Burdensome Loads

Words for loads, burdens and related things in Celtic languages.

Worker carrying rice seedlings to her field

Proto-Celtic *baskis = bundle, load
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) basc = circular necklet or neckband
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) basc = round, red, scarlet (archaic)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) beich = burden, load
Welsh (Cymraeg) baich [bai̯χ] = burden, heavy load, labour, duty, sin, sorrow, woe, responsibility, a load, a dry measure
baich gwaith = workload
beichiaf, beichio = to burden, load, weigh (down), overwhelm, encumber
beichiedig = burdened, laden
beichiog = pregnant, expectant, burdened, laden, fertile, prolific, teeming
beichiogaeth = pregnancy
beichiogaf, beichiogi = to become pregnant, impregnate, conceive
beichiogi = pregnancy, conception, feture, childbirth, delivery (of child)
Cornish (Kernewek) begh = burden, load
begh-ober = workload
beghus = burdensome, onerous
beghya = to burden, impose upon, overload
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bec’h = burden
bec’hiet = loaded, charged, full
bec’h(i)us = heavy, overwhelming, oppressive
bec’h-bec’h = with great difficulty
bec’hiadurezh = oppression
Breton (Brezhoneg) bec’h = difficulty, effort
bec’hiad = load, charge, responsibility, burden
bec’hadenn = physical effort
bec’hded = saturation

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle, band), or from a non-Indo-European source. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bascauda (woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork) in Late Latin, bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic (via Aragonese or Galician) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) aire = load, burden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aire, oire, ere = load, burden
Irish (Gaeilge) eire = load, burden
eireadóir = encumbrancer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eire [erʲə] = burden, load
eireach [erʲəx] = burdensome, heavy
Manx (Gaelg) errey = burden, impost, imposition, load
thie errey = infirmary
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) areu = burden, sorrow, grief
Welsh (Cymraeg) arau = burden, sorrow, grief

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) úalach = burden, load, duty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úalach = burden, charge, load, duty, obligation
Irish (Gaeilge) ualach = load, burden
ualaigh = to load, burden, encumber
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uallach = round, red, scarlet (archaic)

Etymology: possibly from uala (shoulder), a version of guala (shoulder), from Middle Irish gúala (shoulder), from Old Irish gúalu (shoulder), from Proto-Indo-European *gew (to bend, curve) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include giro and gyre (a swirling vortex) in English, giro (turn, twist, rotation) in Italian, and giro (turn, spin, tour) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Fees and Charges

Words for fee, charge and related things in Celtic languages.

the tally

Proto-Celtic talī = pay
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) táille = reckoning, account, amount
Irish (Gaeilge) táille [ˈt̪ˠɑːl̠ʲə / ˈt̪ˠæːl̠ʲə] = tally, score, charge, reckoning, number, fee, premium, rate, tariff, fare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàille [taːl̪ˠə] = fee, charge, wages, tax, tribute
tàilleabh = consequence, result, premium
tàilleabhan [taːl̪ʲəvan] = derivative
tàilleabhach = apprentice
tàilleabhachd = apprenticeship
Manx (Gaelg) tailley = duty, fare, fee, impost, notch, premium, score, tally (stick), tariff
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tal, tâl = payment, wage, fee
Welsh (Cymraeg) tâl [taːl] = payment, wage, fee, reward, tax, tribute, value, compensation, recompense, reparation, atonement, retribution, punishment
tal(i)adwy = valuable, precious, flawless, perfect
talaf, talu = to pay (for)
tal(i)awdr = payer, rewarder, debtor, creditor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) talves = worth, of value
taly = to pay, requite, recompense
Cornish (Kernewek) talas = payment
talvedhys = worth
talvesa = to be worth
talvos = to be priced, rate
talvosek = valuable
talvosogeth = usefulness, value, worth
Old Breton tal = to worthy, cost
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tailh = waist, cutting, pruning, tax
tailhadiñ = to cut, slash
tailhadur = cut
tailhañ, tailhiñ = to cut, prune, trim
Breton (Brezhoneg) tailh = waist, cutting, pruning
tailhañ = to ration, cut down

Etymology: from the Old French taille (cit, wound, incision, count, tally, charge, levy, tax), from the Latin tālea (rod, stick, stake, bar, cutting, scion, twig), from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂l- (to grow, young animal) [source]. The Goidelic languages borrowed these words from Old French, while the Brythonic words came via Proto-Celtic and PIE.

Words from the same roots include tally in English, taille (cutting, pruning, trimming, size, waist) in French, talea (cutting, scion) in Italian, tajar (to cut, slice, chop) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Region and Country

Words for region, country and related things in Celtic languages.

Marches 040519 884

Proto-Celtic *mrogis = border(land), march, mark; region, country, territory, province
Gaulish *brogis = border(land) (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) mruig [mruɣʲ] = cultivated land; march, borderland, country, territory
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bruig = land, cultivated land, holding, region, district, border, (farm)house, abode, hall, mansion, castle
Irish (Gaeilge) brugh = dwelling, mansion
brughaidh = landowner, hosteler
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) brugh [bruh] = broch, fortified tower, large house, mansion, fairy mound, underground house
brughadair [bru.ədɪrʲ] = broch dweller, fairy mound dweller, elf
brughaire [bru.ɪrʲə] = inhabitant of a fairy mound
Manx (Gaelg) brogh = broch
Proto-Brythonic *broɣ [ˈbroːɣ] = country, region, territory
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bro = region, country, land
Welsh (Cymraeg) bro [broː] = region, country, land, neighbourhood, native haunt; border, limit, boundary, march; vale, lowland
broaidd = pleasant like a vale
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bro = country, region, land, territory, coast
Cornish (Kernewek) bro = country, land
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bro = country, nation, region
broa = to return to the country
broad = inhabitants, compatriots
broadel = national
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Gernev = Cornwall
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland
Breton (Brezhoneg) bro = counry(-side)
broadadur = naturalization
broadeladur = nationalisation
broadelañ = to naturalize (a person)
Bro-C’hall = France
Bro-Saoz = England
Bro-Skos = Scotland

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *morǵ- (frontier, border). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish and Latin, include brolo (vegetable garden, orchard, grove) in Italian, and breuil (wood, copse, coppice) in French [source].

Words from the same PIE root include margin, mark (boundary, border, frontier) and march (a border region) in English, and marge (margin, markup) in French, margine (margin, border, edge) in Italian, and margen (margin, edge, leeway) in Spanish [source], Mark (a fortified border area, marches) in German, mark (field) in Danish, and marg (march, boundary) in Irish (via Old Norse) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Taking Hold

Words for to take, hold and related things in Celtic languages.

Breton Dancers

Proto-Celtic *gabyeti = to grab, seize, take, hold
*gabaglā = taking
Gaulish gabi
Old Irish (Goídelc) gaibid [ˈɡavʲiðʲ] = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabál = taking
argaib [arˈɡavʲ] = to seize, capture
congaibid [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
conocaibid [konˈhoɡəvʲ] = to raise, rise, uplift, exalt, extol
fogaibid [foˈɡavʲ] = to find, discover, get, gain, obtain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gaibid = to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture, gain (victory), put on (clothing), recite, declare
gabáil = taking
aurgaibid = to seize, capture
congmaid = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Irish (Gaeilge) gabh [ɡavʲ/ɡo(ː)] = to take, arrest, go, come
gabháil = taking
aisghabh = to retake, recover possession of
gabh mo leithscéal = excuse me
urghabh = to seize, capture
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gabh [gav] = take, go, recite, break (in)
ath-ghabh = retake, recover, regain, impound
gabh mo lethsgeul = excuse me, pardon
gabhail [gahal] = taking, lease, tenure, conquest
Manx (Gaelg) gow = to take
gow my leshtal = excuse me, sorry, I beg your pardon
goaill = acceptance, affect, apprehend, apprehension, arrest, capture, catch, contraction, engage, seizure, receive, take
aaghoaill = to recapture, reconquer, re-engage, retake
Proto-Brythonic *gabal- = breadth, side
*gavaɣl = to hold, grasp
Old Welsh gabael = to hold, grasp, grip
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) gauayleu, gauael = to hold, grasp, grip
gauaelant, gauaelu, gavailio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch
Welsh (Cymraeg) gafael [ˈɡavaɨ̯l/ˈɡaːvai̯l] = to hold, grasp, grip
gafaeladwy = available
gafaelaf, gafaelio = to hold tight, take hold, clutch, grip, arrest, grapple, snatch, seize
gafaeliad = a holding, hold, grasp, capture, attachment, comprehension, adherence, spasm
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gaval = to hold, lay hold of, grasp, have
gavel = a hold, a grasp
Cornish (Kernewek) gavel = capacity, grasp
Old Breton gabael = to hold (?)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʰeh₁bʰ- (to grab, take) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include able, debt, debit, doubt and habit in English, avere (to have) in Italian, avoir (to have) in French, and haber (to hold, possess) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Prison

Today we’re looking at words for prisions and related things in Celtic languages.

Carchar Lisbon / Lisbon Prison

Old Irish (Goídelc) carcar [ˈkarkar] = prison, captivity
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carcar = prison, captivity, bondage, strong-room
Irish (Gaeilge) carcair [ˈkaɾˠkəɾʲ] = prison, place of confinement; stall, pen
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carcair [karxgɛrʲ] = prison, coffer, sink, sewer, hermit’s cell
Manx (Gaelg) carchyr = imprisonment, jail
carchyragh = gaolbird, prisoner
Proto-Brythonic *karxar = prison, jail
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) karchar, carchar, carcar = prison, gaol
karcharaur, carcharawr = prisoner
Welsh (Cymraeg) carchar [ˈkarχar] = prison, gaol, pen, stable, bond, fetter, band, chain, hobble, restriction, obstruction, impediment, constipation
carcharbwll = dungeon, prison-pit
carchardy = prison house, gaol
carchardig = imprisoned, incarcerated, confined
carchardigaeth = imprisonment, confinement
carchargell = prison cell
carchariad = imprisonment, confinement
carchariad, carcharor = prisoner
carcharu = to imprison, impound, confine, shackle, fetter, hobble, restrict, obstruct
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carhar = jail, prison
Middle Breton (Brezonec) carchar, charc’har, karc’har = prison, jail
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment
Breton (Brezhoneg) karc’har = dungeon
karc’harel = prison
karc’hariañ = to imprison
karc’hariadigezh = imprisonment

Etymology: from Latin carcer (prison, jail, jailbird, beginning, starting gate), from Proto-Italic *karkos (enclosure, barrier), from PIE *kr̥-kr̥- (circular), a reduplication of *(s)ker- (to turn, bend) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include incarcerate in English, carcere (jail, prison, imprisonment) in Italian, cárcere (jail, prison) in Portuguese, kerker (dungeon) in Dutch, and карцер (lockup, punishment cell, sweatbox) in Russian [source].

English words from the same PIE roots include circle, circus, corona, crisp, cross, crown and ring [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) prísún, brísún = prison
prísúntacht = imprisonment
Irish (Gaeilge) príosún [ˈpʲɾʲiːsˠuːn̪ˠ] = prison, imprisonment
príosúnach = prisoner
príosúnacht = imprisonment
príosúnaigh = to imprison
príosúnú = imprisonment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) prìosan [prʲiːsən] = prison, jail
prìosanach = prisoner
prìosanachadh = imprisoning, incarcerating
Manx (Gaelg) pryssoon = brig, gaol, glasshouse, jail, lock-up, penitentiary, prison, clink
pryssoonagh = captive, detainee, internee, prisoner
pryssoonaght = detention, imprisonment, incarceration
pryssooneyder = gaoler imprisoner
Cornish (Kernewek) prison = gaol, jail, prison
prisonya = to imprison, incarcerate
prisonyans = imprisonment
Middle Breton (Brezonec) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniadur, prizonierezh = imprisonment
prizon(i)añ = to imprison
prizon(i)er = prisoner
Breton (Brezhoneg) prizon = prison, jail
prizoniad = prisoner, detained
prizoniañ = to imprison

Etymology: from the Middle English prisoun (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Anglo-Norman pris(o)un (prison, jail, dungeon), from the Old French prison (prison) from the Latin prehensiō (seizing, apprehending, arresting, capturing), from prehendō (to seize). The Breton probably comes directly from Old French [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Foreheads

Today we’re looking at words for foreheads, brows and related things in Celtic languages.

Big forehead!

Old Irish (Goídelc) étan = brow, forehead
Irish (Gaeilge) éadan [ˈeːd̪ˠənˠ] = front, face, forehead, flat surface, facet, end
éadanán = headstall
éadanchlár = fascia
in éadan = against, opposed to
as éadan = one by one, in (rapid) succession, indiscriminately
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aodann [ɯːdən̪ˠ] = face, front, dial
aodannan = little face, mask, frontispiece
aodann-clò = typeface
aodann-fuadain = mask
dà-aodannach = two-faced, double-skinned (in architecture)
Manx (Gaelg) eddin = apron (of a dam), rockface, countenance, dial, disc, facade, face, facet, facial, fascia, front, frontage
far-eddin = mask
eddin harroo = sour-faced

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ent- (forehead) [source].

Words from the same root include end, answer and antimony in English, and ante (before, earlier, instead of) in Italian [source].

Proto-Celtic *talu = front, forehead
Gaulish *talu = ?
Celtiberian talukokum = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) tul, taul, tel, til = protruberance, projecting part, swelling, boss of a shield
Irish (Gaeilge) tul = protuberance, prominence, front, forehead
tulach = low hill, hillock, mound
tulán = protuberance, mound, knoll, hummock
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tul [tul̪ˠ] = face
Manx (Gaelg) tool = ?
tool-vuilley = forehand stroke
Proto-Brythonic *tal
Old Welsh tal = end
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tal = end
Welsh (Cymraeg) tâl [taːl] = end (of an object), gable end, extremity, top, side, edge, rampart, front, face (of shield), forehead, brow, head
tâl bainc, talbainc = end of bench, place of honour, best kind, first class
ar dâl = at the top, end, by the side, near
talaith = state, province, district, area, principality
talar = headland (of ploughed field), boundary
talaraf, talaru = to reach the headland, set a boundary
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tal = the front, forehead, end, top
Cornish (Kernewek) tal = brow, forehead, front, temple
talar = headland
talgamma = to frown
plegya tal = to frown, knit one’s brows
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tal = forehead
taleg = sb with a big forehead
Breton (Brezhoneg) tal = face, forehead

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *telh₂- (ground, bottom), or from *teHlu- [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Sticks and Rods

Today we’re looking at words for sticks, rods and related things in Celtic languages.

Plaster lath

Proto-Celtic *slattā = staff, stalk
Old Irish (Goídelc) slat = rod, lath, twig; ceremonial rod, staff; branch of a tree; scion, youth, stripling; yard (measure of length)
Irish (Gaeilge) slat [sˠl̪ˠɑt̪ˠ/sˠlˠat̪ˠ] = rod, slender stick, cane, switch, wand, yard, outskirts
slatach = rodlike, made of rods, wickered
slatáil = beat with a switch or birch
slataire = slip (of a person), sapling, tall supple youth
slatamáil = (act of) birching
slatfhear = slender supple man
slatóg = small rod, twig
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slat [sl̪ˠahd] = long stick, rod, yard (measure), penis
slatag = small branch, twig
slat Ghàidhealach = Highland yard (8′)
slat-tomhais = standard, yardstick
slatan-draoidheachd = magic wand, fairy wand
Manx (Gaelg) slat(t) = batten, birch, cane, mace, rail, rod, slat, stem, switch, verge, wand
slat hendreil = lightning-rod
slat hows(h)e = criterion, yardstick
slat hummee = dipper, dipstick
slattag = perch, small rod, small stick, stripe, swizzle stick, twig
Proto-Brythonic *llaθ = rod, staff, stick, spear, beam, rafter, pole
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lath = rod, staff, wand, stick
Welsh (Cymraeg) llath [ɬaːθ] = rod, staff, wand, stick, lath, spear, lance, spar, rafter, beam, offshoot, descendant
llath Gymreig = Welsh yard (about 40 inches)
llathaid = yard’s length, yardstick, length of rod, pole or perch, square yard
lathen = rod, wand, staff, stick, lath
llathennaf, llathennu = to measure, be critical (of)
hudlath = magic wand
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) lath = hook, hinge
Cornish (Kernewek) lath = stick, staff, yard
Old Breton lath = pole, rod
Middle Breton (Brezonec) lazh, laz, lah = pole, rod
Breton (Brezhoneg) lazh = slat (of a plough), board, batten

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a substrate language of northwestern Europe [source].

Words that may be related include lath (a thin, narrow strip, fastened to the rafters) in English, Latte (batten, lath, slat) in German, lat (slate, lath, ruler, yardstick) in Dutch, and lata (can, tin, plate) in Spanish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Brushes and Broom

Today we’re looking at the words for brush, broom and related things in Celtic languages.

brooms

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scúap [skuə̯b] = brush, broom, sheaf, bundle
scúapad = act of sweeping
scúapaire = sweeper
Irish (Gaeilge) scuab [sˠkuəbˠ] = besom, broom; brush; sheaf, armful, bundle; to sweep
scuabach = sweeping, flowing; gusty
scuabachán = sweeping, sweepings
scuabadh = to sweep, wash
scuabadóir = sweeper
scuabán = little besom, little brush, little sheaf, armful, bundle
scuab fiacla = toothbrush
scuab ghruaige = hairbrush
scuab ingne = nailbrush
scuab phéinte = paintbrush
sreangscuab = wire brush
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sguab [sguəb] = broom, besom, brush, sheaf
sguabte = brushed, swept
sguabanta = tidy, trim, clean
sguabadh = brushing, sweeping
sguabachan = brush
sguabag = gusty, wind, whisk, sheaf (of corn)
sguabadair = vacuum cleaner
sguabair = sweeper
sguab-aodaich = clothes brush
Manx (Gaelg) skeab = besom, broom
skeabey = brush, brushing, brush over, brush up, sweep, sweeping
skeabit = brushed, swept
skeaban daah, skeaban-slaa = paintbrush
skeaban feeackle = toothbrush
skeaban folt/fuilt = hairbrush
Proto-Brythonic *ɨskʉb = brush, broom
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) escup, yscub, ysgub = brush, broom
Welsh (Cymraeg) ysgub [ˈəsɡɨ̞b / ˈəsɡɪb] = sheaf, wheatsheaf, bundle; brush, broom, besom, quiver of arrows
ysgubell = brush, broom, besom, mop, bunch (of flowers)
ysgubo = to brush, sweep (away), make into sheaves
ysgubol = sweeping
ysgubor = barn, granary, farm building
ysgubwr = sweeper, sweep
ysgub blu = feather duster
priodas (coes) ysgub = informal wedding in which the parties jump over a broomstick in the presence of witnesses
Middle Cornish scibia = to sweep, brush
sciber = barn, any large room
scubilen = whip, scourge
Cornish (Kernewek) skub = sweeping
skubell, skubyllen = broom, brush
skubellik = paintbrush
skubell sugna = vacuum cleaner
skubell-wolghi = mop
skuber, skubores = sweeper
skubus = sweeping
skubya = to brush, sweep
skubyllen dhes = toothbrush
skubyon = refuse, sweepings
Breton (Brezhoneg) skub = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell = broom, brush, blade; sweep
skubell-vroust(añ) = scrubbing brush
skuberez = sweeper

Etymology: from the Latin scōpa (broom) Proto-Indo-European *skeh₂p- (to prop) [source]. Words from the same Latin root include scopa (broom) in Italian, escoba (broom) in Spanish, and shqopë (heather, heath, briar) in Albanian [source].

Broom

Proto-Celtic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Gaulish *balano- = broom (shrub)
Celtiberian *bálago-, *bálaco- = broom (shrub)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bealaidh [bɛl̪ˠɪn] = broom (shrub)
bealaidh-Frangach, bealaidh-Sasannach = laburnum
Proto-Brythonic *banatlo- = broom (shrub)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) banadil, banadyl, banadl = broom (shrub)
Welsh (Cymraeg) banadl, banal = broom (shrub)
banadl Ffrainc = laburnum
Old Cornish banathel = broom (shrub)
Middle Cornish banal = broom (shrub)
Cornish (Kernewek) banadhel = broom (shrub)
Middle Breton balzazn = broom (shrub)
Breton (Brezhoneg) balan = broom (shrub)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰenH-tlom (way, path) in the sense of “cleared path (in a wood)” [source].

The French word balai (broom, broomstick, brush) comes from the Gaulish *balano-, via Old French, Middle Breton and Old Breton [source]. The Spanish word bálago (straw, Spanish broom), comes from the same Gaulish root, via the Celtiberian *bálago-/*bálaco-,

The shrub known as broom in Britain and Ireland is also known as common broom or Scotch broom, or Cytisus scoparius in Latin. It is a deciduous leguminous shrub native to western and central Europe. Broom can also refer to similar plants, such as French broom and Spanish broom [source]. .

Twigs from the broom, and from other plants, can be tied to a stout stick and used to sweep things. Such implements are tradtionally known as besoms or broom besoms, and became known simply as brooms [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com

Copper

Today we’re looking at the words for copper and related things in Celtic languages.

copper pots

Proto-Celtic *omiyom = copper, bronze
Old Irish (Goídelc) umae, humae [ˈu.ṽe] = copper, bronze, brass
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) uma = copper, bronze, brass
Irish (Gaeilge) umha = copper, copper alloy, bronze
umhadhaite = bronze-coloured, bronzed
umhaí = worker in copper or bronze
cré-umha = bronze
cré-umhaigh = to bronze
salachar-umha = verdigris
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umha [ũ.ə] = bronze, copper, brass
umhach = coppery, brassy
umha-dhathte = copper-coloured, bronze-coloured
ceàrd-umha = coppersmith
Linn an Umha = the Bronze Age
meirg-umha = verdigris
Manx (Gaelg) ooha = bronze
cur ooha er = to bronze, bronzing
Yn Eash Ooha = the Bronze Age
Proto-Brythonic *öβ̃ɨð = bronze, copper
Old Welsh emid, emed = bronze, copper
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) euyð, euyd = bronze, copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) efydd [ˈɛvɨ̞ð / ˈeːvɪð] = bronze, brass, copper; made of bronze brass or copper; brazen; bronze colour, coppery
efyddaf, efyddu = to cover or adorn with brass or copper, to braze
efyddaid = made of bronze or brass; brazen, brazed
efyddog = brassy, coppery
efyddwr = brass-smith, copper-smith
medal efydd = bronze medal
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
Oes yr Efydd = Bronze Age

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *omos (raw), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour) [source].

Some words from the same PIE root, via the Latin amārus (bitter, harsh, sour, dire), include amaro (bitter) in Italian, amer (bitter, sour) in French, amarillo (yellow, golden coloured) in Spanish [source], and marulă (lettuce) in Romanian [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) copar [ˈkopˠəɾˠ] = copper
gabha copair = coppersmith
coparás = copperas, copper sulphate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) copar [kɔhbər] = copper
coparach = cuperous, like copper, coppery
copar-dubhaidh = copperas, green vitriol (iron(II) sylphate)
Manx (Gaelg) cobbyr, copuir = copper
cobbyragh = copperish, cupric
gaaue cobbyr = coppersmith
plait cobbyr = copperplate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) copyr, copr, kopyr = copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) copr, copor, coper = copper; something of little value; red hair
gof copr = copper-smith
gwaith copr = copper-works, vessels made of copper
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
Cornish (Kernewek) kober [stɛːn / steːn] = copper
kobrek = copper (colour)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouevr = copper
kouevrek = cupric (relating to or containing copper)
kouevrus = cuprous (relating to or containing copper)

Etymology: from the Middle English coper (copper, bronze), from the Old English copor (copper), from the Proto-Germanic *kuprą (copper), from the Latin Latin cuprum (copper) from the Ancient Greek Κύπρος (Cyprus – where large reserves of copper can be found). The Breton word kouevr was borrowed from the French cuivre (copper, brass), from the same Latin root [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

The Fastest Way to Learn Japanese Guaranteed with JapanesePod101.com