Lead (Metal)

Today we’re looking at the words for lead (metal) and related things in Celtic languages.

Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Wales.
Cwmystwyth Lead Mine, Ceredigion, Cymru

Proto-Celtic *ɸloudom = lead (metal)
Gaulish *laudon = lead (metal)
Old Irish (Goídelc) lúaide = lead (metal)
Irish (Gaeilge) luaidhe [ˈl̪ˠuːiː] = lead (metal), (sounding-) lead, plummet, (fishing) sinker
luaidhiúil = lead-like, leaden
luaidhnimh = lead-poisoning
peann luaidhe = pencil
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luaidhe [l̪ˠuəjə] = lead (metal), leaden
luaidheach = leaden
peann-luaidhe = pencil
Manx (Gaelg) leoaie = lead (metal), leaden, sounding lead
penn leoaie = pencil

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *plewd- (to fly, flow, run), from *plew- (to fly, flow, run), from the Proto-West Germanic *laud [source].

Some words from the same PIE root include fleet, float, flood and pneumonia in English, vlieten (to flow) in Dutch, fließen (to flow) in German, flyte (to float, flow) in Swedish [source].

The English word lead comes from the Middle English le(e)d (lead) from the Old English lēad (lead) from the Proto-West-Germanic *laud (lead), from the Gaulish *laudon (lead) [source], and words for lead in other Germanic language languages come from the same root [source].

Proto-Brythonic *plum = lead (metal)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) pluum, plwm = lead (metal)
Welsh (Cymraeg) plwm [plʊm] = lead (metal); mass or ball of lead, plumb, plummet, straight(ness), vertical(ness)
plymaidd = leaden, lead-like, heavy, oppressive, worthless
plymen = lead weight, plummet, sheet, of lead
plymio = to sound (for depth), fathom, dive, plunge, plummet; to cover or solder with lead, line (pottery) with lead, glaze
plymwr = plumber, dealer/worker in lead, plunger, diver
plymliw = lead-coloured, blackish-blue, greyish blue, pale blue
Cornish (Kernewek) plomm, plobm = lead (metal)
plommer = plumber
plommwedhek = vertical
pyncel plomm = pencil
Breton (Brezhoneg) plom = lead (metal)
plomek = lead(en)
plomer = plumber
plomerezh = plumbing

Etymology: from the Latin plumbum (lead, pencil), may be borrowed from Etruscan, Iberian or some other pre-Indo-European Mediterranean substrate language [source].

Some words from the same Latin root include plumb (truly vertical, as indicated by a plumb line) in English, piombo (lead, grey, bullet) in Italian, plomb (lead, fuse, sinker) in French, and Plombe (seal, filling) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Tin

Today we’re looking at the words for tin and related things in Celtic languages.

Tin Mines
Botallack tin mine in Cornwall

Proto-Celtic *stagnos = tin
Gaulish *stagnom = tin
Old Irish (Goídelc) stán [mʲeːnʲ] = tin, tin vessel
Irish (Gaeilge) stán = tin, tin vessel
stánach = tin-bearing, stannic
stánadóir = tinner, tinsmith
stánadóireacht = tin-work, (act of) tinkering
stánaigh = to tin, to coat with tin, to pack in tin(s)
stáncheárta = tinworks
stánphláta = tin-plate
stántáirgeach = tin-bearing
stánúil = tinny, stannous
feadóg stáin = tin whistle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) staoin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin, pewter
stàin [sdɯːn̪ʲ] = tin
stànadair = tinsmith, tinker
staoinseil = tinsel
fìdeag-staoin = tin whistle
muileann-staoin = tin mill
sgragall-staoine = tinfoil
Manx (Gaelg) stainney = tin, can, tin-plate
stainnagh = tin-bearing
stainnaghey = to tin-plate
stainneyder = tin-miner
stainnit = tin-plated
stainn-oshleyder, fosleyder stainney = tin-opener
feddan (stainney) = tin whistle, flageolot
gaaue stainney = tinner, tinsmith
Proto-Brythonic *staɨn = tin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) stain, ystain, staen, ystaen = tin, pewter
Welsh (Cymraeg) ystaen, staen = tin, pewter
ystaenaid, staenaid = tinned, tin
ystaenwr, ystaeniwr = pewterer, tinsmith
Cornish (Kernewek) sten [stɛːn / steːn] = tin
stenek = tin ground, stannary
stenor = tinner
sten du = tin ore
poll sten = tin pit
Middle Breton sten, stean, staen = tin
Breton (Brezhoneg) staen = tin
staenañ = to tinplate
staenek = stannic (of or containing tin)
staenus = stannous (of or containing tin)

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *sth₂gʰ-nó-s (standing, firm), from *steh₂-gʰ- + *-nós, from *steh₂- (to stand) [source].

The Latin word stannum (an alloy of silver and lead; tin) was borrowed from the Gaulish *stagnom, and words for tin in Romance languages developed from this, including étain in French, stagno in Italian, and estaño in Spanish [source].

The scientific abbreviation for tin is Sn, from the Latin stannum. The old Latin name for tin was plumbum candidum (white lead) [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tiona = tin (container, metal)
á tiona = tinned, from a tin
crogan-tiona = tin can/td>
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tynn, tin, tinn = tin, tin plate
Welsh (Cymraeg) tun, tyn = tin (metal / container), tin plate, tin can
tunio, tuniaf = to tin, coat with tin, seal in a tin
tun tân = blower, metal plate placed before an open fire to increase the draught
tun te = tin used by workmen to carry leaf tea (and sugar) to work

Etymology: from the English tin, from the Middle English tin, tyn(e), tynne (tin), from the Old English tin (tin), from the Proto-Germanic *tiną (tin), probably from a pre-Indo-European language [source].

Words for tin in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Germanic root, including tin in Dutch, Zinn in German, tenn in Swedish, and tinn in Norwegian, as do words for tin in some Slavic and Finno-Ugric languages [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Doors

Today we’re looking at the words for door and related things in Celtic languages.

Priory Church of St Mary in Chepstow, Wales

Proto-Celtic *dwār = door
Gaulish *durom = door – was borrowed into Latin and appeared in placenames such as Augustodurum (now Bayeux), and Nemetodurum (now Nanterre)
Proto-Brythonic *dor = door
Old Welsh dor = door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dor = door
Welsh (Cymraeg) dôr [druːs] = door; defence, refuge, shield; opportunity; protector, defender, chief, leader
dôr blyg(edig) = folding door
dôr ddyrchafad = portcullis
Middle Breton dor = door
Breton (Brezhoneg) dor = door
dor a-dreñv = rear door
dor a-raok = front door
dor emgefre = automatic door
dor greñvaet = fortified gate
dor harz tan = fire door
dor-borzh = gate (of a courtyard)
dor brenestr = French window
dor dal = front door, portal
gwir treuz-dor = doorstep

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *dʰwṓr (door), from *dʰwer- (doorway, door, gate) [source].

Words from the sane Proto-Indo-European root include: door and forum in English, deur (door) in Dutch, Tür (door, doorway) in German, dehors (outside) in French, fuori (outside) in Italian, and fuera (outside) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *dworestus = door
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Irish (Gaeilge) doras [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəsˠ] = door, doorway
doras isteach = entrance
doras amach = exit
doras tosaigh / béil = front door
doras cúil / thiar = backdoor
doirseach = having doors, open, accessible, gaping (wound)
doirseoir = door-keeper, (hall) porter
doirseoireacht = occupation of door-keeper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dorus [dɔrəs] = door, valve
dorus-beag = back door, inner door
dorus-mór = front door, main entrance
doras a-mach = exit
àrd-doras = lintel
ath-dhoras = next door
deoch an dorais = stirrup cup, one for the door/road, Jock and Doris
Manx (Gaelg) dorrys = door, doorway, gate, portal; back (of cart), fly (of tent)
dorrys doont = back door
dorrys toshee = front door
dorrys egin = emergency exit, exit
jough yn dorrys = parting drink, stirrup cup
sole y dorrys = doorstep, threshold
Proto-Brythonic *drus = doorway, entrance, door
Old Welsh drus = doorway, entrance, door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) drus, drvs, drws = doorway, entrance, door
Welsh (Cymraeg) drws [druːs] = doorway, entrance, door, pass, estuary, opening, opportunity, facility
drws codi/cudd = trap-door
drws nesaf = next door (to), very near (to), bordering (on)
wrth y drws = at hand, close, near
o ddrws = from before
drysaf, drwsaf, dryo, drwso = to mind a door (in a coal-mine)
dryswr, drwswr = door-boy (in a coal-mine)
drysor = doorkeepr, janitor, porter
Middle Cornish daras, darat = door
darador = doorkeeper
Cornish (Kernewek) daras = door
darasik = wicket
penn/pedn daras = lintel

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *dwār (door) – see above [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nieces

Today we’re looking at the words for niece and related people in Celtic languages.

Sasha and Nick
My brother and my niece

Proto-Celtic *nextī = niece
Old Irish (Goídelc) necht = niece
Irish (Gaeilge) neacht [n̠ʲæxt̪ˠ] = niece
garneacht = great-niece
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nigh [n̪iːj] = daughter, niece
Proto-Brythonic *nėθ = niece
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nith = niece
Welsh (Cymraeg) nith [niːθ] = niece
gor-nith = great-niece
Old Cornish noit = niece
Cornish (Kernwek) nith = niece
Old Breton nith = niece
Middle Breton nyz = niece
Breton (Brezhoneg) nizh, nizez = niece
gou(r)nizez = great-niece

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *néptih₂ (niece, granddaughter) [source].

Words in Germanic language the come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *niftiz (female descendent, granddaughter, niece), including: Nichte (niece) in German, nicht (female cousin, niece) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word nift (niece) [source].

The English word niece comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nece (niece, granddaughter), from the Old French nece (niece, granddaughter), from the Vulgar Latin *neptia (niece), from the Latin neptis (granddaughter) [source].

Other words for niece:

  • Irish: iníon deirféar (sister’s daughter), iníon dearthár (brother’s daughter)
  • Scottish Gaelic: nighean-pheathar (sister’s daughter), nighean-bhràthar (brother’s daughter), ban-ogha = granddaughter, niece
  • Manx: inneen shayrey (sister’s daughter), inneen vraarey (brother’s daughter)

See also the post about daughters.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Thunder

Words for thunder and related words in Celtic languages.

Thunder

Proto-Celtic *toranos = thunder
Gaulish *taranus = thunder
Tanaris / *Toranos / *Tonaros / *Tanaros = Celtic god of thunder.
Old Irish (Goídelc) torann = thunder
Irish (Gaeilge) torann [ˈt̪ˠɔɾˠən̪ˠ/ˈt̪ˠʌɾˠən̪ˠ] = noise, thunder, (tumult of) battle
toirneach [ˈt̪ˠoːɾˠn̠ʲəx/ˈt̪ˠaːɾˠn̠ʲa(x)] = thunder, thunderclap
toirniúil = thundery, thundering, noisy
torannach / toranda = noisy
torannáil = (act of) making noise, rumbling
marbhthoirneach = subdued, distant thunder
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) torrann [tɔr̪ˠən̪ˠ] = loud murmur, rumble, thunder
torrunn [tɔr̪ˠən̪ˠ] = loud murmur, rumble, thunder
toireann [tɤrʲən̪ˠ] = thunder
tàirneach [taːr̪ˠn̪ʲəx] = thunder
tàirneanach [taːr̪ˠn̪ʲənəx] = thunder
torrann-sgòth = thundercloud
mòthar an tàirneanaich = the roar of thunder
Manx (Gaelg) taarnagh / taarnaghey = thunder, thundering
rooit haarnee = thunder-clap
bodjal taarnee = thunder cloud
frass taarnee = thunder shower
Proto-Brythonic *taran = thunder
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) taran = (peal of) thunder, thunderclap
Welsh (Cymraeg) taran [ˈtaran/ˈtaːran] = thunder, thunderclap, thunderbolt
taranau = thunder
taranu = to thunder, roar, fulminate, vociferate, cause/give forth thunder
taran(i)ad = thundering, clap of thunder, roar, loud noise like thunder
mellt a tharanau = thunder and lightning
Old Cornish taran = thunder
Cornish (Kernewek) taran = thunder
tarenna, taredna = to thunder
taran sonek = sonic boom
tardh taran = thunderclap
Old Breton taran = thunder
Breton (Brezhoneg) taran = thunder, thundering, flashes, growls, grumbling

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)tenh₂- (to thunder) [source].

Words for thunder in Germanic languages come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *þunraz (thunder, Germanic deity), including thunder in English, donder in Dutch, Donner in German, and torden in Norwegian, and also the Old Norse Þórr (Thor – god of thunder), from whom we get the word Thursday [source].

The English word tornado comes from the same PIE root, via the Spanish tronada (thunderstorm), from tronar (to thunder), from the Latin tonō (to thunder), from which we also get words for thunder in Romance languages [source].

The name of the River Tanaro in northwestern Italy comes from the Latin Tanarus, from the Gaulish *Tanaros [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bark and Beehives

Words for bark, beehives and related words in Celtic languages.

Beehives

Proto-Celtic *ruskos = bark, beehive
Gaulish rusca / ruskā = bark, beehive
Old Irish (Goídelc) rúsc [ruːsk] = (tree) bark, basket, covering
Irish (Gaeilge) rúsc [ɾˠuːsˠk] = (tree) bark, vessel made of bark
rúscach = bark-like; rough, wrinkled (skin)
rúscán = strip of bark, vessel made of bark, kind of seaweed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) rùsg [r̪ˠuːsg] = (tree) bark, peel, rind, husk, crust, fleece
rùsg-caorach = sheep’s fleece
rùsg-abhaill = apple peel
rùsg na Talmhainn = crust of the Earth
rùsgan [r̪ˠuːsgan] = thin (tree) bark, thin peel/rind/husk, thin crust, small fleece, bark boat
rùsgach = fleecy
Manx (Gaelg) roost [ruːst] = peel, bark, rind
roostey = strip, peel, hull, rob, bare, rind, debunk, rifle, unbark, deprive, peeling, exposure
Proto-Brythonic *rrisk = bark
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) risgl, risg, rhisg, risc = bark
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhisg(l) [ˈr̥ɪsɡ(l)/ˈr̥ɪsɡɪ(l)] = (piece of) bark, rind, peel (of fruit) husk (of grain)
rhisg(l)ach = pieces of bark
rhisgen = (bark) dish or pan
rhisglen = (piece of) bark, rind; hackle, flax comb
rhisgl(i)af, rhisgaf, rhisgl(i)o, rhisgo = to bark, decorticate, peel )(off), develop bark (on), encrust
rhisg(l)aidd = having bark or rind, corticate(d), covered with bark
Old Cornish rusc = bark
Middle Cornish risc = bark
Cornish (Kernewek) rusken = bark, peel
ruskek = rough-barked
Middle Breton rusquenn = beehive
Breton (Brezhoneg) rusk = bark, peel, zest
ruskek = rough, rugged, coarse
ruskenn = (bee)hive, apiary
ruskennad = beehive
ruskenner = beehive maker

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃rewk- (to dig up), possibly from *h₃er- (to move, stir) [source].

The French word ruche (beehive, ruffle, flounce) and the Catalan word rusc (beehive) come from the Gaulish root rusca, via the Late Latin rusca (bark), and the English word ruche (pleated fabric, ruff), and the German word Rüsche (ruffle, ruche) were borrowed from French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, logainm.ie, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Battle

Words for battle and related words in Celtic languages.

St Fagan's National Museum of Wales

Proto-Celtic *katus = battle
*Katutigernos = “battle lord/master” (male name)
*Katuwelnāmnos = “battle ruler” (male name)
Gaulish Katutigernos (male name)
Primitive Irish ᚉᚐᚈᚈᚒ (cattu) = battle
Old Irish (Goídelc) cath [kaθ] = battle, fight, troop, battalion
cathach = bellicose, warlike
cathaigecht = warfare
cathaige = warrior
cathaigid = to fight, give battle
cocad = war, conflict (from com (with) and cath)
Irish (Gaeilge) cath [kah] = battle, conflict, trial, battalion
cathach = battling, warlike
cathaí = battler, fighter
cathaigh to battle, fight, tempt
cogadh [ˈkɔɡə/ˈkʌɡu] = war, warfare
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cath [kah] = battle, fight, contest, struggle, battalion, warfare
cathach = warlike
cath nan con = dogfight
cath-thuagh = battle axe
blàr-catha = battlefield
gairm-chatha = warcry
cogadh [kogəɣ] = war, fighting, warfare
Manx (Gaelg) cah = military action battle
crooseyr cah = battle-cruiser
caggey [ˈkaːɣə] = war, fight, scrap, combat, campaign, clash, battle
Proto-Brythonic *kad = battle
*Kadüdɨɣern (male name)
*Kaduwallọn (male name)
Old Welsh Categern, Catigern (male name)
Cadwallawn (male name)
Categern, Catigern (male name)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kad, kat = battle
Cattegirn (male name)
Catgollaun, Catguallaun, Katwallaun (male name)
Welsh (Cymraeg) cad [kaːd] = battle, conflict, war, strife, struggle, trouble, army, host, throng, multitude, band
cad ar faes = at loggerheads
cadfan = battlefield
Cadfan (male name) = 6th century Breton missionary to Wales [more details]
Cadeyrn (male name)
Cadwallon (male name)
Cornish (Kernewek) kas = armed conflict, battle
Kaswallawn (male name)
Old Breton Kaduuallon, Catuuallon (male name)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kad = battle
Kadwallawn (male name)

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *kéh₃tus (fight), which is also the root of the German words Hader (dispute, quarrel) and hadern (to bicker, quarrel, struggle) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hillsides

Words for hillsides, cliffs and related words in Celtic languages.

Snowdonia in the sun

Proto-Celtic *altos = height, cliff
Old Irish (Goídelc) alt, allt = height, cliff, valley, abyss
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) als = hillock
Irish (Gaeilge) ailt = steep-sided glen, ravine, height, cliff
ailteán = small ravine
alt = steep-sided ravine, hillock
altach = undulating (road), wavy (hair)
altán = streamlet, ravine, hillock
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) alt [al̪ˠd] = rugged/steep bank, precipice
allt [aul̪ˠd] = brook, burn, stream, brook, rill, river with precipitous banks
alltan = brook, little stream, streamlet
Manx (Gaelg) alt = mountain stream, glen in mountains, high place, altitude, alto
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) alt, allt = hill(side)
Welsh (Cymraeg) allt [aːɬt / aɬt] = hill(side), (steep) gradient or slope, steep road or path, (steep) ascent, cliff, woods, wooded slope
allt (o) goed = wood, grove
allt (y) môr, allt fôr = sea-cliff
yr allt bren = staircase, facet (“the wooden hill”)
Old Cornish als = cliff
Cornish (Kernewek) als [ɒlz / ælz] = cliff
Middle Breton a(o)ut = coast, shore, bank
Breton (Brezhoneg) aod = coast, shore
aod bili = pebble beach
aod vev = foreshore

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eltós, from Proto-Indo-European *h₂el- (to grow, nourish) [source].

English words such as altitude, adult and old come from the same PIE root, as do alt (old, ancient, elderly) in German, oud (old) in Dutch, haut (high, tall) in French and alto (high, tall, deep, loud) in Italian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Slieve League / Sliabh Liag

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis