A Bit of Bitterness

Words for bitter, sour and related things in Celtic languages.

A pint at Cafe Cargo

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *swerwos = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) serb [sʲerv] = bitter, bitterness
serbae = bitterness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) serb = bitter, hurtful, grievous, disagreeable, harsh, discordant
serbae, seirbe = bitterness, asperity
Irish (Gaeilge) searbh [ˈʃaɾˠəvˠ / ˈʃarˠu(ː)] = bitter, sour, acid
searbhaigh = to sour, embitter, become bitter
searbhán = bitter person, bitter herb, bitters
searbhánta = bitter, acrid
searbhas = bitterness, sourness, acidity
searbhasach = bitter, acrimonious
searbhóg = bitter person, bitter woman, bitter drink
searbhú = embitterment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) searbh [ʃɛrɛv] = bitter, sour, tart, disagreeable, acidic
searbh-chainnt = sarcasm
searbh-ghlòr = cacophony
searbh-nhilis = bitter-sweet
duine searbh = disagreeable person
fion searbh geal = dry white wine
leann searbh = bitter (ale)
’s searbh an fhirinn = the truth hurts
Manx (Gaelg) sharroo = acid, acrid, acrimonious, bitter, cutting, embittered, sardonic, sour, tart, unpalatable, vitriolic
sharrooaghey = to embitter
sharrooane = bitters
sharrooid = bitterness
lhune sharroo = bitter (ale/beer)
Proto-Brythonic *hwerw = bitter
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) chuerv, chuerw, chwerw, chuero, chỽerw = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh
chwerwy, cwherwa = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwder, chweruder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwed, chỽerỽed = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Welsh (Cymraeg) chwerw [ˈχwɛru/ˈχweːru] = bitter, acrid, painful, harsh, rough, severe, sharp, surly, hurtful, angry, irate, spiteful, cross, cruel, sorrowful
chwerwaf, chwerwi = to become bitter, be displeased
chwerwaidd = bitter, sharp
chwerwder = bitterness, sourness, acerbity
chwerwedd = bitterness, sourness, acerbity, sharpness, tartness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) chuero, wherow = bitter, cruel, hardhearted
Cornish (Kernewek) hwerow = bitter, harsh, sharp
hwerowder = acrimony
Old Breton (Brethonoc) hueru = bitter
Middle Breton (Brezonec) hueru, fero, huerhue = bitter
hueruentez = bitterness
Breton (Brezhoneg) c’hwerv [χwɛʁw] = bitter
c’hwervaat = to make or become bitter
c’hwervded, c’hwervder, c’hwerventez, c’hwervoni = bitterness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *swer- (to ache, to fester, wound, injury). Words from the same root include sword in English, chwarren (gland, knot in wood, boil, ulcer) in Welsh, zweren (to swear, pledge, declare under oath) in Dutch, and schwären (to fester, hurt, suppurate) in German [source].

Proto-Celtic *gʷereti, gʷorti- = bitter
Old Irish (Goídelc) goirt [ɡor͈ʲtʲ] = bitter, salty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) goirt = hungry, starved, bitter, sour, salt, sharp, keen
Irish (Gaeilge) goirt [ɡʌɾˠtʲ / ɡɔɾˠtʲ] = salt, saline, salted, bitter
goirte = saltiness, salinity, brackishness, bitterness
goirteamas = saltiness, bitterness, salt food
goirtigh = to salt, pickle
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) goirt [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲ] = sore, painful, sour, salted
goirteas [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəs] = pain, ache, painfulness
goirtear [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲər] = miser, mean/stingy person
goirte [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲə] = soreness, painfulness, sourness, acerbity, saltiness
goirteachadh [gɔr̪ˠʃdʲəxəɣ] = hurting, afflicting, acidifying, making sour, leavening
Manx (Gaelg) gort = acid, bitter, brackish, rank, vinegarish, vinegary, sour, hurt, poignant, acrid, acrimony
gortaghey = hurt, hurting, maim, pain
gortagh = beggarly, frugal, grudging, hurt, meagre, miser

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷorti-, from *gʷʰer- (warm, hot). Words from the same root include barmy, furnace, gore, thermal and warm in English, and garstig (rude, nasty, beastly, foul) in German [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Pins & Needles

Words for pin, needle and related things in Celtic languages.

Pins and Needles

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *delgos = pin, needle
Gaulish *dalgis = scythe
Old Irish (Goídelc) delg [dʲerɡ] = thorn, pin, brooch, peg
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) delg = thorn, pin, brooch, peg, spike, nail, pointed implement
delga, delgu = pin, peg, spike, tip, point
delgach = pointed
Irish (Gaeilge) dealg [ˈdʲal̪ˠəɡ / ˈdʲalˠəɡ] = thorn, prickle, spine, spike, pin, peg, pointed implement, brooch
dealgán = knitting-needle
deilgne = thorns, prickles
deilgneach = thorny, prickly, barbed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dealg [dʲal̪ˠag] = pin, skewer, knitting needle, prick(le)
dealg-fighidh = knitting needle
dealgan = spindle, small pin, skewer
dealg brodaidh = cattle prod
dealgach [dʲal̪ˠagəx] = prickly, stinging
dealganach [dʲal̪ˠaganəx] = pertaining to or abounding in spindles, small pins or skewers
Manx (Gaelg) jialg = broochpin, needle, prick(le), quill, spine, thorn, pin
jialg broghil = brooch
jialg fuilt = hairpin
jialg oashyr = knitting needle
jialgagh = prickly, spiniferous, spiny, thorny
jialgaghey = to pin, prickle, pinning
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dala = sting
Welsh (Cymraeg) dala [ˈdala] = sting, bite
Old Cornish (Cernewec) delc(h) = jewel, necklace
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) delc = necklace
Cornish (Kernewek) delk = necklace

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰelg- (sting). Words from the same root include dálkur (spine of a fish, knife, dagger, [newspaper] column) in Icelandic, dilgus (prickly) in Lithuanian, falce (scythe, sickle) in Italian, hoz (sickle) in Spanish, and falcate (shaped like a sickle), falcifer (sickle-bearing, holding a scythe) in English [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via Gaulish *dalgis (scythe) and Latin *daculum (scythe) , possibly include dall (mowing, billhook) in Catalan, dalle (scythe) in Spanish, and dalha (scythe) in Occitan (Languedoc) [source].

The English word dagger, and related words in other languages, such as daga (dagger) in Spanish, and Degen (rapier, épée) in German, might come from the same roots [source].

Proto-Celtic *ber = (cooking) spin
Old Irish (Goídelc) bi(u)r [bʲir] = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
berach = pointed, sharp
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bir = stake, spit, point, spear, spike
biraid = to pierce
biraigthe = sharpened, pointed
birda = pointed, sharp
birín = little spike, sharp point, dart, little spear
Irish (Gaeilge) bior [ˈbʲɨ̞ɾˠ] = pointed rod or shaft, spit, spike, point
biorach = pointed, sharp
bioraigh = to point, sharpen
biorán = pin, hand (of clock)
bioranta = sharp
biorú = pointing, sharpening
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bior [bir] = prickle, thorn, point, pointed object, knitting needle
biorachadh [birəxəɣ] = sharpening, making pointed, staring
biorag [birag] = small thorn or prickle, spiteful sharp-tongued woman
biorach [birəx] = pointed, sharp, piercing, prickly
bioraich [birɪç] = sharpen, make pointed, stare
Manx (Gaelg) birr, byr = point, spit
birragh, byrragh = pointed, scathing, sharp, spiky, tapered, prickly
birranagh = pointed, sharp
birraghey = to sharpen, taper, tone up
Proto-Brythonic ber = (cooking) spit
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bêr, ber = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
beraid = as much as can be held on a spit
Welsh (Cymraeg) bêr [beːr] = spear, lance, pike, spit, skewer
ber(i)af, berio, beru = to spit (meat), impale, stab with a spear
beriad = as much as can be held on a spit
bergi = turnspit (dog)
bernod = dagger, obelisk
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ber, bêr = spit, lance, spear
Cornish (Kernewek) berya = to stab, run through
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ber, bèr, bir = (roasting) spit
Breton (Brezhoneg) ber [beːr] = spindle, point, spike
beriad = pin
berian = skewer

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *gʷéru (spit, spear) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include verrocchio (olive oil press) in Italian, verrou (bolt, lock) in French, cerrojo (bolt, latch) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *snātantā = needle (?)
*snātos = thread
Old Irish (Goídelc) snáthat = needle
snáith = thread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snáthat, snāthad, snathat = needle
snáithe = thread
Irish (Gaeilge) snáthaid [ˈsˠn̪ˠɑːhəd̪ˠ] = needle,
snáthadóir = needle-maker
snáth = thread, yarn, web
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snàthad [sn̪ˠaː.əd] = needle, pointer (on a dial)
snàthadair [sn̪ˠaː.ədɪrʲ] = needle-maker
snàthadalan [sn̪ˠaː.ədəl̪ˠan] = needlecase
snàthadh [sn̪ˠaː.əɣ] = threading, stringing
snàthadag [sn̪ˠaː.ədag] = sting
snàth [sn̪ˠaː] = thread, yarn
Manx (Gaelg) snaid = needle, pointer, indicator, index
snaid whaaley = sewing needle
snaidagh = needle-like
snaidey = knit
obbyr snaidey = needlework
snaih, snaie = line, thread, yarn, worm, netting
Old Welsh (Kymraec) notuid = needle, pin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) notwyd, nottwyd, nodwydd = needle, pin
Welsh (Cymraeg) nodwydd [ˈnɔdwɨ̞ð/ˈnɔdʊi̯ð] = needle, pin, pointer, dial
nodwyddaf, nodwyddo = to sew, stitch, inject, prick
nodwyddiad = acupuncture
nodwyddig = small needle
nodwyddwaith = needlework
nodwyddwr = needlemaker, pinmaker, sewer, stitcher, tailor
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nadedh, nadzhedh = needle
noden = thread, yarn
Cornish (Kernewek) naswydh, najedh = needle
neusen, neujen = thread, yarn
neusenna = to thread
Middle Breton (Brezonec) nadoez, nados, nadoz = sewing needle
neut, neud = thread
Breton (Brezhoneg) nadoez [beːr] = needle, hand, pointer, spire
nadoezenn = (clock) hand
nadoezier = needle maker
neud = thread, filaments, net, algae

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *(s)neh₁- (to spin, sew) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include needle, nerve, neuron, sinew and snood in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Betwixt and Between

Here are some words for betwixt, between, among and related things in Celtic languages.

Porth Penrhyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *enter = betwen
Gaulish Entarabo = name of a god
Celtiberian enterara = between
Old Irish (Goídelc) eter = between
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
etir, itir = between him
etron(n), etrunn = between us
etruib = between you (pl)
etarru, etarro = between them
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) eter, etir, etar-, etr- = inter-, between, among
etrom, etrum = between me
etrut = between you (sg)
eadra, etir = between him
etronn, etrunn, eadrainn, eadroinn = between us
etruib, eadruibh, eadraibh = between you (pl)
et(t)arru, etarro, etorro = between them
Irish (Gaeilge) idir [ˈɪdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛdʲəɾʲ/ˈɛd̪ˠəɾʲ] = between, both
eadrainn = between us
eadraibh = between you (pl)
eatarthu = between them
idirchéim = interval
idircheol = interlude
idirchuir = to interpose
idirfhigh = to interweave
idirmhír = intersection
idirlíon = internet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eadar [edər] = between
eadarainn = between us
eadaraibh = between you (pl)
eatarra = between them
eadar-aghaidh [edərˈɤ.ɪ] = interface
eadar-cheangailte = interconnected
eadar-cheangal = interlinking, interconnecting, communications
eadar dà sgeul = incidentally (“between two stories”)
eadar-dhealtaichte = parted, separated, differing, distinct
eadar-lìon = internet
eadar-theangachadh = translating, translation
Manx (Gaelg) eddyr [ˈɛðˌər] =between, betwixt
eddyr ain = between us
eddyr eu = between you (pl)
eddyr oc = between them
eddyr-ashoonagh = international(ist)
eddyrcheim = interval
eddyr-chianglt = interconnected
eddyr-ghoaillagh = intermediary
eddyr-hengaghey = to interpret, interpretation
eddyr-voggyl = internet
Proto-Brythonic *ɨntr = between
Old Welsh ithr = between
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ythr = between
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ynter, yntré = between, among
yntredho = between him
yntredhon = between us
ynterdhoch, yntredhouch = between ye
yntredhe = between them
Cornish (Kernewek) ynter, yntra = between
ynterdhyskyblethek = interdisciplinary
ynterfas = interface
Old Breton (Brethonoc) ithr = between, among
Middle Breton (Brezonec) entre, intre = between, among
Breton (Brezhoneg) etre [e.ˈtre] = between, intermediate, while, as long as
etrezon = between me
entrezout = between you (sg)
entrezañ = between him
entrezi = between her
etrezomp = between us
entrezoc’h = between you (pl)
entrezo, entreze = between them
etrebazhin, etrebazhiñ = to interpose
etrekeltiek = inter-Celtic
etrelakaat = to interpose
etrevroadel = international

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁entér (between), from *h₁én (in) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include enter and under in English. onder (under, downwards) in Dutch, unter (under, below, among, between) in German, ndër (between, among, in, through) in Albanian [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rỽng, rỽg, rug, rwng = between
kyfrwg, kyfrug, kyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhwng, yrhwng [r̥ʊŋ] = between
rhyngddo i = between me
rhyngddot ti = between you (sg)
rhyngddo fe/fo = between him
rhyngddi hi = between her
rhyngddon ni = between us
rhyngddoch chi = between you (pl)
rhyngddyn nhw = between them
rhyngberthynol = interrelated, mutually connected
rhyngol = intermediate, mediatory
rhyngrwyd = internet
rhyngwladol = international
cyfrwng = means, medium, agency, interval, midst

Etymology: unknown [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) plith, plyth = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
ymplith, em plyth, ymlith, ymhlith = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with
Welsh (Cymraeg) plith = midst, middle, centre, between, amongst
plithdraphlithdod = confusion, disorder
plithwrtaith = compost
tryblith = chaos, disorder, muddle
ymhlith [əmˈɬiːθ] = among(st), in or to (the midst of), (together) with

Etymology: unknown [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Dinner

Words for dinner and related things in Celtic languages.

Speakers' Dinner at the Polyglot Gathering

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) din(n)ér = repast, meal
Irish (Gaeilge) dinnéar [dʲɪˈnʲeːɾˠ] = dinner
am dinnéir = dinner-time
foreann dinnéir = dinner-service
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dinnear [dʲiːn̪ʲər] = dinner
àm dìnnearach = dinner-time
bòrd-dìnnearach = dinner table
seacaid-dìnnearach = dinner-jacket/suit, tuxedo
seòmar-dìnnearach = dining room
Manx (Gaelg) jinnair = dinner
co’heshaght yinnairagh = dinner party
forran buird = dinner service
jaggad yinnairagh = dinner jacket

Etymology: from Old French disner (to dine, eat the main meal of the day), from Vulgar Latin *disiūnāre, from Late Latin disieiūnō (to break the fast), from dis- (apart, reversal, utterly) and ieiūnō (to fast) [source].

Words from the same roots include dine and diner and dinner in English, and dîner (to dine, dinner) in French [source].

Proto-Brythonic *kinjọ = dinner (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymreac) kinyaỽ, kinyaw, kinio, kinnaw = dinner
kino echwydd, ciniaw echwydd, kinnechwydd = midday-dinner
kinnawha, kinawu, kinyawa = to dine, eat a meal
Welsh (Cymraeg) cinio [ˈkɪnjɔ] = dinner, breakfast
cinio echwydd, cinechwydd = midday-dinner
cin(i)awaf, cin(i)awu = to dine, eat a meal
ciniawdy = restaurant, café
ciniawfwyd = dinner, meal
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) cynyow, cidnio = dinner
Cornish (Kernwek) kinnyow, kidnyow = dinner
kinyewel = to dine

Etymology: cognate with or from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymreac) cvin, kwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
kvynnos, cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
kuynossa, cwynosa = to sup, take supper
cwynossauc, cwynossawc = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn = dinner, supper, feast, banquet
cwynos = supper, evening, meal, feast
cwynosa(f) = to sup, take supper
cwynosfwyd = supper, tea, a light meal or lunch taken in the afternoon in the fields.
cwynosog = giving (or one who gives) supper or a meal to a king or lord and his retinue on circuit
Middle Cornish (Cernwec) coyn, cón = supper
Cornish (Kernwek) kon = dinner, supper
Middle Breton (Brezonec) coan = dinner, supper, to have supper
coan(i)aff, coanyaff, coania = to dine, to have supper
coanlech = place where one has supper
Breton (Brezhoneg) koan [ˈkwãːn] = supper, dinner, to have supper
koanan, koaniañ = to have dinner, to dine
koanier = dinner

Etymology: from Latin cēna (dinner), from Old Latin cesna, from Proto-Italic *kertsnā, from Proto-Indo-European *kért-sneh₂ (portion), from *(s)kert- (to cut), from *(s)ker- (to cut off, separate) [source].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhleag) béile = meal
Irish (Gaeilge) béile [ˈbʲeːlʲə] = meal
béile maidine = breakfast
béile meán lae = lunch
béile oíche = supper, dinner
ní fiú a bhéilí é = he is not worth his keep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beil = diet, meal of meat (archaic)

Etymology: from Middle English mel (a time, occasion, meal, feast), from Old English mǣl (measure, mark, sign, time, occasion), from Proto-Germanic *mēlą (measure, time, occasion, meal), from PIE *meh₁- (to measure) [source].

Words from the same roots include meal in English, maal (meal, time) in Dutch, Mahl (meal) in German, and mål (target, goal, meal) in Swedish [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Flowing Slowly

Words for slow and related things in Celtic languages.

sloth

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *malnos/*mallo- = slow, lazy
Old Irish (Goídelc) mall [mal͈] = slow, tardy, late
utmall = unsteady, restless
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) mall = slow, sluggish
mallaigid = to make slow, retard
maill, moill = tardiness, delay
maillech = slowly-moving, leisurely, gentle
admall = very slow, dilatory
immall = very slow, wearisome, sad, sluggish
utmall = unstable, fickle, restless
Irish (Gaeilge) mall [mˠɑul̪ˠ/mˠɑːl̪ˠ/mˠal̪ˠ] = slow, late
mallachar = slowness, dullness, dimness
mallacharach = slow, dim
mallaibh = of late, lately
udhmhall = unstable, restless, unceratin, nimble, quick
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mall [maul̪ˠ] = slow, deliberate, placid
mallan [mal̪ˠan] = sluggard, slowcoach
mallanach [mal̪ˠanəx] = slow, dilatory
Manx (Gaelg) moal = slow, sorry, tardy, unimpressive, backward, deliberate, dull, feeble, gradual, meagre

Etymology: possibly from PIE *mel- (to be late, hesitate) and *-nós (creates verbal adjectives) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) slaet = heap, layer, pile
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) slaet = a swathe, layer, pile, illness, disease
slaetach, slaebach = in layers, sweeping (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) slaod = swath, layer, flowing mass, prostration, stupefication, float, raft; to mow down, lay low, flow, drag, trail, trudge
slaodach = in swaths, in layers, flowing, prostrating, heavy, oppressive, viscous
slaodacht = viscosity
slaodaí = trudger, slowcoach, lazy-bones
slaodaíocht = trudging, slowness, laziness
slaodchiallach = slow-witted
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) slaod [sl̪ˠɯːd] = raft, float, sledge, tow, drag, sluggard, slowcoach
slaodach [sl̪ˠɯːdəx] = slow, sluggish, dilatory, dragging, pulling, awkward, clumsy
slaodachadh [sl̪ˠɯːdəxəɣ] = dragging, hauling, slowing down
slaodachd [sl̪ˠɯːdəxg] = slowness, drowsiness, awkwardness
Manx (Gaelg) sleayd = dredge, trail, sledge, trailer
sleaydagh = trailing
sleayder = lug, trailing

Etymology: unknown [source].

Proto-Celtic *aramo- = quiet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) araf, arav [ˈarav] = slow, leisurely, calm, quiet
arafu = to be(come) or make slow, slow down
arafaidd, arauaidd = slow, gradual, mild, gentle
arafhau = to make or become quiet or calm,
Welsh (Cymraeg) araf [ˈarav] = slow, gradual, tedious, tiresome, mild, meek, gentle, tender
arafu = to be(come) or make slow, slow down, retard
arafaidd = slow, gradual, mild, gentle, lovely, pleasant
arafedd = slowness, gentleness, tenderness
arafhau = to make or become quiet or calm, ease, abate, moderate
arafol = slow, gradual, slowing, delaying

Etymology: from PIE *h₁r̥h₃-mo-, from *h₁reh₃- (rest). Words from the same roots include Ruhe (calm, quietness, rest) in German, ro (calmness) in Danish, ro (peace, quiet, tranquility) in Swedish, and unruly in English [source].

Proto-Brythonic *segʉr = idle
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) segur = idle
segyra, segura, seguru, segvro = to (be) idle
segyrllyt, segurllyd = idle, lazy, sluggish, slothful
Welsh (Cymraeg) segur [ˈsɛɡɨ̞r / ˈseːɡɪr] = idle, unoccupied, inactive, lazy, slothful, disused, idle
seguro = to (be) idle, laze, linger, lounge around, rest
segurdod = idleness, laziness
segurllyd = idle, lazy, sluggish, slothful
segurwr = idler, lazy person
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) sigyr, zigyr = sluggish, lazy
Cornish (Kernewek) syger = idle, lazy, lethargic, slow
sygera = to seep, trickle
sygerans = seep(age)
sygerneth = idleness, laziness, lethargy
sygerus = at leisure, leisurely

Etymology: from Latin sēcūrus (careless, carefree, negligent, safe, secure), from sē- (without) and‎ cūra (care). Words from the same root include secure and sure in English, sicuru (safe, secure, sure) in Italian, seguro (secure, safe, sure) in Spanish and säker (safe, secure, sure, certain) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *uɸostatos = stable
Old Irish (Goídelc) fossad = firm, steady
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fossad, fossud = stationary, fixed, firm, steady, steadfast, consistent, flat surface, level place, stopping-place, abode
Irish (Gaeilge) fosadh = stop, stay, rest, stable position, steadiness, stability
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fosadh [fɔsəɣ] = cessation, desisting, recess, respite, (act of) abiding
Proto-Brythonic *gwostad = (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwastat, guastat = flat, level, smooth
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwastad [ˈɡwastad] = flat, level, smooth, even, horizontal, continual, constant, quiet, peaceful, gentle, plain, level
Cornish (Kernewek) gwastas = flat, open, plain, smooth
Middle Breton (Brezonec) goustat, goustadic, goustadec, goustadic = gently, slowly
Breton (Brezhoneg) gou(e)stad = slow, slowly
doustadik = slow, slowly

Etymology: unknown [source].

Another word for slow in Cornish is lent, and lenthe means to slow down. This is possibly from (Old) French lent (slow), or from Latin lentus (sticky, slow, flexible).

In Middle Cornish the word hel means slow or tardy, and cosel/kozal means soft, quiet, slow or sluggish, which became kosel (calm, quiet, restful, still, tranquil) in revived Cornish.

Another Proto-Celtic word for slow is *dwāyo-. This became doé / doe (slow, sluggish) in Old Irish and Middle Irish, but has no descendents I can find in the modern Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Order

Words for order and related words in Celtic languages.

Cystadleuaeth Athletau TYG 2015

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ord = order, sequence
ordaigidir = to order, ordain
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ord, ordd, ort, órd = order, sequence, arrangement, state, way, course, procedure, degree, rank, dignity, ritual, office
ord(d)ad = ordering, arranging
ord(d)aigecht = dignity, nobility
ord(d)aigid(ir) = to order, ordain, institue, appoint
ord(d)aigthe = ordered, ordained, arranged
ord(d)an = dignity, honour, pre-eminence
Irish (Gaeilge) ord [əuɾˠd̪ˠ / ɔːɾˠd̪ˠ] = order, sequence, arrangement
ordaigh = to order, command, prescribe, ordain, recommend
ordaiteach = imperative
ordaithe = ordered, stipulated
ordan = honour, dignity, rank, pre-eminence
ordanáilte = neat, ordered
ordú = to order, command
ordúil = orderly, neat, ordered
ordúilacht = orderliness, neatness, tidiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òrd [or̪ˠd] = order
òrdach [or̪ˠdəx] = orderly, regular
òrdachadh [or̪ˠdəxəɣ] = commanding, ordering
òrdachail [or̪ˠdəxal] = prescriptive
òrdan [or̪ˠdan] = order, statute
òrdugh [or̪ˠdu] = order, prescription, command
Manx (Gaelg) oardyr, ordyr = order
oardagh = arrangement, array, commission, decree, directive, order, rite, ritual, sequence
oardee = to bid, command, order
oarderit = ordained, ordered, regulated
oardit = appointed, authorized, decreed, ordained, ordered
oardoil = orderly, oridinal
oardreilys = order, system
Proto-Brythonic *ʉrð = order
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) urd, urdd = holy orders, order
urdav, vrdav = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office
urdein, urtyein, urtdein, urtein, vrddain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urtas, vrdas, urdas = dignity, honour, nobility
vrddassav, urddasu, vrddassv = to dignify, honour, venerate
vrdasseyd, urdasseid, vrdasseid = dignified, honourable
urtassaỼc, urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Welsh (Cymraeg) urdd [ɨ̞rð / ɪrð] = holy orders, (religious, military, chivalric, taxonomic) order, dignity, honour, discipline, rule, control, manner
urddaf, urddo = to appoint to an honour, duty, or office, ordain, crown, dub (knight), honour, elevate, dignify, dedicate
urdd(i)ain = dignified, honourable, praiseworthy
urddas = dignity, honour, nobility, (high) rank, reputation, status
urddasaf, urddasu = to dignify, honour, venerate, revere, elevate, ennoble
urddasaidd = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble, orderly
urddasog = dignified, honourable, of high rank, noble
Cornish (Kernewek) urdh = order
urdhas = hierarchy
urdhya = to initiate
urdhyans = initiation
Middle Breton (Brezonec) eurz, urz, vrz = order, arrangement, command
Breton (Brezhoneg) urzh [yrs] = order, right, authorisation
urzhad [ˈyrzat] = (biological) order
urzhaz = hierarchy
urzhiadur = prescription, order, arrangment, ordination
urzhiañ [ˈyrzjã] = to order, arrange, organise
urzhiataer [yr.zja.ˈtɛːr] = computer

Etymology: from Latin ōrdō (order, row, series, class, condition, group), from Proto-Italic *ordō (row, order), probably from Proto-Indo-European *h₂or-d-, from *h₂er- (to fit, fix, put together). Words from the same roots include arm, art, harmony, order, ordinary, ornate and reason in English, orden (order) in Spanish and Ordnung (arrangement, regulation) in German [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Sure, Certainly

Words for sure, certain and related words in Celtic languages.

Sure, Certainly

Words marked * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *derwos = firm (as an oak), oak
Old Irish (Goídelc) derb = sure, certain, fixed, certainty
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove
derbda = certain, fixed
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derb = sure, certain, fixed, determinate, reliable, genuine
derba = certainty
derbaid = to certify, confirm, prove, attest
derbda(e) = certain, fixed
Irish (Gaeilge) dearbh [ˈdʲaɾˠəvˠ] = sure, certain
dearbhaigh = to declare, affirm, confirm, attest, prove
dearbháil = to test, check
dearbhú = declaration, affirmation, attestation, confirmation
dearfa = attested, proved, sure, certain
dearfach = affrimative, positive
dearfacht = positiveness, certainty
deartháir = brother (“certain brother” from derb & bráthair [brother])
deirfiúr = sister (“certain sister” from derb & siur [sister])
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearbh [dʲɛrɛv] = ceratin, sure, positive
dearbh-aithne = identity, indentification
dearbhaich [dʲɛrɛvɪç] = prove, attest, verify, demonstrate
dearbhadh [dʲɛrɛvəɣ] = proving, attesting, verifying
dearbhachd [dʲɛrɛvəxg] = proof, experience, assurance
dearbhair [dʲɛrɛvɛrʲ] = affirmer, checker
dearbhte [dʲɛrɛvdʲə] = ascertained, confirmed, proved
dearbhach [dʲɛrɛvəx] = sure, affirmative, positive
dearbhachail [dʲɛrɛvəxal] = conclusive, decisive
Manx (Gaelg) jarroo = absolute, actual, even, explicit, express, identical, indubitable
jarrooagh = affirmative, categorical, confirmative, definitive, positive
jarrooid = positiveness
dy jarroo = actually
Old Welsh ceintiru = first cousin (male)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) keuynderv, keuyndyru, keuynderw = first cousin (male)
cyfnitherw, kefnithderw, cyvnither = first cousin (female)
Welsh (Cymraeg) derw = sure, true (only appears in words below)
cefnder(w) = first cousin (male)
cyfnither(w) = first cousin (female)
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) handeru = first cousin
Cornish (Kernewek) kenderow, keniterow = cousin
Middle Breton (Brezonec) quenderu = cousin
Breton (Brezhoneg) kenderv = cousin (male)
keniterv = cousin (female)

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *drewh₂- (steady, firm), from *dóru (tree), which possibly related to *deru-/*drew- (hard, firm, strong, solid) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for oak trees in Celtic languages, and tar, tree, trough and trim in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *kengeti =to step
Old Irish (Goídelc) cingid [ˈkʲiŋʲɡʲiðʲ] = to step, proceed
do·cing = to advance, step forward
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cingid, cinnid, cinnit = to step, pace, proceed, go, overcome, surpass, excel, exceed
do-cing, to-cing = to step, stride forward, advance, come
Irish (Gaeilge) cinn [cəiɲ / ciːnʲ] = to fix, determine, decree, decide
cinnte = certain, definite, mean, stingy, constant
cinnteach = fixed, definite, definitive
cinnteachaí = determinist
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteacht = certainty, stinginess, limitation
cinntigh = to make certain, confirm, assure
cinntiú = confirmation, determination
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cinnt [kʲĩːn̪ʲdʲ] = certainty
cinnteach = certain, definite, sure, accurate
cinnteachas = determinism
cinnteachd = certainty, actuality, assurance
cinnteachadh = checking, confirming, determining
cinntich = (to) check, confirm, determine, ascertain
Manx (Gaelg) kinjagh = constant, continual, continuous, definite

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *(s)keng- (limp) [source].

Words from the same roots include words for step in Celtic languages, shank in English, hinken (to limp, hobble) in Dutch and German [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dyogel, diogel = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelu = to make save, secure
diogelhay = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd, diogelrỼyd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr = defender, protector
Welsh (Cymraeg) diogel [dɪˈɔɡɛl/dɪˈoːɡɛl] = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
diogelaf, diogelu = to make save, secure, assure, confirm
diogeldeb, diolgelder = safety, security
diogelfa = safe place, fortress, stronghold, place of refuge
diogelhaf, diogelhau = to make safe or fast, secure, assure
diogelrwydd = safety, security, assurance, certainty
diogelwch = safety, security, caution
diogelwr, diogelydd = defender, protector
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) diogel, dyowgel, dyogel, diûgel, diougel = unexposed, secure, safe, certain
Cornish (Kernewek) diogel = certain, reliable, secure, sure
diogeldeh = security
diogeli = to safeguard, secure
Middle Breton (Brezonec) diouguel, dioguel, dyougel = certain, sure, surely, security, safety
diouguelhat = to defend, guard, protect
diouguelroez, dyouguelroez = security, protection
Breton (Brezhoneg) diogel [diˈoːɡɛl] = size, dimension, measure, format
diougelaat = to defend, guard, protect
diougeladur = affirmation, assertion
diougeler = protecter
diogeliñ = to assert
diogelroez = security, protection
diogelus = affirmative

Etymology: from di- (intensifying prefix) and gogel (to guard), from Proto-Celtic *uɸo- (sub-, under) and *kelo (to hide), from PIE *ḱel (to cover) [source].

Words from the same roots include Celt(ic), heel and occult in English [source].

Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sicir [ʃiçgʲɪrʲ] = shrewd, acute, accurate, sure
sicireachd [ʃiçgʲɪrʲəxg] = shrewdness, acuteness, accurateness, sureness
Manx (Gaelg) shickyr = certain, confident, definite, firm
shickyraghey = to ensure, ratify, verify, affirmation
shickyrys = assurance, certainty, security, stability
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) sicr, sikr = safe, secure, certain, sure, reliable, immovable
sickrwydd, sicrwydd, siccrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siwr, sywr = sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
Welsh (Cymraeg) sicr [ˈsɪkɪr] = sure, certain, inevitable, secure, safe
sicrhau = to ensure, make certain, fasten, secure
sicrwydd = certainity, sureness, assurance
siŵr, siwr [ʃuːr]= sure, certain, inevitable, unfailing
siwr(i)af, siwr(i)o = to assure, ensure
siwrans, siwrens = certainity, assurance
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) secer = secure
secerder = security
Cornish (Kernewek) sur = certain(ly), sure(ly)
surhe = to assure, ensure, insure
surheans = insurance
surneth = certainity
surredi = certainly, surely
Middle Breton (Brezonec) sigur = sure, certain, assured
Breton (Brezhoneg) sygur, sigur [ˈsiːɡyr] = sure, certain, assured
siguriñ = to generalize, pretext

Etymology: from Middle English siker (safe, secure), from Old English sicor (secure, safe, sure), from Proto-West Germanic *sikur (secure, safe, sure, certain), from Latin sēcūrus (worryless; carefree; secure), from sē- (without) and cūra (care); [source].

Note: the Welsh word sikr comes from Middle English siker, while siŵr/siwr comes from modern English sure. They both come from the same ultimate roots. Similarly, the Middle Cornish secer comes from Middle English, while sur in modern Cornish comes from modern English. I’m not sure if the Breton words are related, or what their etymology is.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Haughty Pride

Words for pride, arrogance, vanity and related things in Celtic languages.

Gay Pride

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *auberos = vain
Old Irish (Goídelc) úabar = pride, arrogance
úabrige = pride, arrogance
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úabar = pride, arrogance, vanity, confidence
úabrach = proud, haughty
úabrigidir = to treat insolently, profane, mock
óbar = vain-glory
anúabar, anuabhar = inordinate pride
comúabar = great pride
Irish (Gaeilge) uabhar = pride, arrogance, spiritedness, exuberance, frolicking, frolicsomeness, rankness, luxuriance, eeriness, feeling of loneliness
anuabhar = overweening pride, excess (of grief, weeping)
aingeal an uabhair = fallen angel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uabhar [uəvər̪] = pride, insolence
uabharra [uəvər̪ˠə] = proud, haughty
uaibhreach [uəivr̪ʲəx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
an-uaibhreach = humble
uaibhreas = arrogance, haughtiness
uaibhridh = haughty, proud, arrogant
ro sgrios thig uabhar = pride goes/comes before a fall
Proto-Brythonic *ọβer = vain (?)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ofer, ouer = worthless, vain, useless
ofêra, ouera, ofera = to behave frivolously
overaidd = vain, frivolous
oferbeth, obherbeth = worthless or pointless thing
ofered, oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel, ofer-goel = superstition, vain belief
overwr, ouerwr, oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Welsh (Cymraeg) ofer [ˈɔvɛr / ˈoːvɛr] = worthless, vain, useless, unnecessary, futile, wasteful, prodigal, unprofitable, frivolous
ofera(f) = to behave frivolously, live dissolutely, trifle, idle, laze, loiter, waste, squander
oferaidd = vain, frivolous, unprofitable, worthless
oferbeth = worthless or pointless thing, trifle, bauble
oferdod = vanity, dissipation, frivolousness
oferedd = vanity, unsubstantiality, emptiness, vainglory
ofergoel = superstition, vain belief, false religion
oferwr = good-for-nothing, waster, idler
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) evereth, ufereth = vanity, idleness, frivolity
Cornish (Kernewek) euver = valueless, worthless
euvergryjyk = superstitious
Middle Breton (Brezonec) euver = bland, insipid, flavourless
Breton (Brezhoneg) euver = bland, spineless(ness), damage

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *aw- and *ber-o- (to carry), from Proto-Indo-European *bʰéreti (to carry, bear, flow), *bʰer- (to bear, carry) [source].

Words from the same PIE roots include beir (to bear, give birth to, lay, bring, take) in Irish, beir (to bear, give birth to) in Scottish Gaelic, behr (to bear, give birth to) in Manx, bairn (child) in Scots, and bear (to carry), bier, birth, burden, ferret, and fortune in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *balkos = strong
Gaulish balco- = strong (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) balc = robust, strong, sturdy
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) balc, bailc = stout, strength, sturdy, firm, vigorous, powerful, strength, firmness, vigour
Irish (Gaeilge) bailc = strong, stout
bailcbhéim = strong, heavy, blow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bailc [balçgʲ] = strong, bold, daring
bailc uisge = sudden, heavy shower
bailceach [balçgʲəx] = stout/strong person
bailceata [balçgʲən̪ˠdə] = stout, strong, boastful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) balch, bỽlch, beilch = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave
balchav = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
bylchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
strong>ualchder, balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
ualchdet, balchet = pride, arrogance
Welsh (Cymraeg) balch [balχ] = proud, glad, pleased, dignified, splendid, imposing, fine, strong, brave, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain, pompous
balchâf, balcháu = to grow proud or arrogant, pride oneself
balchdaidd = proud, conceited, arrogant, haughty, vain
balchder = pride, pleasure, fineness, glory, dignity
balchded = pride, arrogance
balchus = proud, vain
balchwedd = pride, conceit, lofty
belchyn = proud, pompous or self-important person, prig
Cornish (Kernewek) balgh = arrogant
Middle Breton (Brezonec) balc’h = haughty, proud, arrogant
Breton (Brezhoneg) balc’h [ˈbalx] = haughty, proud, arrogant
ambalc’h = reserved, timid
balc’haat = to make or become haughty
balc’hded = superb, arrogance
balc’hder = = pride, arrogance, audacity

Etymology: possibly from Proto-Indo-European *bʰel- (to blow, swell, inflate). A word from the same Proto-Celtic root is balca (bulrush, cattail) in Catalan and Occitan [source].

Words from the same PIE root include bold in English, boud (bold, brave) in Dutch, and bald (soon, almost) in German [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrth [ɡʊrθχ] = opposition, objection, resistance, contast, opposite
gwrthâd = taunt, light censure, upbraiding, remorse, conviction
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) goth = pride
gothus, gothys = proud
Cornish (Kernewek) gooth = pride
gothus = proud, arrogant
gorth = obstinate, perverse, stubborn, uppity
gorthus = proud

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) blad = fame, renown
bladach = famous, renowned, splendid
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blad, bladh, blath = fame, renown, glories, triumphs
bladach, bladaig = famous, renowned, splendid
bladaigid = praises, extols
Irish (Gaeilge) bláth = pride
Manx (Gaelg) blaa = heyday, pride

Etymology: unknown

Old Irish (Goídelc) borr = huge, large, proud, swollen, thick, vast
borrfadach = bold, high-spirited, proud
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) borr, bórr = big, large, great, vast, mighty, strong, puffed-up, proud
borrach = a proud, pretentious person
borra(i)d = swelling, maturing, blooming, springing, swells, becomes swollen, bloated
Irish (Gaeilge) borr = puffed (up with), proud, luxuriant; to swell, grow
borrach = proud, arrogant person; swollen, proud, arrogant
borrachas = pride, arrogance
borradh = swelling, growth, surge, expansion
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bòrr [bɔːr̪ˠ] = puffed up, swollen, grand, splendid, haughty
borrail = swaggering, boastful
borranachadh = swelling up, puffing up, frothing at the mouth
borraganta = swelling, fierce

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) sturd = pride, haughtiness; angry look, menacing look
styrdalys = stateliness
styrdalaght = pride, stateliness

Etymology: unknown

Manx (Gaelg) moyrn = pomp, pride, self-conceit
moyrnagh = haughty, proud, vain, pompous
moyrnee = proud

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Lexicon Cornu-britannicum: A Dictionary of the Ancient Celtic Language of Cornwall, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

Down Under

Words for down, below, under and related things in Celtic languages.

Spiral staircase in Conwy / Grisiau troellog yng Nghonwy

Proto-Celtic *ɸīssu = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) ís = below
sís = down, downwards, northwards
anís = below, from below
tís = below
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ís = below, under
sís, sis = down, downwards, northwards, below, onwards, throughout, onwards
sísana, siosina, sisana = here below, below
anís, = (from) below, beneath
tís = below, in the north
Irish (Gaeilge) síos [ʃiːsˠ] = down (away from the speaker), to lower place or station, hanging down, drooping, trailing, to the north, to a lesser centre or remote district, following
síos suas = upside down, topsyturvy
aníos = up (from below), from the north
thíos = down, in a lower place, in the north, below, farther on in a book, written down, entered (in a ledger, etc), on the fire
thíosluaite = undermentioned
thíos-sínithe = undersigned
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) sìos [ʃiəs] = down (away from the speaker), downwards, below
shìos [hiəs] = down, below
a-nìos [əˈn̪ʲiəs] = up, upwards (towards from the speaker)
a-sìos [əˈʃiəs] = down, downwards
sìos ‘nad inntinn = depressed
a’ dol sìos = going down, experiencing a downturn, charging (in battle)
cuir sìos = to put/lay/set down
is mar sin sìos = and so on
Manx (Gaelg) sheese = below, down, downward(s)
brishey sheese = to analyse, analysis, break down, rend
sheese lesh = down the hatch, down with
soie sheese = to settle, sit down
heese = beneath, down, downhill, hereafter, lower end, under, knock-down (prices)
neese = from below up, upwards
Old Welsh is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) is, iss = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than
iss-hau, isheir = to sink, sink down or lower
issot, isod = under, underneath, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) is = under, underneath, beneath, below, lower than; before; lower, inferior, poorer
isâf, isáu = to come/go lower, to reduce in rank, lower the pride of, debase, degrade, humble, humiliate
isafaf, isafu = to minimize, reduce, lower
isafiad = (one’s) inferior
isod = under, underneath, below, beneath, on earth, lower down, later, further
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) isa = lowest
isot = downwards
Cornish (Kernewek) a-is = below, lower
Old Breton isel = low
Middle Breton (Brezonec) is = lower, below
Breton (Brezhoneg) is = lower, below
isdouarel = underground

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European pedsú, from *pṓds (foot), from *ped- (to walk, step) [source]. Words from the same roots include íseal (low) in Irish, ìosal (low, humble) in Scottish Gaelic, isel (low) in Welsh and related words for low in other Celtic languages, Fuß (foot) in German and pie (foot) in Spanish [more details].

Proto-Celtic *uɸo/*ufo- = under
Old Irish (Goídelc) fo = beneath, through, throughout, towards, under
fo bésad = after the manner of, like
fo bíthin = because (of)
fo chétóir = at once, immediately
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fo, fa, fá = under, underneath, into, through, about, around
Irish (Gaeilge) faoi [fˠiː] = beneath, below, bearing, supporting, about, round, against
faoi cheann = by, at, the end of
faoi adhall = in heat
faoi bhaile = at home, around
faoi bhun = beneath
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fo [fɔ] = under, underneath, below, beneath, subordinate
fo-dhearg = infrared
fo-inntinn = subconscious
fo-ros = undergrowth
fo chleòca = under cover, in secret
Manx (Gaelg) fo = below, beneath, under, sunken, dependent, underlaying, subsidiary, junior, assistant
fo aggle = aghast, alarmed, awestricken
fo arrey = under surveillance
fo chiuney = beclamed
fo druaight = charmed
fo-heer-vooar = subcontinent
Old Welsh guo, gu =under, rather, somewhat
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwo, gwa, go = under, rather, somewhat
goaruoel = rather bald, baldish
Welsh (Cymraeg) go = under, rather, somewhat, slightly, partly, small, exceeding
go agos = near, almost
go dde = right, dexterous
go lew = pretty fair, middling
go is = beneath
goarfoel = rather bald, baldish
Middle Cornish (CerneweC) go = rather
Middle Breton (Brezonec) gou, gu, go, fo, uo = under
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwa-, gou- = under, sub-

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *upo (under, below). Words for high in Celtic languages come from the same root, as does sub(marine) in English, sumo (highest, greatest) in Spanish and summo (hightest, greatest, great) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tanā = (point in) time
Old Irish (Goídelc) tan = when, time
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tan, tain = time, while, point of time, when, whenever, until, before
Irish (Gaeilge) tan [tan] = time, occasion, once upon a time, once
(an) tan = at the time that, when, whenever, since
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tàn [taːn] =time, season
an tàn = when, at the time
Proto-Brythonic *tan =under
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dan, tan = under, below, beneath
Welsh (Cymraeg) tan [tan] = until, under, while
dan = under, below, beneath, underneath, on the inside, less than, until, while, because, since
o dan = under
tan lw = under oath
dan yr awyr, tan awyr = under the sky, in the open air
dan ddaear = underground
dan din = sneaky, deceitful, stealthy, secret, illicit
dan y don = under water
dan draed = underfoot, in the way
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tan = under, beneath, below
(yn) dan = under, beneath
danva = a hiding place, concealment
Cornish (Kernewek) yn-dann = below, beneath, under, underneath
yn-dann alhwedh = under lockdown
yn-dann dava = in touch
yn-dann dhor = underground
yn-dann dhowr = underwater
yn-dann gel = in secret, secretly
yn-dann hatt = confidential
yn-dann with = care of (c/o)
Old Breton tan, dan = under
Middle Breton (Brezonec) dan = bottom, back, under, underneath
Breton (Brezhoneg) dan = basement, subsoil
dindan = under, on, sub-
dindan-douar = underground, secret
dindan-vor = underwater

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *tn̥néh₂ (a stretch), from *ten- (to stretch). Words from the same root include contain, tenant, tone and tune in English [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Take Note!

Words for note, mark and related things in Celtic languages.

note, mark, sign

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) not = contraction, mark, sign
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) not, nod = mark, sign, sign of contraction in writing, note, bear in mind
nodmar = significant
Irish (Gaeilge) nod [n̪ˠɔd̪ˠ/n̪ˠʌd̪ˠ] = scribal contraction, abbreviation, hint
nodaire = professional scribe
nodaireacht = notation, profession of scribe
nóta = (musical) note, brief record, annotation, short letter
nótáil = to note (down)
nótáilte = notable
nótaire = notary
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nòd(h) = note
nòta = (written) note
nòtachadh = annotation
nòtaire = notary
dubh-not = crotchet, quarter note
geal-not = minim, half note
cruinn-not = semibreve, whole note
bun-nòta = footnote
nòta-deiridh = endnote
Manx (Gaelg) notey = note
noatey = banknote
Proto-Brythonic *nod = mark, brand
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) nod, not, nôd = target, goal, aim, etc
nottwy, nodi, notto = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
Welsh (Cymraeg) nod [noːd] = target, goal, aim, fame, renown, notoriety, mark sign, symbol, note, banknote, verse (in Bible)
nodach = short notes, jottings, odds and ends, trifles
nodadwy = noteworthy, notable, remarkable
nod(i)af, nodi(o) = to mark, brand, seal, note, record
nod(i)edig = noted, marked, appointed, set, specified
nodidog = excellent, splendid, notable
nodyn [ˈnɔdɨ̞n/ˈnoːdɪn] = target, aim, mark, token, note
atalnod = punctuation mark, comma
collnod = apostrophe ’
cysylltnod = hyphen –
dyfynnod = ‘quotation mark’
ebychnod = exclamation mark!, sign of aspiration (h)
hirnod = cîrcûmflêx
hynod = remarkable, notable
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) nôd, nos = mark, token
notye = to note, observe, denote
Cornish (Kernewek) nos = mark, token
nos devyn = quotation mark
nos -junya = hyphen
nosedhek = notable
nosya = to notate
nosyans = notation
noten = note
notenna = to notate (music)
notennans = notation
notennyans = annotation
noter, notores = notary, solicitor
notya = to note
notyans = memo
notyes, notys = notable
Old Breton not = note
Middle Breton (Brezonec) not = note, mention
notabl, notapl = notable
notadur = notation, (religious) censure
Breton (Brezhoneg) notenn = note
not = note
notañ, notiñ = to note
notapl = notable
notadur = notation

Etymology: from Latin nota (mark, sign, note), which is of unknown origin. Words from the same Latin root include note in English, note (note, mark, grade, bill) in French, Note (note, grade, mark) in German, and nota (note, memo, mark) in Spanish [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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