Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bees

Words for bee, sting and related things in Celtic languages.

Bee

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *bekos/*bikos = bee
Old Irish (Goídelc) bech [bʲex] = bee
Middle Irish bech [bʲex] = bee
bechlann [bʲex] = beehive
bechatoir, beachadoir = (hereditary) beekeeper
bechda = full of bees
Irish (Gaeilge) beach [bʲax] = bee
beachaire = beekeeper, beehive
beachaireacht = beekeeping
beachlann = apiary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beach [bɛx] = bee, wasp
beachach [bɛxəx] = pertaining to or abounding in bees or wasps
beachair [bɛxɪrʲ] = beehive
beachan [bjaxər̪ˠn̪ˠ] = small bees or wasps
Proto-Brythonic *bɨg = bee
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) byg = bee
bedaf, bydaf = bees’ nest, beehive
bygegyr = drone
Welsh (Cymraeg) bygegyr, begegyr = drone
bydaf = swarm or nest of (wild) bees, bees’ nest and honey therein, beehive

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰik-/bʰoyk- (bee), from*bʰey- (bee) [source]. Words from the same roots include bee in English, and fuco (drone – male bee) in Italian [source].

Middle Irish teillenn = swarm of bees
Irish (Gaeilge) seileán = (wild) honey bee
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seillean [ʃel̪ʲan] = bee
Manx (Gaelg) shellan [ˈʃɛlʲan] = bee
shelleig, shellaig = beehive, hive

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *wan-inyo- = bee (?)
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanan, gwenyn = bees
gwenynen, guenenen = bee
gwenynllestyr = beehive
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwenyn = bees
gwenynen = bee
gwenynaf, gwenynu = to keep bees
gwenynllais = a humming (of bees)
gwenynlle = beehive
gwenynog = apiary, bee-garden, pertaining to bees, abounding in bees
gwenynydd = beekeeper, apiarist
gwenynyddiaeth = beekeeping
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwanan, gwenyn = bees
gwenynen, guenenen = bee
Cornish (Kernewek) gwenen = bees
gwenenen = bee
gwenen sia = bumble bee
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guenan, guënan = bees
guenanenn, guennanen = bee
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwenan, gwenen, gweren = bees
gwenanenn = bee
gwenaneg = apiary
gwenaner = beekeeper
gwenanerezh = beekeeping, apiculture

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *wano- (tip, sting) [source], from PIE *gʷʰen- (to strike, slay, kill). Words from the same root include bane, defend, fence and gun , and words for to stab, sting, wound, etc. in Celtic languages (see below) [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷaneti = to strike, wound, kill, slay
Old Irish (Goídelc) gonaid [ˈɡonɨðʲ] = to pierce, wound
con·goin = to pierce, wound
Middle Irish gonaid = to pierce, wound
Irish (Gaeilge) goin = to wound, stab, sting, hurt
goinbhlasta = piquant
goineach = wounding, piercing, hurtful
goineadóir = wounder, sharp-tongued person
goineog = stab, sting, prick, cutting remark, thrust, gibe
goineogacht = cutting remarks, gibing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goin [gɔn̪ʲ] = wound, stab, sting, stabbing, stinging
goineag [gɔnag] = nip, pinch, twitch, canine (tooth)
goineanta [gɔn̪ʲən̪ˠdə] = keen, piercing
gointe [gɔn̪ʲdʲə] = sorely wounded, bewitched
gointeach [gɔn̪ʲdʲəx] = wounding, stabbing, stinging, agonizing
Manx (Gaelg) guin = pain, stitch, pang
guinn = insect bite, pain, smart
guinney = needle, pain, sting, wound, wounding
gonnid = pain, peevishness, smarting, soreness
Proto-Brythonic *gwėnɨd [ɡwe̝ˈnɨːð] = to strike, kill
*ėdwėnɨd = to strike again
Middle Welsh (Cymraeg) gvant, guant, gwanu = to stab, prick, deeply, pierce
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwanu [ˈɡwanɨ̞ / ˈɡwa(ː)ni] = to stab, prick, deeply, pierce, perforate, penetrate, kill, strike, thrust (also written gwanaf or gwân)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gwane = to thrust, penetrate, pierce, stab, stick
gwenys, gwynys = pierced, stabbed, stung
Cornish (Kernewek) gwana = to pierce, stab, sting
gwan = jab, prick, sting
omwana = to stab oneself
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goano, goanaff, goan = to prick, grip, squeeze, annoy
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwanañ = to sting, punish, macerate
gwanerezh = maceration
gwanikennan = to prick

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷʰénti (to be striking down, killing, slaying), from*gʷʰen- (to strike, slay, kill) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Justly Right

Words meaning just, right and related things in Celtic languages.

Justice

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *kowwaris, *komwīros = just, rightful, proper, fitting
Old Irish (Goídelc) cóir = even, fitting, just, proper
córae = justice
córus = justice
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cóir, coair, coir = even, well-proportioned, straight, proper, correct, right, suitable, fitting, just
córae, corae = correctness, propriety, justice, lawsuit, claim, right, proper, peace, amity, concord
córus, corus = justness, rightness, proper arrangement, propriety, peace, agreement
Irish (Gaeilge) cóir [koːɾʲ/kɔːɾʲ] = justice, equity, proper share, due, proper provision, accommodation, proper condition, proper equipment
cóireáil = treatment, treat
cóireanta = neat, tidy
cóirigh = to arrange, dress, mend, repair
cóiríocht = fitness, suitability, accommodation, equipment, fittings, furniture
cóiriú = arrangement, dressing, repair
cóiriúchán = arrangement, dressing
éagóir = injustice, wrong, unfairness, inequity
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) còir [kɔːrʲ] = right, justice, duty, obligation
còireachadh [kɔːrʲəxəɣ] = (act of) arranging, arrangement
còiread [kɔːrʲəd] = probity, goodness, kindness
còrachadh [kɔːrəxəɣ] = arranging, arrangement
Manx (Gaelg) cair = privilege, property, rights, duty, righteousness, due, right, just, good
cair aascreeuee = copyright
cair vie = bon voyage, favourable wind, god speed, pleasant journey
cairagh = fair, impartial, just, proper, justifiable, justly
cairal = right, righteous, upright, upstanding
cairys = applicability, fairness, justice, right, uprightness
cairysagh = right
Proto-Brythonic *küwėr = complete
Old Welsh (Kembraec) couer = fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kyveir, kyweir, cyweir = proper order, fit state, repair, provision
kyweyryau, kyỽeirir, kyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
kyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
kyweirwr = repairer, restorer, amender
Welsh (Cymraeg cywair [ˈkəwai̯r] = proper order, fit state, repair, provision, seasoning, state of mind, mood, humour, temper, condition, state, plight, key (in music), song, harmony, fully-equipped, arrayed, furnished, complete, orderly, prepared, ready, correct
cyweiriaf, cyweirio = to put in order, arrange, prepare, set to rights, repair, restore, equip
cyweiriawdr = one who sets in order, one who promotes unity or harmony; repairer
cyweiriedig = arranged, set in order, preserved
cyweir(i)wr = repairer, restorer, amender

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Celtic *kom- (with, together), from PIE *ḱóm (beside, near, by with), and PIE *wīros (true) [source]. Words from the same roots include word for true and related things in Celtic languages, and beware, guard, reward, ward and weir in English [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) cert [kʲer͈t] = fitting, proper, right
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cert = correct, right, proper, fitting, fair, just, straight, even, exact, precise
Irish (Gaeilge) ceart [caɾˠt̪ˠ/cæɾˠt̪ˠ] = right, just, proper, true, correct, true, real, good, excellent
ceartaigh = to correct, rectify, amend, expound, mend
ceartaiseach = insistent on one’s rights, self-righteous, dogmatic, conceited, priggish
ceartaiseacht = self-righteousness, conceit, priggishness
ceartaitheach = corrective, amending
ceartaitheoir = corrector, rectifier, reformer, chastiser
ceartas = justice, rights
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ceart [kʲar̪ˠʃd = right, justice, propriety, righteousness, accurate, correct, proper, right
ceartachadh [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxəɣ] = correcting, putting right, rectifying, correction
ceartachair = corrector, rectifier, regulator
ceartachd [kʲar̪ˠʃdəxg] = correctness
ceartas = [kʲar̪ˠʃdəs] = justice, right, equity
Manx (Gaelg) kiart = accurate, concession, correct, due, equity, even, exact, just, orthodox, precise, right
kiartaghey = to accommodate, adjust, amend
kiartys = accuracy, correctness, exactness
kiartyn = rights
Proto-Brythonic *kerθ = right, true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerth = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful
kerthrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness
Welsh (Cymraeg certh [kɛrθ] = right(s), true, certain, vehement, terrible, awful, fine, wonderful, truth
certhrwydd = integrity, justice, awfulness

Etymology: from Latin certus (certain, fixed), from Proto-Italic *kritos, from *krinō (to sift, separate, distinguish, discern), from PIE *krey- (to sift, separate, divide) [source]. Words from the same roots include certo (certain, sure, reliable) in Italian, cierto (true, certain, specific) in Spanish, and certain, crime, crisis, discreet and secret in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Haughty Pride

Words for pride, arrogance, vanity and related things in Celtic languages.

Gay Pride

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *auberos = vain
Old Irish (Goídelc) úabar = pride, arrogance
úabrige = pride, arrogance
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úabar = pride, arrogance, vanity, confidence
úabrach = proud, haughty
úabrigidir = to treat insolently, profane, mock
óbar = vain-glory
anúabar, anuabhar = inordinate pride
comúabar = great pride
Irish (Gaeilge) uabhar = pride, arrogance, spiritedness, exuberance, frolicking, frolicsomeness, rankness, luxuriance, eeriness, feeling of loneliness
anuabhar = overweening pride, excess (of grief, weeping)
aingeal an uabhair = fallen angel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhar [uəvər̪] = pride, insolence
uabharra [uəvər̪ˠə] = proud, haughty
uaibhreach [uəivr̪ʲəx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
an-uaibhreach = humble
uaibhreas = arrogance, haughtiness
uaibhridh = haughty, proud, arrogant
ro sgrios thig uabhar = pride goes/comes before a fall
Proto-Brythonic *ọβer = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ofer, ouer = worthless, vain, useless
ofêra, ouera, ofera = to behave frivolously
overaidd = vain, frivolous
oferbeth, obherbeth = worthless or pointless thing
ofered, oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel, ofer-goel = superstition, vain belief
overwr, ouerwr, oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofer [ˈɔvɛr / ˈoːvɛr] = worthless, vain, useless, unnecessary, futile, wasteful, prodigal, unprofitable, frivolous
ofera(f) = to behave frivolously, live dissolutely, trifle, idle, laze, loiter, waste, squander
oferaidd = vain, frivolous, unprofitable, worthless
oferbeth = worthless or pointless thing, trifle, bauble
oferdod = vanity, dissipation, frivolousness
oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel = superstition, vain belief, false religion
oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) evereth, ufereth = vanity, idleness, frivolity
Cornish (Kernewek) euver = valueless, worthless
euvergryjyk = superstitious
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euver = bland, insipid, flavourless
Breton (Brezhoneg) euver = bland, spineless(ness), damage

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *aw- and *ber-o- (to carry), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti (to carry, bear, flow), *bʰer- (to bear, carry) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include beir (to bear, give birth to, lay, bring, take) in Irish, beir (to bear, give birth to) in Scottish Gaelic, behr (to bear, give birth to) in Manx, bairn (child) in Scots, and bear (to carry), bier, birth, burden, ferret, and fortune in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *balkos = strong
Gaulish balco- = strong (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) balc = robust, strong, sturdy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) balc, bailc = stout, strength, sturdy, firm, vigorous, powerful, strength, firmness, vigour
Irish (Gaeilge) bailc = strong, stout
bailcbhéim = strong, heavy, blow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bailc [balçgʲ] = strong, bold, daring
bailc uisge = sudden, heavy shower
bailceach [balçgʲəx] = stout/strong person
bailceata [balçgʲən̪ˠdə] = stout, strong, boastful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) balch, bỽlch, beilch = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave
balchav = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
bylchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
strong>ualchder, balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
ualchdet, balchet = pride, arrogance
Welsh (Cymraeg) balch [balχ] = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain, pompous
balchâf, balcháu = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
balchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
balchded = pride, arrogance
balchus = proud, vain
balchwedd = pride, conceit, lofty
belchyn = proud, pompous or self-important person, prig
Cornish (Kernewek) balgh = arrogant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) balc’h = haughty, proud, arrogant
Breton (Brezhoneg) balc’h [ˈbalx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
ambalc’h = reserved, timid
balc’haat = to make or become haughty
balc’hded = superb, arrogance
balc’hder = = pride, arrogance, audacity

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (to blow, swell, inflate). A word from the same Proto-Celtic root is balca (bulrush, cattail) in Catalan and Occitan [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bold in English, boud (bold, brave) in Dutch, and bald (soon, almost) in German [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrth [ɡʊrθχ] = opposition, objection, resistance, contast, opposite
gwrthâd = taunt, light censure, upbraiding, remorse, conviction
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goth = pride
gothus, gothys = proud
Cornish (Kernewek) gooth = pride
gothus = proud, arrogant
gorth = obstinate, perverse, stubborn, uppity
gorthus = proud

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) blad = fame, renown
bladach = famous, renowned, splendid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blad, bladh, blath = fame, renown, glories, triumphs
bladach, bladaig = famous, renowned, splendid
bladaigid = praises, extols
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth = pride
Manx (Gaelg) blaa = heyday, pride

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) borr = huge, large, proud, swollen, thick, vast
borrfadach = bold, high-spirited, proud
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) borr, bórr = big, large, great, vast, mighty, strong, puffed-up, proud
borrach = a proud, pretentious person
borra(i)d = swelling, maturing, blooming, springing, swells, becomes swollen, bloated
Irish (Gaeilge) borr = puffed (up with), proud, luxuriant; to swell, grow
borrach = proud, arrogant person; swollen, proud, arrogant
borrachas = pride, arrogance
borradh = swelling, growth, surge, expansion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòrr [bɔːr̪ˠ] = puffed up, swollen, grand, splendid, haughty
borrail = swaggering, boastful
borranachadh = swelling up, puffing up, frothing at the mouth
borraganta = swelling, fierce

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) sturd = pride, haughtiness; angry look, menacing look
styrdalys = stateliness
styrdalaght = pride, stateliness

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) moyrn = pomp, pride, self-conceit
moyrnagh = haughty, proud, vain, pompous
moyrnee = proud

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Beaks and Snouts

Words for beak, snout and related things in Celtic languages.

Waiting for chip's

Proto-Celtic *gobbos = muzzle, snout, beak
Gaulish *gobbos [ˈɡob.bos] = mouth
Old Irish (Goídelc) gop = beak, snout, muzzle
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gop, guib, guip = muzzle, snout, beak, point/head of a spear, thin-mouthed, sharp-pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) gob [ɡɔbˠ/ɡɞbˠ/ɡʌbˠ] = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
gobach = beaked, long-billed, sharp (expression), pointed, lipped (jug)
gobachán = sharp-featured person, beak-nosed person, sharp-tongued person, inquisitive/interfering person, chatterer, gossip
gobadh = protrusion, shooting, springing, sprouting
gobaí = bird with a long beak, person with pointed features
gobaireacht = picking, pecking, chattering, chatter, gossip
gobán = (small) tip, point, gag, dummy
goblach = beakful, mouthful, morsel, lump, chunk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gob [gob] = beak, bill, gob, pointed/sharp end, corner, spit (of land), point (of a fishing hook)
gobachadh = pecking, rising (wind), poking through
gobad [gobag] = talkative female, little bill, cabin hook
goban = small mouth, small beak
gobaire = chatterbox, chattterer, tell-tale
gobach [gobəx] = beaked, snouty, cheeky, chatty
Manx (Gaelg) gob = apex, headland, hook, jet, jut, nose(piece), point, prominence, promontory, beak, nib, spout, mouth, muzzle, bow (of ship)
gobbagh = beaked, billed, nibbed, prominent, salient
gob-rollian = talkative person

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵebʰ- (jaw, mouth). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include gober (to swallow hole) and gobelet (goblet, cup, beaker) in French, and gob (a slang word for mouth) and goblet in English, [source].

Proto-Celtic *bekkos = beak, snout
Gaulish *bekkos = beak, snout
Proto-Brythonic *bek = beak, snout
Middle Breton (Brezonec) becq, beeg, bêg, beg = mouth, beak, snout, point, cape, summit
Breton (Brezhoneg) beg = beak, mouth, point, mouthpiece, embouchure
beg-douar = point
beg-hir = dolphin

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bak- (peg, club) [source].

Words from the same roots, via the Gaulish *bekkos and the Latin beccus (beak, bill), include bec (beak, bill, mouth) in French, beco (beak, mouthpiece, burner) in Italian, bico (beak, bill, snout, rostrum) in Portuguese, pico (beak, sharp point, pickaxe, peak, spout) in Portuguese, bek (beak, snout, mouth) in Dutch, and beak in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gulbā, *gulbīnos = beak, bill
Gaulish *gulbiā = beak, bill
Old Irish (Goídelc) gulban, gulpan = bird’s beak
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gulba = beak, mouth, jaw
gulban = beak, sting
gulbanda = beaked, piercing
gulbnech = beaked, sharp-beaked
gulbnén = small beak
gulbnide = biting
gulbniugad nibbing, biting
Irish (Gaeilge) gulba = beak, bill, tip, point, projection
guilbneach = (sharp-)beaked, curlew
guilbnéan = little beak
guilbnigh = to peck
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gulb [gul̪ˠub] = beak, nose
gulban [gul̪ˠuban] = beak, nose
guilbneach [gulubnəx] = curlew
Proto-Brythonic *gulbino- = beak, snout
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gilbin, gyluin, gylfin = bird’s beak, snout
gylfinir, gelvinir, gylfinhir = curlew
Welsh (Cymraeg) gylfin = bird’s beak, bill, snout, sharp-pointed nose, mouth, lip
gylfinaid = beakful, mouthful
gylfinir = curlew
gylfinog = beaked, rostrated, wild daffodil, narcissus
Old Cornish geluin = beak, bill
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinac, gylvinac = curlew
Cornish (Kernewek) gelvin = beak, bill
gelvinek = curlew
Old Breton golbin = cape, promontory, headland, rostrum
Middle Breton (Brezonec) golff, golf = tailless
Breton (Brezhoneg) golv = tailless, naturally

Etymology: probably of non-Proto-Indo-European origin. Words from the same root, via Gaulish *gulbiā and the Latin gulbia (piercer, chisel), gulbia (gouge) in Galician, gubia (gouge) in Spanish, gorbia (ferrule) in Italian, and gouge in English and French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Thirty

Words for thirty and related things in Celtic languages.

thirty

Proto-Celtic *trīkontes = thirty
Gaulish tricontis = thirty
Old Irish (Goídelc) trícha [ˈtʲrʲiːxo] = thirty
tríchatmad = thirtieth
tríchtaige = thirty day period
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) trícha, triúcha, tricha, triocha, tricho = thirty
tríchatmad, trichatmad, trichadmadh = thirtieth
tríchtaige, trichtaigi = period of 30 days/years, etc
tríchtach, tríteach = thirty-fold, consisting of 30
trícha cét = a military force, political or terrirtorial unit; of force of fighting men, cantred, barony (lit. ‘300’)
Irish (Gaeilge) tríocha = thirty
tríochadú = thirtieth
na tríochaidí = the thirties
tríocha céad = large territorial division, barony
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) trichead [triçəd] = thirty
tritheadamh (30ᵐʰ) = thirtieth (30ᵗʰ)
na tritheadan = the thirties
Manx (Gaelg) treead = thirty
Proto-Brythonic *trigont = thirty
Old Breton tricont, trigont = thirty
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tregont = thirty
tregontad = about thirty
tregontet, tregontvedenn, tregontvet = thirtieth
tregontkementiñ, tregontvedenniñ = to multiply by thirty
tregontvloaziad = a period of 30 years
Breton (Brezhoneg) tregont [ˈtreːɡɔ̃n(t)] = thirty
tregontved = thirtieth
tregontvedenn = thirtieth part
tragontad = around thirty

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tridḱómt (thirty) from *tri- (three) and *déḱm̥ (ten) [source].

Words from the same roots include thirty in English, tridhjetë (thirty) in Albanian, երեսուն [jɛɾɛˈsun] (thirty) in Armenian, trenta (thirty) in Italian and trente (thirty) in French, and words for thirty in other Indo-European languages [source].

Thirty is also trideg (three-ten) in Welsh in the decimal version of the numbers. For other words for thirty, see the post about words for ten, as thirty is 10 on 20 in the vigesimal system.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Short Cuts

Words for short, cut and related things in Celtic languages:

Scout Cardigan Corgi

Proto-Celtic *birros = short
Old Irish (Goídelc) berr [bʲer͈] = short
berraid = to shear, clip, shave, cut, shear, tonsure
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) berr, bearr = short
berrad = to cut, clip, shave, cut, tonsure
Irish (Gaeilge) bearr [bʲɑːɾˠ/bʲaːɾˠ] = to clip, cut, trim, cut (hair), shave, fleece (sb)
bearradh = cutting
bearrthóir = trimmer, shearer
bearrthóireacht = trimming, cutting speech
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beàrr = short, brief (archaic)
beàrr [bjaːr̪ˠ] = to cut, shave, crop, shear, pare, prune, clip, poll, dehorn
Manx (Gaelg) baarey = to bare, clip, cut, dress, poll, prune, shave, trimmed
baareyder = barber, cutter, shaver, clipper
baarys = tonsure
Gaulish *birros = a coarse kind of thick woollen cloth; a woollen cap or hood worn over the shoulders or head<
Proto-Brythonic *bɨrr [ˈbɨr͈] = short
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) birr, byrr = short, small, brief
bŷr-brŷd = a short meal of meat
uyrder, byrder = shortness, brevity
Welsh (Cymraeg) byr [bɨ̞r/bɪr] = short, small, brief, concise, condensed, abrupt, curt, stingy, sparing, deficient, faulty
byrbryd = light meal, lunch, snack
byrbwyll = rash, reckless, thoughtless
byrder = shortness, brevity, smallness, conciseness, scarity, deficiency
byrdra = shortness, brevity, smallness, curtness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber = short, diminutive, brief
beranal = asthma, shortness of breath
Cornish (Kernewek) berr [bɛɹ] = short, brief
berrhe = to abbreviate, shorten
berrheans = abrreviation
berrskrifa = to summarise
berrwelyek = short-sighted
Middle Breton (Brezonec) berr, ber, bèr = short, brief
berr-ha-berr = very short, shortly briefly
berraat = to shorten, abbreivate, reduce
berradenn = shortening
berradur = abbreviation
Breton (Brezhoneg) berr = short, brief
berr-ha-berr = very short, shortly briefly
berradenn = shortening
berradur = abbreviation

Etymology: unknown

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Latin and Gaulish, include beret in English, béret (beret) in French, berret (cap) in Gascon, biretta (a square cap worm by Roman Catholic priests) in English and Italian, berretto (beanie, cap) in Italian, barrete (biretta, cap) in Portuguese, birrete (biretta) in French, and βίρρος [ˈβir.ros] (a type of cloak or mantle) in Ancient Greek [source].

Proto-Celtic *gerros = short
*gari- = short
Old Irish (Goídelc) gerr, gearr = short, a short time, castrated
gerraid = to cut, mutilate, shorten, carve
garait [ˈɡarədʲ] = short
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gerr [ɡʲer͈] = short
gairaid = to cut short, cut off, mutilate
garit, garait, gairit = short (time/distance/length)
Irish (Gaeilge) gearr [ɟɑːɾˠ/ɟaːɾˠ] = short; to cut, shorten, reduce
gearrachán = cutting remark
gearradh = cutting, cut, levy, rate, speed
gearrán = gelding, pack-horse, small horse, nag, strong-boned woman
gearróg = short bit, scrap, short drill or furrow, short stocky girl, short answer
gearrthóg = cutting, snippet, trimmings, cutlet
gearrthóir = cutter, chisel
gairid [ˈɡaɾʲədʲ] = short, near, close
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geàrr [gʲaːr̪ˠ] = short, thick-set, squat, dumpy, brief, concise, succinct, scanty; to cut, carve, sever, dock
goirid [gɤrʲɪdʲ] = short, brief, brusque
giorraich [gʲir̪ɪç] = abbreviate, abrige, shorten, curtail
giorrachadh [gʲir̪ˠəxəɣ] = abbreviation, abridgement, summary
Manx (Gaelg) giare = abbreviated, abridged, abrupt, brief, brusque, compact, concise, curt, short, summary
giarey = to abbreviate, abridge, axe, carve castrate, clip, cut
girraghey = to abbreviate, abridge, contract, shorten

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰer- (short). Words from the same PIE root include ह्रस्व [ˈɦɾɐs̪.ʋɐ] (short, small, dwarfish, little, low; a dwarf) in Sanskrit, and ह्रस्व [ɦɾəs̪.ʋᵊ] (a short vowel) in Hindi, and possibly girl in English [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Scratching Scrapes

Words for scratch, scrape and related things in Celtic languages:

Scratch Cat

Proto-Celtic *skrībbāti = to scratch
Old Irish (Goídelc) scrípaid = to scratch
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) scrípaid, scripad, scripadh = to scratch
Irish (Gaeilge) scríob [sˠcɾʲiːbˠ / ʃcɾʲiːbˠ] = to scrape, scratch
scríobach = abrasive, scraping, scratching, scratchy
scríobadach = scraping, scratching, scrawl
scríobadh = to scrape, scratch, scrapings
scríobaire = scraper, scribing-iron, scriber
scríobálaí = scraper, miser
scríobán = grater
scríobaitheamh = abrasion
scríoblach = scrapings, scraps
scríoblíne = scratch
scríobóg = (little) scratch, scraping, niggardly woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sgrìob [sgrʲiːb] = scrape, scratch, grate
sgrìobadh [sgrʲiːbəɣ] = scratching, scraping, score, scratch, scrape, grating
sgrìobag [sgrɔːbag] = slight scratch/scrape, index/pointer finger
Manx (Gaelg) screeb = abrasion, scolding, score, scrape, scratch
screebage = cockleshell, scar, scratch, flourish
screebagh = abrasive, fricative, frictional, scraping, scrapy, scratchy, itchy
scrabey = to abrade, chafe, claw, dress, friction, grate, graze, itch, rasp, scrape, scratch, scrawl; clawing, scraping, scratching
Welsh (Cymraeg) (y)sgrap, sgrâp = scraper, scratch, scrape
sgrapad = scratch, scrape
sgrap(i)af, sgrap(i)o = to scratch, scrape (together)
(y)sgraper = scraper
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) scrivinas = to scratch, claw
Middle Breton (Brezonec) skrab = scratching
skrabad = cut
skrabadenn = a big scratch
skrabadur = scraping
skrabañ, skrabat = to hurry up, to scratch
skraberezh = scratching
Breton (Brezhoneg) skrabañ = to scratch

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)kreybʰ- (to scratch, to tear) [source]. The Welsh words come from the English scrape.

Words from the same roots include scribble, scribe, script, shrift and shrive in English, and scritta (writing, notice, sign) and scrìvere (to write, spell) in Italian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Baskets

Words for baskets and related things in Celtic languages.

Baskets

Proto-Celtic *kleibo = (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) clíab = basket, breast, chest, ribcage
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) clíab = basket, skep, bee-hive, coracle, currach, breast, bosom
cliabach = slender-bodied
cliabaire = infant
cliabán = cradle, bird-trip, bird-cage
Irish (Gaeilge) cliabh [klʲiəvˠ/klʲiəw] = ribbed frame; body, chest, bosom; creel, pannier basket
cliabhadóir = creel-maker
cliabhadóireacht = creel-making
cliabhaire = basket-carrier, travelling poultry-dealer
cliabhán = cradle, wicker cage
cliabhrach = bodily frame, chest, thorax; (person of) large frame
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cliabh [kliəv] = basket, creel, pannier, ribcage, straightjacket
cliabhadh [kliəvəɣ] = (act of) putting into a creel
cliabhan = small creel, small hamper, wreckage, broken timbers
cliabhadair, cliabhair [kliəvədɪrʲ] = basket-maker
Manx (Gaelg) clean = pannier, potato creel, twig basket; cot, cradle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kauell, cawell = basket, pannier, cradle
cawelleit = basketful, hamperful, quiverful
Welsh (Cymraeg) cawell = basket, pannier; cradle; fish-trap, creel, cage; quiver; belly, breast
cawellaf, cawellu = to put into a hamper or basket; cradle
cawellaid = basketful, hamperful, quiverful
cawellig = little basket
cawellwr = basket-maker, maker of wicker fish-traps
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cawal, cauwal, cowal = hamper, basket, pannier
cawel gwanan beehive
Cornish (Kernewek) kowel = hamper, basket, cage
kowel gwenen beehive
kowel-gwari = playpen
kowella = to cage
Old Breton cauell, cauèl, queuel, qavell = cradle, trap, locker
Middle Breton (Brezonec) kavell, kavel, kevell, cauell = cradle, trap, locker
kavell-bez = tomb
kavellad = contents of a trap
kavellañ = to put in a basket
Breton (Brezhoneg) kavell = cradle, trap, locker
kavell-bez = tomb

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱley- (to lean) [source]. Celtic words for fence, hurdle, lattice and related things come from the same root: more details, as do words for left and related things.

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish and Latin, include claie (wicker rack, trellis, hurdle) in French and cheda (wattled laterals at the base of a traditional cart) in Galician [source].

Words from the same PIE root include client, climate, clinic, incline and lean in English, leunen (to lean) in Dutch, lehnen (to lean) in German, chinàre (to bend) in Italian, and clemente (lenient) in Spanish [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ces = basket
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ces = basket, hamper, pannier, bee-hive, skep, causeway of hurdles
Irish (Gaeilge) cis [cɪʃ] = wicker container, basket, crate, plaited or crossed twigs as support for causeway
ciseach = wattled causeway, improved path, footbridge, over soft ground or drain, hamper
ciseachán = breadbasket, stomach
ciseán = (wicker) basket
ciseadóir = wicker-worker, basket-maker
ciseadóireacht = wicker-work, basketry
ciseog = shallow basket (for potatoes, etc)
cispheil = basketball
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cis [kʲiʃ] = (large) woven/wicker basket, wickerwork panel, hurdle
ciseach [kʲiʃəx] = wickerwork path/bridge
ciseag, cisean, ciosan = small woven basket or creel, kishie
cisean [kliəvədɪrʲ] = basket-maker
Manx (Gaelg) kishan = skep
kishan pabyr = waste paper basket
kishan shellan = hive

Etymology: from Old Norse kista (chest, box), from Latin cista (trunk, chest, casket), from Ancient Greek κίστη (kístē – box, chest, casket), from Proto-Indo-European *kisteh₂ (woven container) [source].

Words from the same roots include chest in English, kist (chest, box, trunk, coffer) in Scots, Kiste (box, crate, case, chest) in German, ciste (chest, coffer, treasure, fund) in French, cesta (basket, hamper) in Spanish [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bascaed = basket
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) basgaid [basgɪdʲ] = basket
basgaid-arain = breadbasket
basgaid-bidhe = hamper
basgaid-sgudail = wastebasket
ball-basgaid = basketball
Manx (Gaelg) basca(i)d, baskad, bastag = pannier, potato creel, twig basket; cot, cradle
bastag arran = breadbasket
bastageyr = basket maker
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) basged, bascet, basced = basket, basketful
basgedeit = basketful, hamperful
Welsh (Cymraeg) basgeg = basket, basketful
basgedaf, basgedu = to place in a basket, to make baskets
basged(i)aid = basketful, hamperful
basgedwaith = basketry, basketwork, wickerwork
basgedwr, basgedydd = basket-maker
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) basced = basket
Cornish (Kernewek) basket = basket

Etymology: from Middle English basket, from Anglo-Norman bascat (basket), possibly from Late Latin bascauda (a woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork), from Proto-Celtic *baskis (bundle, load), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle), or non-Indo-European source.

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic [source].

Other words from the PIE root *bʰask- include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].

There are more details on the Burdensome Loads Celtiadur post, and the Celtic Pathways Baskets episode.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Burdensome Loads

Words for loads, burdens and related things in Celtic languages.

Worker carrying rice seedlings to her field

Proto-Celtic *baskis = bundle, load
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) basc = circular necklet or neckband
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) basc = round, red, scarlet (archaic)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) beich = burden, load
Welsh (Cymraeg) baich [bai̯χ] = burden, heavy load, labour, duty, sin, sorrow, woe, responsibility, a load, a dry measure
baich gwaith = workload
beichiaf, beichio = to burden, load, weigh (down), overwhelm, encumber
beichiedig = burdened, laden
beichiog = pregnant, expectant, burdened, laden, fertile, prolific, teeming
beichiogaeth = pregnancy
beichiogaf, beichiogi = to become pregnant, impregnate, conceive
beichiogi = pregnancy, conception, feture, childbirth, delivery (of child)
Cornish (Kernewek) begh = burden, load
begh-ober = workload
beghus = burdensome, onerous
beghya = to burden, impose upon, overload
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bec’h = burden
bec’hiet = loaded, charged, full
bec’h(i)us = heavy, overwhelming, oppressive
bec’h-bec’h = with great difficulty
bec’hiadurezh = oppression
Breton (Brezhoneg) bec’h = difficulty, effort
bec’hiad = load, charge, responsibility, burden
bec’hadenn = physical effort
bec’hded = saturation

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰask- (bundle, band), or from a non-Indo-European source. Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include bascauda (woven mat or vessel to hold basketwork) in Late Latin, bâche (tarpaulin, canvas sheet, cover) in French, vascullo (broom, bundle of straw) in Galician, basket in English, فَشْقَار (fašqār – a heap of sheaves) in Arabic (via Aragonese or Galician) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include fascis (bundle, burden, load, high office) in Latin, and possibly bast (fibre made from certain plants used for matting and cord) in English, bast (bast, raffia) in Danish, bast (inner bark, velvet, skin, hide) in Dutch, and bashkë (together, simultaneously) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) aire = load, burden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) aire, oire, ere = load, burden
Irish (Gaeilge) eire = load, burden
eireadóir = encumbrancer
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eire [erʲə] = burden, load
eireach [erʲəx] = burdensome, heavy
Manx (Gaelg) errey = burden, impost, imposition, load
thie errey = infirmary
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) areu = burden, sorrow, grief
Welsh (Cymraeg) arau = burden, sorrow, grief

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) úalach = burden, load, duty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úalach = burden, charge, load, duty, obligation
Irish (Gaeilge) ualach = load, burden
ualaigh = to load, burden, encumber
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uallach = round, red, scarlet (archaic)

Etymology: possibly from uala (shoulder), a version of guala (shoulder), from Middle Irish gúala (shoulder), from Old Irish gúalu (shoulder), from Proto-Indo-European *gew (to bend, curve) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include giro and gyre (a swirling vortex) in English, giro (turn, twist, rotation) in Italian, and giro (turn, spin, tour) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Dictionnaire de la langue gauloise, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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