Mixed & Confused

In this post we’re getting mixed up and confused about words for drunk and related things in Celtic languages.

Drunk cat 1

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *miskos = mixture, confusion
*miskati = to mix, confuse
*kom-miskos = mixture, confusion
*kommiskati = ?
Old Irish (Goídelc) mesc [mʲesk] = drunk, intoxicated
mescae [ˈmʲeskɘ] = drunkenness, intoxication
mescaid = to confuse
mesctha = confused, intoxicated
con·mesca [konˈmʲeska] = to mix together
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mesc(c) = drunk, intoxicated, mixed, confused, muddled, confusion
mescae = drunkenness, intoxication, daze, bewilderment, excitment
mescaid = to mix, bewilder, confuse, confound
mesctha = confused, intoxicated, mixed, variegated
con-mesca = to mix together, conmingle, join, unite
Irish (Gaeilge) measc [mʲasˠk] = jumble, confusion, to mix (up), blend, stir
meascadh = (ad)mixture, confusion
meascán = mass, lump, mixture, jumble, muddle
meascthóir = mixer, stirrer
meisce [ˈmʲɛʃcɪ / ˈmʲɪʃcɪ] = drunkenness, intoxication, daze, bewilderment
ar meisce = drunk, intoxicated
meisceoir = drunkard
meisceoireacht = drunkenness, inebriety
meisciúil = intoxicating, drunken, addicted to drinking
cumaisc = to mix together, blend, combine, compound, cohabit
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) measg [mesg] = mix, stir, mingle
am measg [ə mesg] = amongst, among
measgach [mesgəx] = sociable, gregarious, promiscuous
measgachadh [mesgəxəɣ] = mixing, mixure, combining
measgadair = mixer
measgadh [mesgəɣ] = mixing, stirring, mingling, mixture
misg [miʃgʲ] = drunkenness, inebriation, insobriety
air misg = drunk
misgeach [miʃgʲəx] = heady, drunk, intoxicated
misgear [miʃgʲər] = drunkard, tippler
coimeasg [kɔiməsg] = combine, merge, blend, mix
coimeasgadh [kɔməsgəɣ] = combining, combination, merging, merger, blending
Manx (Gaelg) mastey = amid(st), among(st), mingled, within, mixture
mestey = compound, mixture, jumble; to confuse, mix, mingle, mash, shuffle, stir
mestey-vestey = concoction, melee, mix up
meshtey [ˈmeʃtə] = inebriety
er meshtey = drunk, inebriated, intoxicated
meshtallagh = drunk(ard), boozer, inebriate
meshtallaght = promiscuity, drunkenness
meshtallys, meshtelllys, meshtyrys = drunkenness, inebriation, intoxication
covestey = to mix, mingle, merge
covestit = mixed, mingled, blended
Proto-Brythonic *mɨsk = amid, amidst
*mɨskad [mɨˈsˑkaːd] = to blend, mix, confuse
*kɨm-mɨsk = mixed, confused (?)
*kummɨskad = to mingle, confuse, mix
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mysc = mixing, mixture, confusion, mixed, confused
mysci, mysgi = turmoil, tumult
cymysc, kymysc, kymmysc, kymysg = mixed, mingled, blended, compound, mixture
cymyscu, kemescu, kymysgu, kymyscu = to mix, mixed, blend, compound
cymysced, cymmyscedd = mixture, compound, jumble
ymysg, ym mysc = among, between
Welsh (Cymraeg) mysg [mɨːsk / mɪsk] = mixing, mixture, confusion, mixed, confused, midst
mysgaf, mysgu = to undo, untie, unpick, unravel, disentangle, loosen, mix, mingle, jumble
mysgi = turmoil, tumult
cymysg [ˈkʰəmɨ̞sk / ˈkʰəmɪsk] = mixed, mingled, blended, compound, mixture
cymysgaf, cymysg(u) = to mix, mixed, blend, compound
ymysg = among, between, in the midst of
Old Cornish commisc = mixed
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) mysc, mŷsk = midst, middle
cemescys, kemeskis, kemeskys = mixture
cemyscy, kemyskys, cymyscys, kemyskis = to mingle, mix
Cornish (Kernewek) mysk, mesk = midst
myska, meska = to blend, involve, mingle
myskas, myskii = mongrel
kemmysk = mix
kemyska = to mix, jumble, mingle
kemyskans = mixture
kemyskedh = hybrid
kemyskell = mixer (machine)
Middle Breton (Brezonec) mesc = mixture, chaos, disorder
mescaff, meskaff = to mix, blend, stir
quemesq [mɛ(z)w] = mixed, complex, confusion
quemesq(a) = to mix, merge
Breton (Brezhoneg) mesk [mesk] = mixture, chaos, disorder
meskaj [ˈmes.kaʃ] = mixure
meskañ [ˈmeskã] = to mix, blend, stir
meskata [ˈmeskat:a] = mixer
kemmesk [mɛ(z)w] = mixed, complex, confusion
kemmeskad = composite
kemmeskañ = to mix, merge

Etymology: from PIE *miḱsḱéti (to mix), from *meyḱ- (to mix) [source].

Words from the same roots include mash, meddle, medley, melee, miscellaneous, mix and promiscuous in English, mêler (to mix, meddle in, get mixed up in, shuffle) in French, mischen (to mix, shuffle) in German, and miesić (to knead) in Polish [source].

For words for drunk and related things in Brythonic languages, see the Celtiadur post Honey Wine.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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