Swans

Words for swan (cygnus) in Celtic languages.

Swans, etc

Proto-Celtic *eli- = swan
Gaulish ala = swan
alauda = skylark
Old Irish (Goídelc) elu = swan
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ela(e) = swan
Irish (Gaeilge) eala [ˈalˠə] = swan
ealach = frequented by swans
eala bhalbh = mute swan (Cygnus olor)
eala ghlorach = whooper swan (Cygnus cygnus)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eala [jal̪ˠə] = swan
eala bhàn = mute swan
eala fhiadhaich = whooper swan
ealag, eala-ghlas = cygnet, young swan
eala-bheag = Bewick’s (tundra) swan (Cygnus columbianus bewickii)
Manx (Gaelg) olla, ollay = (mute) swan
ollay chiaulee = whooper swan
eean olla = cygnet
Proto-Brythonic alarkos = swan
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) alarch = swan
Welsh (Cymraeg) alarch [ˈalarχ/ˈaːlarχ] = swan, the constellation Cygnus
alarchaidd = pertaining to a swan, swanlike
alarchen = cygnet
alarches = female swan
alarchwedd = swanlike
alarch dôf, alarch mud = mute swan
alarch y gogledd, alarch chwibanol, alarch gwyllt = whooper swan
Old Cornish elerch = swan
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) elerch = swan
Cornish (Kernewek) alargh = (mute) swan
Middle Breton (Brezonec) alarc’h = swan
alarc’hez = female cygnet
Breton (Brezhoneg) alarc’h = swan
alarc’h roueel = mute swan
alarc’h-kristilh = whooper swan

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁el- (swan, bird, waterfowl) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root include alondra (lark) in Spanish, alouette (lark) in French, and allodola (skylark) in Italian. They were probably borrowed from the Gaulish alauda (skylark), from ala (swan) [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include auk (swan) in English, alke (auk) in Danish and Norwegian, and álka (razorbill) in Faroese and Icelandic [Source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Cattle

Words for cattle, cow, bull and calf in Celtic languages.

Highland cows

Proto-Celtic *bāus = cow
*bow = cow
Celtiberian boustom = stable (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) [boː] = ox, cow
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) = ox, cow
bóaire = stock-master, stock-owner (“cow-noble”)
bólacht = stock of cattle
bómlacht = cow’s milk
búarach = owner of cows
Irish (Gaeilge) [bˠoː] = cow
bó mhara = sea-cow, manatee
bó shamhraidh = ladybird
bó-aire = cattle lord, cattle owner
bódóir = cow-doctor
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [boː] = cow
bò b(h)ainne = dair/milk cow
boineag = small cow
bòthach = pertaining to or abounding in cows
Manx (Gaelg) booa = cow
booa vluight = dairy cow
boin = very little cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉ = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buv, bu, buw = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) bu = cow, ox, head of cattle (as a standard of value in the Welsh laws)
buach = cowherd, rustic, wretched creature
biw = cow, cattle, horned cattle
Middle Cornish biuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bu = cow
Breton (Brezhoneg) bu = cow

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle). The old Galician word busto (enclosed pasture, a herd of cattle) comes from the same Proto-Celtic roots, via Celtiberian [source].

Proto-Celtic *boukkā = cow
Proto-Brythonic *bʉx = cow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) buvch, buwch = cow
Welsh (Cymraeg) buwch [bɨu̯χ / bɪu̯χ] = cow
buwch y dwfr = hippopotamus
buwch goch Duw = ladybird
buwchaidd = cow-like, pertaining to cattle, bovine, uncivilized, stolid
buwchan = small cow, young cow, heffer
buwchfrechu = to vaccinate (with cowpox)
buwchfrechiad = (cowpox) vaccination
buwchol = bovine
Old Cornish buch = cow
Middle Cornish beuch, buch, beuh = cow
Cornish (Kernewek) bugh [biʊx / bɪwh] = cow
bugh godra = dairy cow
bughik = little cow
bughik Dhuw = ladybird
bughvowes = cowgirl
bughwas = cowboy
Breton (Brezhoneg) buoc’h [ˈbɥoːχ / ˈbyːɔχ] = cow
buoc’han = ladybird
buoc’hken = cowhide

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *bāus (cow), the Proto-Indo-European *gʷṓws (cattle) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tarwos = bull
Gaulish taruos = bull
Old Irish (Goídelc) tarb [tarv] = bull
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tarb = bull
Irish (Gaeilge) tarbh [ˈt̪ˠaɾˠuː / ˈt̪ˠaɾˠu] = bull
tarbhadóir = toreador
tarbhán = bull-calf, young bull
tarbhánta = bull-like, massive, powerful
tarbhántacht = bullishness
tarbhghadhar = bulldog
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tarbh [tarav] = bull, Taurus
tarbh-chù = bulldog
tarbh-nathrach (neimhe) = dragonfly
tarbh-thonn = mighty wave
tarbhach = like a bull, hefty, chunky
tarbhan = small bull
tarbhan-dè = butterfly
Manx (Gaelg) tarroo = bull, Taurus
taarroo oaldey = bison, buffalo
tarroo-choo = bulldog
tarroo-feeaih = stag
Proto-Brythonic *tarw = bull
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tarỼ, tarv = bull
Welsh (Cymraeg) tarw [ˈtaru / ˈtaːru] = bull, uncastrated male ox, papal bull, Taurus (sign of the zodiac); valiant leader, fierce hero
tarw dur = bulldozer
tarwgi = bulldog
Old Cornish tarow = bull
Cornish (Kernewek) tarow = bull
Old Breton taruu = bull
Middle Breton taru = bull
Breton (Brezhoneg) tarv = bull

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *táwros (wild bull, aurochs), which possibly comes from or was borrowed into Proto-Semtic as *ṯawr- (bull, ox), from which we get ثَوْر (ṯawr – bull, steer, ox, Taurus) in Arabic [Source].

The Old Irish Irish word for bull was borrowed into Old Norse as tarfr, which became tarvur (bull, Taurus, womanizer) in Faroese, and tarfur (bull) in Icelandic [Source].

Words from the same PIE root include Taurus and steer in English, taureau (bull, Taurus) in French, toro (bull) in Spanish, and touro (bull) in Portuguese [Source].

Proto-Celtic *laygos / *lāɸigos = calf
Old Irish (Goídelc) lóeg [l͈oːi̯ɣ] = calf, favourite, darling
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lóeg = calf, favourite, darling, young deer
Irish (Gaeilge) lao [l̪ˠeː / l̪ˠiː] = (young) calf
laoidín = tiny calf
laofheoil = veal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) laogh [l̪ˠɯːɣ] = calf, kid (of deer), fawn, term of endearment for a child
laoghach = pertaining to or abounding in calves
laoghan = little calf
Manx (Gaelg) lheiy [ax] = calf
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) lo, lloe, llo = calf
Welsh (Cymraeg) llo [ɬoː] = calf, bullock, simpleton, dolt
llo(e)aidd = calf-like
lloeaf, lloeo, lloea = to calve
Old Cornish loch = calf
Middle Cornish) leauh, loch = calf
Cornish (Kernewek) leugh [løːx / leːx / lɛwh] = calf
Breton (Brezhoneg) leue [ˈlø.e] = calf

Etymology: a diminutuve of the Proto-Indo-European *leh₂p- (cattle) [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) bearach = heifer, young cow
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) biorach [birəx] = a weaned but not fully mature calf or foal (up to 2 years); anti-suckling device, sucking preventer, weaner
Welsh (Cymraeg) bustach / bustych = bullock, ox, steer (possibly related to the above words)

Etymology: from the Old Irish berach [ˈbʲerax] (pointed, sharp; having pointed ears, horned), from bir (stake, spit, point; spear, spike) & -ach (related to, having, characterised by, prone to) [source].

Proto-Brythonic *oti̯on- = bullock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eydyon, eidon = ox, steer, bullock
Welsh (Cymraeg) eidion = domestic male of the bovine family, ox, steer, bullock, neat
Old Cornish odion = bullock
Middle Cornish udzheon, odgan = bullock
Cornish (Kernewek) ojyon = ox
Middle Breton eugenn = bullock. ox
Breton (Brezhoneg) ejon = bullock. ox
Proto-Celtic *anderā = young woman
Gaulish anderon = heifer
Old Irish (Goídelc) ainder [ˈan͈ʲdʲər] = married woman; virgin, maiden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ander [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman
Irish (Gaeilge) ainnir [ˈæn̠ʲəɾˠ] = girl, maiden, lass; young woman (poetic); attractive woman
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ainnir [an̠ʲɪrʲ] = maiden, virgin; nymph; marriageable woman; young woman
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) anneir = heifer
Welsh (CymraeG) anner [ˈanɛr] = heifer
Old Cornish annoer = heifer
Cornish (Kernewek) annor = heifer
Middle Breton annoer = heifer
Breton (Brezhoneg) annoar = heifer

Etymology: possibly related to Basque andere (lady, woman) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Wagons & Carts

Words for wagons, carts, cars and related things in Celtic languages:

Traffic Congestion Lostwithiel Style. Panasonic Lumix DMC TZ70. P1040866.

Proto-Celtic *karros = wagon
Gaulish *karros = wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) carr = cart, wagon
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carr = cart, waggon
Irish (Gaeilge) carr [kɑːɾˠ / kæːɾˠ] = car
carraeireacht = carting, carriage, haulage
carrán = small cart
carrbhealach = carriageway
carrchlós = car park
otharcharr = ambulance
carr sleamhnáin = sledge
carr róchain = swing
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) càr [kar] = car, cart, raft
Manx (Gaelg) carr = car, cab, van
carr laadee = lorry, wagon
carr oanluchkee = = hearse
carr surranse = ambulance
Proto-Brythonic *karr [ˈkar͈] = wagon, cart, load
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) car, kar, karr = wagon, cart
Welsh (Cymraeg) car [kar] = vehicle, car, sled, dray; rack, stand
car a cheffyl = horse-drawn carriage
car caws = cheese rack
car cerdded = go-cart, child’s cart
car trol = cart, wagon
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) carios = cart, carriage
Cornish (Kernewek) karr [karː / kær] = car
karr bonk = dodgem
karr ergh = snowmobile
karr klavji = ambulance
karr kreslu = police car
karr slynk = sleigh
karr stret = tram
karr tan = motor-car
kerrik = cart, carriage, buggy
kerrik flogh = baby carriage
Old Breton carr = cart
Middle Breton karr = cart, car, coach, carriage
Breton (Brezhoneg) karr = car, coach, carriage, trailer, vehicle
karr-ar-argad = tank
karr-a-dan = automobile, locomotive
karr-ar-marv = hearse
karr-chalbotat = lorry, truck

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *ḱr̥sós (vehicle), from *ḱers- (to run) [source].

The Gaulish word *karros was borrowed into Latin as carrus (wagon, cart, cartload), which became carro (wagon, cart, van, lorry, truck) in Italian; carro (cart, car, bus) in Spanish; car (bus, coach) in French; car, carriage and chariot in English; and similar words in other languages [source].

Words from the same PIE root include horse in English, hors (mare, female foal, frivolous woman) in Norwegian (Nynorsk), hross (horse) in Icelandic, and currus (chariot, car, wagon) in Latin [source].

Proto-Celtic *karbantos = (war) chariot, wagon
Gaulish *karbanton, carbantos = chariot, wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) carpat [ˈkarbad] = chariot
cairptech = chariot owner, chariot-fighter
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) carpat = war-chariot, car, waggon
carpaitniadh = chariot-fighter
carpat saer/ailtire = chariot-builder
Irish (Gaeilge) carbad [ˈkaɾˠəbˠəd̪ˠ] = chariot
carbadóir = charioteer
fo-charbad = undercarriage
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) carbad [karabad] = chariot, coach, carriage, wagon, vehicle, bier, jaw(bone)
carbadach = abounding in chariots, coaches, etc
carbadachd = (act of) driving a chariot
carbadair = charioteer, cab driver, coachman, teamster
carbad-eich = horse carriage
carbad-eiridinn = ambulance
carbad-fànais = spacecraft
carbad-mharbh = hearse
carbad-smàlaidh = fire engine
carbad-smùide = steam locomotive
carbad-suain = sleeping coach
Manx (Gaelg) carbyd = bus, coach, vehicle, bier, hearse
carbyd bee = dining car, restaurant car
carbyd clienney = pram, baby carriage
carbyd-lheeys = ambulance
carbyd-mooghee = fire engine
Proto-Brythonic *karr [ˈkar͈] = wagon, cart, load
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kerbyt = wagon, cart
Welsh (Cymraeg) cerbyd [ˈkɛrbɨ̞d / ˈkɛrbɪd] = car, carriage, chariot, wagon, coach; clumsy fellow, bungler
cerbyd agored = open carriage, landau
cerbyd cyflog = hackney-carriage, stage-coach
cerbyd rhyfel = war chariot
cerbydan = small carriage, chaise, gig, cab
cerbydol = vehicular
cerbydwr = wagoner, coachman, charioteer
Old Cornish (Cernewec) cerpit = chariot, wagon
Old Breton cerpit = chariot, wagon
Breton (Brezhoneg) karbed = vehicle
karbed-tan = motor vehicle
karr tredan = electric vehicle

Etymology: possibly related to the Proto-Celtic word *korbos (wagon, basket) [source]. The Brytonic words were borrowed from Old Irish [source].

The Gaulish word carbantos was borrowed into Latin as carpentum (carriage, chariot, wagon, cart), which became charpente (framework, structure) in French [source].

Proto-Celtic *wegnos = wagon, cart
*wegnyā = wagon
Old Irish (Goídelc) fén [fʲeːn] = wagon, cart
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fén = waggon, cart, conveyance of some kind
Irish (Gaeilge) féan [fʲeːnˠ] = wagon, wain, cart
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) feun [fian] = cart, wain, chariot
feunair = waggoner
feun-cogaidh = war chariot
feun-mòine = peat cart
Manx (Gaelg) fainagh = carriage, chariot, coach
fainagh cabbil = horsedrawn coach
fainagh-bee = restaurant car
Proto-Brythonic *gweɨn = wagon, cart

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *weǵʰ- (to go, transport) [source]. English words from same PIE root include wagon, weigh, way wain (a four-wheeled cart for hauling loads, usually pulled by horses or oxen), vehicle and vector [source].

There appear to be no descendents of the Proto-Brytonic word *gweɨn in the Brythonic languages, but the Welsh word certwain (cart, wagon, wain) is indirectly related. It comes from the Old English crætwǽn (chariot, wain – lit.”cart-wain”) [source], from cræt / ceart (cart, wagon, chariot), from the PIE *krattijô (basket) [source], and wæġn (wagon, carriage) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bennā, *bondyo = bracelet
Gaulish *benna = carriage
Old Irish (Goídelc) buinne [ˈbun͈ʲe] = circlet, (arm-)ring, bracelet, wattle, wickerwork
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) buinne = circlet, (arm-)ring, bracelet, wattle, wickerwork
Irish (Gaeilge) buinne [ˈbˠɪn̠ʲə] = course of interwoven rods, wale; hoop; ridge; welt (of shoe); flange (of vessel); band, bracelet; shroud
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) benn, ben = cart, wagon, carriage, wain
benneit = cart-load, wain-load
Welsh (Cymraeg) ben = cart, wagon
bennaid = cart-load, wain-load

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰendʰ- (to bind, bond). Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Latin benna (a kind of carriage), include benne (bin, skip, dump truck, barrow, cable car) in French, bin in English, and benna (bucket, grab) in Italian [source].

English words from the same PIE root include band, bandage, bandana, bend, bind, bond, bonnet, bundle, funicular, tulip and turban [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Hills

Words for hill and related words in Celtic languages.

Cwm Idwal

Proto-Celtic *ardwos = high
Gaulish Arduenna = place name
Old Irish (Goídelc) ard [ar͈d] = high, height
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ard, árd = high above ground, elevated, lofty, tall, noble, great, proud, arduous, high place, height
ardach = hilly
ardae, airde = height, high place, nobility, loudness
ardaid = to rise
ardaigid = to raise, magnify, exalt
ardán = pride, arrogance
ardri = high king
Irish (Gaeilge) ard [ɑːɾˠd̪ˠ/æːɾˠd̪ˠ] = height, hillock, top, high part, elevation, head, rise, ascent
ardaigh = to raise, elevate, ascend, carry
ardaitheoir = lift, elevator
na farraigí arda = the high seas
sála arda = high heels
Ard-Aifreann = High Mass
Ard-Aighne = Attorney-General
ardaingeal = archangel
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àrd [aːr̪ˠd] = high, lofy, tall, great, loud, chief, eminent, superior, supreme
àrd-bheinn = pinnacle
Manx (Gaelg) ard [ø(r)d] = high, towering, tall, big, loud, height, high place, fell, incline
Proto-Brythonic *arð = high
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ard, art = hill
Welsh (Cymraeg) ardd [arð/aːrð] = hill, highland, top, high, upland
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) ard = high, lofty
Cornish (Kernewek) ardh = height, high place
Breton (Brezhoneg) arz = high, elevated, lofty

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃r̥dʰwós, from *h₃erdʰ- (to increase, grow, upright, high) [source], which is also the root of the Latin word arbor (tree) and words for tree in Romance languages [source].

Proto-Celtic *knokkos = protuberance, hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) cnocc [knok] = hill, lump, swelling
cnoccach [ˈknokax] = hilly, lumpy
cnocán [ˈknokaːn] = little lump, mound, hill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cnocc = lump, protruberance, hill, mound
cnoccach, cnocach = lumpy, hilly
cnoccán, cnocán = little lump, mound, hill
Irish (Gaeilge) cnoc [kn̪ˠɔk / kn̪ˠʊk/ kɾˠʊk] = hill, mount
cnocach = hilly
cnocadóir = hillman, hillclimber
cnocadóireacht = hill-climbing
cnocán = hillock, heap
cnocánach = hilly, uneven
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cnoc [krɔ̃xg] = hill, small hill, hillock, knoll, chilblain
cnocach [krɔ̃xgəx] = hilly, rugged, abrupt
cnocaireachd [krɔ̃xgɛrʲəxg] = rough hill walking, pacing
cnocan [krɔ̃xgan] = hillock, ball of fibre
Manx (Gaelg) cronk = mount, tor, hill,
crongan = mound, small hill, tuffet, tumulus, hillock
cronkan = knoll, small hill, hillock
Proto-Brythonic *knox = hill, mound
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cnwch = swelling, protuberance, thickness, hump
Welsh (Cymraeg) cnwc = hillock, knoll; swelling, tumour, lump, knob, hump
cnocell = hillock, knoll
Old Breton cnoch = hill
Middle Breton qnech, knech, crech, cre(a)c’h = high, height, mountain, hill
krec’hennek full of hills
krec’hiek = steep, sloping, incluned
Breton (Brezhoneg) krec’h = height, eminence, mound

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kneg- (back of the head, nape, neck). The English word neck, and related words in other Germanic languages, come from the same root [source].

Proto-Celtic *brusnyos = hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) bruinne = breast(s), bosom, chest; womb
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bruinne, bruinde = breast, bosom, chest
Irish (Gaeilge) broinne = breast, bosom; brink, verge
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) broinne [brɤin̪ʲ] = belly, stomach; womb; bulge
Manx (Gaelg) brein = womb
Proto-Brythonic *bronnā = breast
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) bronn, bron = breast, bosom
Welsh (Cymraeg) bron [brɔn] = breast, bosom, thorax, hill-side, slope, breast (of hill)
bronallt, broniallt = gentle slope of hill, rising ground, wooded slope
bryn = hill, mount, rise, bank; heap, mound; prominence, highness
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bron = a round protuberance, breast, pap, slope of a hill
Cornish (Kernewek) bronn / brodn [brɔn: / brɔdn] = breast, hill
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bron, bronn = breast, bossom, udder
bronnañ, bronnat, bronniñ = to breast feed
Breton (Brezhoneg) bronn [ˈbrɔ̃n] = breast

Etymology: from Proto-Celtic *brusū (belly, abdomen, breast), possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰrews- (belly, to swell) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-West-Germanic *brunnjā (chainmail shirt), include: brynja (coat of mail) in Icelandic, Swedish and Faroese, brynje (mail, armour) in Danish, brynje (coat of armour, protective clothing for motorcyclists) in Norwegian, and броня [brɔˈnʲa] (armour, armoured vehicle, shell) in Ukrainian [source].

The English words breast, brisket and bruise come from the same PIE root, as do borst (chest, thorax, breast) in Dutch, Brust (chest, breast, bosom) in German, and bröst (breast, chest, thorax) in Swedish [source].

Proto-Celtic *brixs / *brig- = hill
Gaulish *brignā, -brigā = hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) brí [bʲrʲiː] = hill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) brí, bri = hill
Irish (Gaeilge) brí = brae, hill
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bre = hill, headland
Proto-Brythonic *breɣ [ˈbrɛːɣ] = hill
Welsh (Cymraeg) bre = hill, hillock, mountain, hill-country, upland, peak
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) bre = mountain, hill
Cornish (Kernewek) bre [brɛ: / bre:] = hill – appears as Bray or Brae in placenames
Middle Breton (Brezonec) bre = hill
Breton (Brezhoneg) bre = hill, mountain

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *bʰerǵʰ- (high) [source].

The Spanish word breña (scrub, brush, rough ground), the Portuguese word brenha (scrub, complication, confusion) come from the Gaulish *brignā, via the Vulgar Latin *brigna (rocky terrain) [source].

From the same PIE root we get the English words burrow and borough, and words in placenames such as burg, burgh and bury, and also the German Burg (castle), the Danish borg (castle, stronghold), and related words in other Germanic languages.

Proto-Celtic *krowko- = heap
Old Irish (Goídelc) crúach = stack, mountain, hill
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) crúach,cruach = stack of corn, rick, heap, conical pile
crúachad = act of stacking, piling up
crúachán = small rick, hill
crúachda = swollen, piled up
Irish (Gaeilge) cruach [kɾˠuəx] = stack, rick, pile, (mountain) stack
cruachach = full of stacks
cruachadóir = stack-builder
cruachadóireacht = (act of) building stacks
cruachán = (small) stack; person of stunned growth
cruachóg = heap
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cruach [kruəx] = pile, stack; round hill; clamp (stack)
cho seasgair ri luchag ann an cruach = as snug as a bug in a rug (“as snug as a mouse in a haystack”)
cruach-fheòir = haystack
cruach-mhòna, cruach mònach = peat-stack
cruach-sheangan = anthill
Manx (Gaelg) creagh = stack, furrow
creagh fendeilagh = barricade
creagh hraagh = haystack
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) krug, gruc, grvg = hillock
Welsh (Cymraeg) crug = hillock, knoll, cairn, tumulus, heap, mass, stack, group, company, multitude; pustule, abscess, boil, carbuncle
Old Cornish cruc = hillock
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) cruc, cruk, crŷc = hillock, mound, barrow
Cornish (Kernewek) krug = mound, tumulus
Old Breton cruc = hillock
Middle Breton (Brezonec) krug = pile, heap
krugell = pile, heap, hillock, mound, tumulus
Breton (Brezhoneg) krug = mound
krugell = hillock, tumulus

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *krā(u)- (to heap up) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tumbo- = excrescence hill
Old Irish (Goídelc) tom = bush, tuft, hillock, knoll
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) tom = bush, tuft, hillock, knoll
Irish (Gaeilge) tom [t̪ˠɑumˠ/t̪ˠʌmˠ] = bush, shrub
tomach = bushy, tufted
tomachán = small tuft
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tom [tɔum] = hillock, knoll, mound, clump, heap, tuft
toman [toman] = small hillock
tomag [tomag] = small hillock/knoll/mound, small clump, small heap
Manx (Gaelg) tom = tussock
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tom, tomm = dung(hill), manure, compost, dirt, muck
Welsh (Cymraeg) tom = dung(hill), manure, compost, dirt, muck, mud, mound, heap

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *tewh₂- (to swell), and cognate with the English word tumulus.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Towns and Tribes

Words for dwelling, settlement, town, tribe and related things in Celtic languages.

Trefor

Proto-Celtic *trebā = dwelling
Gaulish Atrebates = name of a tribe
Old Irish (Goídelc) treb = house, farm; household; tribe
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) treb = house, farm; household; tribe
Irish (Gaeilge) treibh [ˈtʲɾʲɛv] = house, homestead, farmstead; household, family; tribe, race
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) treabh [tro] = farming village
treubh [treːv] = tribe
Proto-Brythonic *treβ [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tref [ˈtrɛːβ] = town, settlement
trefad, trevad, treuad, treuat = dwelling(-place), habitation
trefan, treuan = small town or city, village, dwelling, abode, manor-house, fort
Welsh (Cymraeg) tre(f) [treː(v)] = town; town centre; dwelling(-place), habitation, residence, home; house (and surrounding land), homestead, farm, estate, cluster of houses; township; tribe
trefad = dwelling(-place), habitation, residence, home, region, domain
trefaf, trefu= to dwell, live, settle
trefan = small town or city, village, dwelling, abode, manor-house, fort
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tre, trev = dwelling place, homestead, home, town
tregva, trigva = dwelling place, habitation
trevedic = one from a country village, a country man, rustic
Cornish (Kernewek) tre [trɛ:/tre:] = farmstead, home, town, village
trigva = abode, address, dwelling, resdidence
trigys = settled, to reside, live
Old Breton treff, treb = town, settlement
Middle Breton (Brezonec) tre, trev = town
Breton (Brezhoneg) trev = town
trevour = civil

Etymology: From the Proto-Indo-European *treb- (dwelling, settlement) [source].

Words from the same Proto-Celtic root (via Latin) possibly include trobo (beehive, skep) in Galician, and truébanu (beehive, barrel, basket) in Asturian [source].

This is also the root of the archaic English word thorp(e) (a group of houses standing together in the country; a hamlet; a village), which appears in place names such as Milnthorpe and Scunthorpe.

Related words in other languages include Dorf (hamlet, village, town) in German, torp (village) in Danish, torp (farm, cottage, croft) in Swedish, þorp (village, farm) in Icelandic, and trevë (country, region, village) in Albanian [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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