount
Irish (Gaeilge) táille [ˈt̪ˠɑːl̠ʲə / ˈt̪ˠæːl̠ʲə] = tally, score, charge, reckoning, number, fee, premium, rate, tariff, fare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàille [taːl̪ˠə] = fee, charge, wages, tax, tribute
tàilleabh = consequence, result, premium
tàilleabhan [taːl̪ʲəvan] = derivative
tàilleabhach = apprentice
tàilleabhachd = apprenticeship
Manx (Gaelg) tailley = duty, fare, fee, impost, notch, premium, score, tally (stick), tariff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tal, tâl = payment, wage, fee
Welsh (Cymraeg) tâl [taːl] = payment, wage, fee, reward, tax, tribute, value, compensation, recompense, reparation, atonement, retribution, punishment
tal(i)adwy = valuable, precious, flawless, perfect
talaf, talu = to pay (for)
tal(i)awdr = payer, rewarder, debtor, creditor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) talves = worth, of value
taly = to pay, requite, recompense
Cornish (Kernewek) talas = payment
talvedhys = worth
talvesa = to be worth
talvos = to be priced, rate
talvosek = valuable
talvosogeth = usefulness, value, worth
Old Breton tal = to worthy, cost
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tailh = waist, cutting, pruning, tax
tailhadiñ = to cut, slash
tailhadur = cut
tailhañ, tailhiñ = to cut, prune, trim
Breton (Brezhoneg) tailh = waist, cutting, pruning
tailhañ = to ration, cut down

Etymology: from the Old French taille (cit, wound, incision, count, tally, charge, levy, tax), from the Latin tālea (rod, stick, stake, bar, cutting, scion, twig), from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂l- (to grow, young animal) [source]. The Goidelic languages borrowed these words from Old French, while the Brythonic words came via Proto-Celtic and PIE.

Words from the same roots include tally in English, taille (cutting, pruning, trimming, size, waist) in French, talea (cutting, scion) in Italian, tajar (to cut, slice, chop) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Region and Country

Words for region, country and related things in Celtic languages.

Marches 040519 884

Proto-Celtic *mrogis = border(land), march, mark; region, country, territory, province
Gaulish *brogis = border(land) (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) mruig [mruɣʲ] = cultivated land; march, borderland, country, territory
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bruig = land, cultivated land, holding, region, district, border, (farm)house, abode, hall, mansion, castle
Irish (Gaeilge) brugh = dwelling, mansion
brughaidh = landowner, hosteler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brugh [bruh] = broch, fortified tower, large house, mansion, fairy mound, underground house
brughadair [bru.ədɪrʲ] = broch dweller, fairy mound dweller, elf
brughaire [bru.ɪrʲə] = inhabitant of a fairy mound
Manx (Gaelg) brogh = broch
Proto-Brythonic *broɣ [ˈbroːɣ] = country, region, territory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bro = region, country, land
Welsh (Cymraeg) bro [broː] = region, country, land, neighbourhood, native haunt; border, limit, boundary, march; vale, lowland
broaidd = pleasant like a vale
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bro = country, region, land, territory, coast
Cornish (Kernewek) bro = country, land
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bro = country, nation, region
broa = to return to the country
broad = inhabitants, compatriots
broadel = national
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Gernev = Cornwall
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland
Breton (Brezhoneg) bro = counry(-side)
broadadur = naturalization
broadeladur = nationalisation
broadelañ = to naturalize (a person)
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *morǵ- (frontier, border). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish and Latin, include brolo (vegetable garden, orchard, grove) in Italian, and breuil (wood, copse, coppice) in French [source].

Words from the same PIE root include margin, mark (boundary, border, frontier) and march (a border region) in English, and marge (margin, markup) in French, margine (margin, border, edge) in Italian, and margen (margin, edge, leeway) in Spanish [source], Mark (a fortified border area, marches) in German, mark (field) in Danish, and marg (march, boundary) in Irish (via Old Norse) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Taking Hold

Words for to take, hold and related things in Celtic languages.

Breton Dancers

Proto-Celtic *gabyeti = to grab, seize, take, hold
*gabaglā = taking
Gaulish gabi
Old Irish (Goídelc) gaibid [ˈɡavʲiðʲ] = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabál = taking
argaib [arˈɡavʲ] = to seize, capture
congaibid [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
conocaibid [konˈhoɡəvʲ] = to raise, rise, uplift, exalt, extol
fogaibid [foˈɡavʲ] = to find, discover, get, gain, obtain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gaibid = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabáil = taking
aurgaibid = to seize, capture
congmaid = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Irish (Gaeilge) gabh [ɡavʲ/ɡo(ː)] = to take, arrest, go, come
gabháil = taking
aisghabh = to retake, recover possession of
gabh mo leithscéal = excuse me
urghabh = to seize, capture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gabh [gav] = take, go, recite, break (in)
ath-ghabh = retake, recover, regain, impound
gabh mo lethsgeul = excuse me, pardon
gabhail [gahal] = taking, lease, tenure, conquest
Manx (Gaelg) gow = to take
gow my leshtal = excuse me, sorry, I beg your pardon
goaill = acceptance, affect, apprehend, apprehension, arrest, capture, catch, contraction, engage, seizure, receive, take
aaghoaill = to recapture, reconquer, re-engage, retake
Proto-Brythonic *gabal- = breadth, side
*gavaɣl = to hold, grasp
Old Welsh gabael = to hold, grasp, grip
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) gauayleu, gauael = to hold, grasp, grip
gauaelant, gauaelu, gavailio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch
Welsh (Cymraeg) gafael [ˈɡavaɨ̯l/ˈɡaːvai̯l] = to hold, grasp, grip
gafaeladwy = available
gafaelaf, gafaelio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch, grip, arrest, grapple, snatch, seize
gafaeliad = a holding, hold, grasp, capture, attachment, comprehension, adherence, spasm
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gaval = to hold, lay hold of, grasp, have
gavel = a hold, a grasp
Cornish (Kernewek) gavel = capacity, grasp
Old Breton gabael = to hold (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʰeh₁bʰ- (to grab, take) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include able, debt, debit, doubt and habit in English, avere (to have) in Italian, avoir (to have) in French, and haber (to hold, possess) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Prison

Today we’re looking at words for prisions and related things in Celtic languages.

Carchar Lisbon / Lisbon Prison

Old Irish (Goídelc) carcar [ˈkarkar] = prison, captivity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carcar = prison, captivity, bondage, strong-room
Irish (Gaeilge) carcair [ˈkaɾˠkəɾʲ] = prison, place of confinement; stall, pen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carcair [karxgɛrʲ] = prison, coffer, sink, sewer, hermit’s cell
Manx (Gaelg) carchyr = imprisonment, jail
carchyragh = gaolbird, prisoner
Proto-Brythonic *karxar = prison, jail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) karchar, carchar, carcar = prison, gaol
karcharaur, carcharawr = prisoner
Welsh (Cymraeg) carchar [ˈkarχar] = prison, gaol, pen, stable, bond, fetter, band, chain, hobble, restriction, obstruction, impediment, constipation
carcharbwll = dungeon, prison-pit
carchardy = prison house, gaol
carchardig = imprisoned, incarcerated, confined
carchardigaeth = imprisonment, confinement
carchargell = prison cell
carchariad = imprisonment, confinement
carchariad, carcharor = prisoner
carcharu = to imprison, impound, confine, shackle, fetter, hobble, restrict, obstruct
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carhar = jail, prison
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carchar, charc’har, karc’har = prison, jail
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment
Breton (Brezhoneg) karc’har = dungeon
karc’harel = prison
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment

Etymology: from Latin carcer (prison, jail, jailbird, beginning, starting gate), from Proto-Italic *karkos (enclosure, barrier), from PIE *kr̥-kr̥- (circular), a reduplication of *(s)ker- (to turn, bend) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include incarcerate in English, carcere (jail, prison, imprisonment) in Italian, cárcere (jail, prison) in Portuguese, kerker (dungeon) in Dutch, and карцер (lockup, punishment cell, sweatbox) in Russian [source].

English words from the same PIE roots include circle, circus, corona, crisp, cross, crown and ring [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) prísún, brísún = prison
prísúntacht = imprisonment
Irish (Gaeilge) príosún [ˈpʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ] = prison, imprisonment
príosúnach = prisoner
príosúnacht = imprisonment
príosúnaigh = to imprison
príosúnú = imprisonment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) prìosan [prʲiːsən] = prison, jail
prìosanach = prisoner
prìosanachadh = imprisoning, incarcerating
Manx (Gaelg) pryssoon = brig, gaol, glasshouse, jail, lock-up, penitentiary, prison, clink
pryssoonagh = captive, detainee, internee, prisoner
pryssoonaght = detention, imprisonment, incarceration
pryssooneyder = gaoler imprisoner
Cornish (Kernewek) prison = gaol, jail, prison
prisonya = to imprison, incarcerate
prisonyans = imprisonment
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniadur, prizonierezh = imprisonment
prizon(i)añ = to imprison
prizon(i)er = prisoner
Breton (Brezhoneg) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniañ = to imprison

Etymology: from the Middle English prisoun (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Anglo-Norman pris(o)un (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Old French prison (prison) from the Latin prehensiō (seizing, apprehending, arresting, capturing), from prehendō (to seize). The Breton probably comes directly from Old French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Foreheads

Today we’re looking at words for foreheads, brows and related things in Celtic languages.

Big forehead!

Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, forehead, flat surface, facet, end
éadanán = headstall
éadanchlár = fascia
in éadan = against, opposed to
as éadan = one by one, in (rapid) succession, indiscriminately
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial
aodannan = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-fuadain = mask
dà-aodannach = two-faced, double-skinned (in architecture)
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = apron (of a dam), rockface, countenance, dial, disc, facade, face, facet, facial, fascia, front, frontage
far-eddin = mask
eddin harroo = sour-faced

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (forehead) [source].

Words from the same root include end, answer and antimony in English, and ante (before, earlier, instead of) in Italian [source].

Proto-Celtic *talu = front, forehead
Gaulish *talu = ?
Celtiberian talukokum = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) tul, taul, tel, til = protruberance, projecting part, swelling, boss of a shield
Irish (Gaeilge) tul = protuberance, prominence, front, forehead
tulach = low hill, hillock, mound
tulán = protuberance, mound, knoll, hummock
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tul [tul̪ˠ] = face
Manx (Gaelg) tool = ?
tool-vuilley = forehand stroke
Proto-Brythonic *tal
Old Welsh tal = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tal = end
Welsh (Cymraeg) tâl [taːl] = end (of an object), gable end, extremity, top, side, edge, rampart, front, face (of shield), forehead, brow, head
tâl bainc, talbainc = end of bench, place of honour, best kind, first class
ar dâl = at the top, end, by the side, near
talaith = state, province, district, area, principality
talar = headland (of ploughed field), boundary
talaraf, talaru = to reach the headland, set a boundary
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tal = the front, forehead, end, top
Cornish (Kernewek) tal = brow, forehead, front, temple
talar = headland
talgamma = to frown
plegya tal = to frown, knit one’s brows
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tal = forehead
taleg = sb with a big forehead
Breton (Brezhoneg) tal = face, forehead

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *telh₂- (ground, bottom), or from *teHlu- [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Sticks and Rods

Today we’re looking at words for sticks, rods and related things in Celtic languages.

Plaster lath

Proto-Celtic *slattā = staff, stalk
Old Irish (Goídelc) slat = rod, lath, twig; ceremonial rod, staff; branch of a tree; scion, youth, stripling; yard (measure of length)
Irish (Gaeilge) slat [sˠl̪ˠɑt̪ˠ/sˠlˠat̪ˠ] = rod, slender stick, cane, switch, wand, yard, outskirts
slatach = rodlike, made of rods, wickered
slatáil = beat with a switch or birch
slataire = slip (of a person), sapling, tall supple youth
slatamáil = (act of) birching
slatfhear = slender supple man
slatóg = small rod, twig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slat [sl̪ˠahd] = long stick, rod, yard (measure), penis
slatag = small branch, twig
slat Ghàidhealach = Highland yard (8′)
slat-tomhais = standard, yardstick
slatan-draoidheachd = magic wand, fairy wand
Manx (Gaelg) slat(t) = batten, birch, cane, mace, rail, rod, slat, stem, switch, verge, wand
slat hendreil = lightning-rod
slat hows(h)e = criterion, yardstick
slat hummee = dipper, dipstick
slattag = perch, small rod, small stick, stripe, swizzle stick, twig
Proto-Brythonic *llaθ = rod, staff, stick, spear, beam, rafter, pole
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lath = rod, staff, wand, stick
Welsh (Cymraeg) llath [ɬaːθ] = rod, staff, wand, stick, lath, spear, lance, spar, rafter, beam, offshoot, descendant
llath Gymreig = Welsh yard (about 40 inches)
llathaid = yard’s length, yardstick, length of rod, pole or perch, square yard
lathen = rod, wand, staff, stick, lath
llathennaf, llathennu = to measure, be critical (of)
hudlath = magic wand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lath = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) lath = stick, staff, yard
Old Breton lath = pole, rod
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lazh, laz, lah = pole, rod
Breton (Brezhoneg) lazh = slat (of a plough), board, batten

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a substrate language of northwestern Europe [source].

Words that may be related include lath (a thin, narrow strip, fastened to the rafters) in English, Latte (batten, lath, slat) in German, lat (slate, lath, ruler, yardstick) in Dutch, and lata (can, tin, plate) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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