Today we’re looking at the words for dough and related things in Celtic languages.

Rested Pasta Dough 2

Proto-Celtic *taistos, *taysto- = dough
Old Irish (Goídelc) taís, taés [ˈtai̯s] = dough
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tóes, táes = dough
Irish (Gaeilge) taos [t̪ˠeːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ/t̪ˠiːsˠ] = dough, paste
taosach = doughy, pasty
taosaigh = to paste
taosrán = pastry
taoschnó = doughnut
taos fiacla = toothpaste
taos géar = sourdough
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) taois [tɯːʃ] = dough, paste
taoiseach = doughy, pasty
taoiseag = doughnut
taois-uighe = (egg) batter
taois-chailce = putty
taois gheur = sourdough
Manx (Gaelg) teayst = dough, pastry, paste
teaystag = dumpling
teaystagh = doughy, ill-baked, pasty, under-cooked
teaystyn, teaystnee = to knead
Proto-Brythonic *toɨs = dough
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) toes = (lump of) dough or pastry
Welsh (Cymraeg) toes [toːɨ̯s/tɔi̯s] = (lump of) dough or pastry, paste, sticky mass
toesaidd = doughy, doughlike
toesen = lump of dough, doughnut
toesi = to make into dough, become a dough, knead, soften
toeslud = putty
toeslyd = doughy, doughlike, badly baked, soft, pasty, sticky, clammy, stodgy, heavy
surdoes = leaven, sourdough, ferment
Cornish (Kernewek) toos = dough
know toos = doughnuts
toos alamandys = marzipan
toos gwari = playdough
Middle Breton toas = dough, batter
Breton (Brezhoneg) toaz = dough, batter
toazadur = thickening, pastiness
toazenn = noodle
toazenner = pasta machine
toazennoù = pasta
toazennek = pasted, thickened

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *teh₂ys-t- (dough), from *teh₂- (to knead, melt, flow) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include desem (sourdough, leaven, yeast) in Dutch, těsto (dough) in Czech, ciasto (dough, batter, cake, pie) in Polish, тесто [ˈtʲestə] (dough, paste, batter) in Russian, and тісто [ˈtʲistɔ] (dough) in Ukrainian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

italki - Win cash rewards for learning any language