Gloves and Sleeves

Words for gloves, sleeves and related things in Celtic languages:

Gloves

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinchille = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) muinchille = sleeve, sleeving
muinchilleach = sleeved
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) manag = glove, mitten
muinchill [munuçɪl̪ʲ] = sleeve
muinchill-gaoithe = windsock
muinchil léine = shirt sleeve
ceann-muinchill = cuff
Manx (Gaelg) muinneel = sleeve, sleeving
fent mhuinneel = cuff, shirt cuff, wristband
doarn-mhuinneel = cuff
Proto-Brythonic *maneg = glove, gauntlet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) manec, maneg = glove, gauntlet
Welsh (Cymraeg) maneg [kruːθ] = glove, gauntlet
manegog = gloved
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) maneg = glove
Cornish (Kernewek) manek = glove
manegen = mitten
manek blag = gauntlet
manek lowarn = foxglove
Breton (Brezhoneg) maneg = glove, bribe
manegoù = gloves, handcuffs
maneg-emwalc’hiñ = washcloth
maneg-veudek = mitten
maneg-houarn = gauntlet
maneg-kegin = potholder

Etymology: from the Latin manica (long sleeve of a tunic, manacles, handcuffs), from manus (hand) [source].

Words from the same Latin root include manche (sleeve) in French, manica (sleeve) in Italian, manga (sleeve) in Spanish and Portuguese, and mëngë (sleeve) in Albanian [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) lámann = sleeve
Irish (Gaeilge) lámhainn = glove
lámhainneoir = glove-maker
lámhainneoireacht = glove-making
lámhainn iarainn = gauntlet
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) làmhainn [l̪ˠãːvɪn̪ʲ] = glove, mitten, gauntlet
làmhainneach = pertaining to or abounding in gloves, gloved
làmhainnear = glove-maker
làmhainnearachd = art or trade of glove-making
làmhainnich = to provide with gloves, put gloves on the hands
Manx (Gaelg) lauean = glove
lauean liauyr/yiarn = gauntlet

Etymology: from the Old Irish lám (hand, arm), from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (palm, hand), the the Proto-Indo-European *pl̥h₂meh₂ (palm, hand) [source].

The word lámur (flipper, paw, left hand) In Icelandic and Faroese comes from the same Old Irish root, via Old Norse [source], and words for hand in Celtic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root [more details].

Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lámos = sleeve
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lleuys, llawes = sleeve
Welsh (Cymraeg) llawes = sleeve, edge, strip (of land)

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ɸlāmā (see above).

Irish (Gaeilge) miotóg = mitten, glove
mitín = mitten
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotag [mihdag], meatag [mɛhdag], mògag [mɔːgag], miteag [mihdʲag] = glove, mitten
miotagach [mihdagəx] = wearing mittens, having mittens, full of gloves or mittens
Welsh (Cymraeg) miten, mitin = mitten
Breton (Brezhoneg) miton = mitten

Etymology: from the English mitten, from the Middle English myteyne (glove, mitten), from the Old French mitaine (fingerless glove, mitten) [source]. The Breton word miton probably comes from the French miton (gauntlet).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Servants

Words for servants, ploughmen and related people in Celtic languages.

Tour Scotland March Horse Ploughing

Proto-Celtic *ambaxtos = servant
Gaulish *ambaxtos = vassal, high-ranking servant
Old Irish (Goídelc) amus = servant
amsach = mercenary
Irish (Gaeilge) amhas = hireling, servant, mercenary, hooligan
amhsach = wild, unruly
amhasóireacht = hooliganism
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) amhas [au.əs] = savage, wild person, madman
amhsach = wild, uncontrollable, stupid, dull
Proto-Brythonic *ammaɨθ [amˈmaɨ̯θ] = servant, worker, labourer
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) amaeth = ploughman, husbandman, farmer, agriculture
Welsh (Cymraeg) amaeth [ˈameɨ̯θ / ˈamei̯θ] = ploughman, husbandman, farmer, agriculture, ploughmanship, tillage
amaethadwy = farmable, cultivable
amaetha(f), amaethu = to farm, husband, plough, cultivate
amaethdir = arable land, land suitable for cultivation, farm land
amaethdy = farmhouse
amaethddyn = agriculturalist, farmer
amaethedig = farmed, cultivated, cultured
amaethyddiaeth = agriculture, farming
Cornish (Kernewek) ammeth = agriculture, farming
Old Breton ambaith = agriculture, farming

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *ambi- (around),‎ *ageti (to drive) and‎ *-os, from the Proto-Indo-European word *h₂m̥bʰi-h₂eǵ- (drive around) [source].

The English word amassador comes from the same root, via the Middle English ambassadore from the Anglo-Norman ambassadeur (ambassador), from the Old Italian ambassadore, from the Old Occitan ambaisador (ambassador), from ambaissa (service, mission, errand), from the Medieval Latin ambasiator (ambassador), from the Gothic 𐌰𐌽𐌳𐌱𐌰𐌷𐍄𐌹 (andbahti – service, function), from the Proto-Germanic *ambahtaz (servant), from the Gaulish *ambaxtos [source]. The word embassy comes from the same Gaulish word [source].

Proto-Celtic *wastos = servant
Gaulish *wassos = young man, squire
Old Irish (Goídelc) foss = attendant, man-servant, servant
Proto-Brythonic *gwass = boy, servant
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) guas, gwas = boy, lad, servant
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwas [ɡwaːs] = boy, lad, stripling, youngster, young man; servant, attendant, employee, officer, vassal, slave
gwasanaeth = service, attendance, a ministering, office, duty, employment
gwasanaethu = to serve, be a servant, attend, wait upon, minister
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guas = servant
gwas = a youth, servant, one of the common people, a mean person, a fellow, rogue, rascal
gwasanaeth = attendance, service, bondage, slavery
Cornish (Kernewek) gwas = chap, fellow, guy, servant
gwas hwel = workman
gwas ti = housemaker
Old Breton guos = vassal, man, husband, farmer
Middle Breton goas = vassal, man, husband, farmer (who rents a farm)
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwaz [ˈɡwaːs] = (young) man, vassal, valet, servant, husband, mermaid

Etymology: possibly comes from the Proto-Indo-European word *upo-sth₂-o-s (standing beneath) [source].

The English word vassal comes from the same Celtic roots, via the Old French vassal, the Medieval Latin vassallus (manservant, domestic, retainer), from the Latin vassus (servant) from the Gaulish *wassos [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) seirbísech = auxiliary, ancillary, servant, agent
Irish (Gaeilge) seirbhíseach = servant
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) seirbheiseach [ʃerʲevɪʃəx] = servant, servitor
seirbheisiche = servant
Manx (Gaelg) shirveishagh = attendant, clergyman, minister, servant, server, vassal

Etymology: from the Old French servise (service, servitude, vasselage), from the Latin servitium (slavery, servitude, service), from servus (servant, serf, slave) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lamentation

Words for lamentation and related things in Celtic languages:

Lament

Proto-Celtic *kiyeti = to fall, cry
Old Irish (Goídelc) caí = weeping, lamentation
ciïd [ˈkʲi.ɨðʲ] = to lament, weep
caínid [ˈkoːi̯nʲiðʲ] = to lament, mourn, keen, regret, deplore
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) caí = weeping, wailing, lamentation
ciïd = to cry, weep, lament, mourn
caínid = lament
Irish (Gaeilge) caí = lament, lamentation
caoin [kiːnʲ] = to keen, lament, cry, weep
caoineadh = to keen, lament, crying weeping, elegy
caoineachán = crying, mewling, lamentation
caointeach = plaintive, mournful
caointeachán = whimperer, crier
caointeoir = mourner, crier
caointeoireacht = lamenting, crying, lamentation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) caoidh [kɤj] = lamenting, bewailing, lamentation, mourning, grieving
caoin [kɯːn̪ʲ] = to weep, wail, deplore, howl, regret
caoineach = mournful, mourning
caoineadh = weeping for, mourning, crying, lamenting, wailing
caoineag, caointeach = wailing women (foretells death)
caoineadh cù Chaluim = crocodile tears
Manx (Gaelg) coe = weep, mourn, weeping, woe
keayney = weep. weeping, cry, crying, greet, keening, lament, lamentation, mourn, mourning, wail, wailing, deplore
keaynoil = lamentable, mournful
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kwyn, cwyn, cŵyn = complaint, greivance, lament
Welsh (Cymraeg) cwyn [kuːɨ̯n/kʊi̯n] = complaint, greivance, lament, grief; sympathy, commiseration
cwyno [ˈkʊɨ̯nɔ / ˈkʊi̯nɔ] = to complain, lament, bemoan, mourn, condole with, pity, take legal action
cwynfannu = to complain, lament, moan, groan, mourn for; lamentation, groan, moan, mourning
cwynfanllyd = moanful, querulous, grumbling, peevish
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cyny, kyny = to mourn, lament, weep
Cornish (Kernewek) kyni = to lament, moan, mourn, wail
kynvan = lament, lamentation, moan, mourning
Middle Breton (Brezonec) keinal, keinat, keiniñ = to complain
Breton (Brezoneg) keuziañ = to deplore, bemoan
keuziadenn = lament

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷey- (to lament, complain) [source]. Words from the same root include ween (to weep, wail) in Scots, wenen (to cry, weep) in Dutch, weinen (to weep, cry) in German, and kveina (to wail, cry, lament) in Icelandic, via the Proto-Germanic *kwainōną (to lament) [source].

The English word keen (to mourn, utter with a loud wailing voice or wordless cry) was borrowed from the Irish caoin [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Lakes and Ponds

Words for lakes, ponds and related things in Celtic languages.

Llyn Idwal

Proto-Celtic *lindā = pool, lake
Gaulish lindon = pool, lake; sea, ocean
Old Irish (Goídelc) lind [l̠ʲiːn̠ʲ / l̠ʲɪn̠ʲ] = pool, pond, body of water, lake, sea
Irish (Gaeilge) linn = pool, pond, body of water, lake, sea
linn mhuilinn = mill-pond
linn lachan = duck pond
linneach = full of pools, watery
linneolaíocht = limnology (freshwater science)
linntreog = small pool, puddle, pot-hole
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) linne [l̪ʲin̪ʲə] deep pool; strait, sound, firth
linne-thuathal, faochag-linne = whirlpool
Linne Giùdain = Firth of Forth
Linne Shalmhaigh = Solway Firth
éisg-linn = fishpond
Manx (Gaelg) lhingey = pool, pond, backwater
lhingey chassee = small whirlpool
lhingey eeast = fishpond
Proto-Brythonic *llɨnn = lake, liquid
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llynn = lake, liquid
Welsh (Cymraeg) llyn [ɬɨ̞n/ɬɪn] = lake, pool, pond, puddle, moat
llyn anoddun = bottomless pit, the deep
llyn melin = mill pond
llyn tro = whirlpool
Old Cornish lin = lake
Cornish (Kernewek) lynn, lydn = lake
Old Breton lin = lake
Breton (Brezhoneg) lenn = lake, basin, washhouse, fishpond, body of water

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *liH-nd-o-/*liH-nd-u [source].

These words appear in places names such as Lincoln in England, Dublin in Ireland, Lintgen in Luxembourg, Limmat – a river in Switzerland (originally Lindimacus), and possibly strong>Lindern in Germany.

Proto-Celtic *loku = lake, pool
Old Irish (Goídelc) loch [l͈ox] = lake, inlet of the sea
Irish (Gaeilge) loch [l̪ˠɔx] = lake, pool, (body of) water, arm of the sea, lough, fiord
lochach = having (many) lakes
lochán = small lake, pond
lochánach = having (many) small lakes
loch-chuach = lake basin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) loch [l̪ˠɔx] = loch, lake
lochach = pertaining to or abounding in lochs/lakes
lochan = small lake, loch
loch-mara = sea loch
loch-tasgaidh = reservoir
loch-uisge = freshwater loch/lake
feur-lochan = small grassy loch (which tends to dry up)
Manx (Gaelg) logh [laːx] = lake, lough, loch, arm of the sea
loghan = small lake, pond, dam, tank, dock, pool
loghanagh = full of lakes
logh-hailjey = saltwater lake
logh-ushtey = freshwater lake
Old Welsh lichou = lake, pool
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) luch, lluch = lake, pool
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwch [ɬuːχ] = lake, pool, stagnant water, bog, swamp, marsh, mud, mire, grime, filth, dung
Cornish (Kernewek) logh = inlet
Middle Breton laguenn = flooded field
Breton (Brezhoneg) loc’h = pond, lagoon, flooded meadow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *lókus (pond, pool), which is also the root of the Icelandic lögur (liquid, fluid, lake, sea), and words for lake in Romance languages, including lac in French, Occitan and Romanian, and lago in Galician, Italian, Spanish and Portuguese [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Bread

Words for bread and related words in Celtic languages.

Soda Bread

Proto-Celtic *ar(-akno)- = bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread, loaf of bread
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) arán [ˈaraːn] = bread
Irish (Gaeilge) arán [əˈɾˠɑːn̪ˠ / ˈaɾˠanˠ] = bread
arán baile = home-baked bread
arán bán = white bread, baker’s bread
arán coirce = oatbread, oatcake
arán donn, arán rua = brown bread
arán prátaí = potato cake
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aran [aɾan] = bread, loaf; livelihood, sustenance
aran-coircearan-donn, aran ruadharan-eòrnaaran milisaran-seagail
Manx (Gaelg) arran = bread
arran Albinagh = shortbread
arran bainney = bread roll
arran bane = white bread
arran dhone, arran ruy = brown bread
arran greddan(it) = toast
arran shoggyl = rye bread

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *arankā- (grain) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bargo / *baragenā / *barginā = cake, bread
Old Irish (Goídelc) barigen [ˈˈbarʲ.ɣʲən] = bread, loaf of bread
Irish (Gaeilge) bairín = loaf
bairín breac = barmbreac
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bairghin = bread, cake
Manx (Gaelg) berreen = cake
Welsh (Cymraeg) bara [ˈbara / ˈbaːra] = bread, loaf, slice; food, meal, sustenance, livelihood
bara barlys = barley bread
bara beunyddiol = daily bread
bara brith = currant bread
bara byr = buscuit
bara ceirch = oat bread, oatcake
bara coch = brown bread, barley bread
bara drwg = bad bread, bad state, difficulties
bara gwyn = white bread
bara lawr = laverbread (made with edible seaweed)
bara poeth = gingerbread, hot bread
Old Cornish bara = bread
Cornish (Kernewek) bara = bread
bara byghan/bian = roll
bara gwaneth = wheaten bread
bara leun = wholemeal bread
bara sugal = rye bread
Breton (Brezhoneg) bara [ˈbɑː.ra] = bread
bara bis = brown bread
bara brazed = wholemeal bread
bara brizh = currant bread
bara gwenn = white bread
bara kras = toast

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰars- (spike, prickle). Words from the same root include the English barley, the Scots bere/beir (barley), the Swedish barr (pine/fir needle), the Icelandic barr (pine needle), the Old Norse barr (corn, grain, barley), and the Latin far (spelt, coarse meal, grits), and words for flour in Romance languages, such as farine in French [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

You can find the origins of the English words bread and loaf on Radio Omniglot.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Dwellings

Words for dwelling / settlement / town in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *trebā = dwelling
Gaulish Atrebates = name of a tribe
Old Irish (Goídelc) treb = house, farm; household; tribe
Irish (Gaeilge) treibh [ˈtʲɾʲɛv] = house, homestead, farmstead; household, family; tribe, race
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = farming village
treubh [treːv] = tribe
Proto-Brythonic *treβ [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tref [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Welsh (Cymraeg) tre(f) [treːv] = town; town centre; dwelling(-place), habitation, residence, home; house (and surrounding land), homestead, farm, estate, cluster of houses; township; tribe
Cornish (Kernewek) trev [trɛ:v /tre:v] = farmsteads (singular: treven)
Old Breton treff = town, settlement
Breton (Brezhoneg) trev = town

Meni Bridge / Porthaethwy

Etymology
From the Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source].

This is also the root of the archaic English word thorp(e) (a group of houses standing together in the country; a hamlet; a village), which appears in place names such as Milnthorpe and Scunthorpe.

Related words in other languages include German Dorf (hamlet, village, town), Danish torp (village), Swedish torp (farm, cottage, croft), Icelandic þorp (village, farm), and Albanian trevë (country, region, village) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau