Copper

Today we’re looking at the words for copper and related things in Celtic languages.

copper pots

Proto-Celtic *omiyom = copper, bronze
Old Irish (Goídelc) umae, humae [ˈu.ṽe] = copper, bronze, brass
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) uma = copper, bronze, brass
Irish (Gaeilge) umha = copper, copper alloy, bronze
umhadhaite = bronze-coloured, bronzed
umhaí = worker in copper or bronze
cré-umha = bronze
cré-umhaigh = to bronze
salachar-umha = verdigris
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) umha [ũ.ə] = bronze, copper, brass
umhach = coppery, brassy
umha-dhathte = copper-coloured, bronze-coloured
ceàrd-umha = coppersmith
Linn an Umha = the Bronze Age
meirg-umha = verdigris
Manx (Gaelg) ooha = bronze
cur ooha er = to bronze, bronzing
Yn Eash Ooha = the Bronze Age
Proto-Brythonic *öβ̃ɨð = bronze, copper
Old Welsh emid, emed = bronze, copper
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) euyð, euyd = bronze, copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) efydd [ˈɛvɨ̞ð / ˈeːvɪð] = bronze, brass, copper; made of bronze brass or copper; brazen; bronze colour, coppery
efyddaf, efyddu = to cover or adorn with brass or copper, to braze
efyddaid = made of bronze or brass; brazen, brazed
efyddog = brassy, coppery
efyddwr = brass-smith, copper-smith
medal efydd = bronze medal
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
Oes yr Efydd = Bronze Age

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: possibly from the Proto-Celtic *omos (raw), from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂eh₃mós (raw, uncooked, bitter, sour) [source].

Some words from the same PIE root, via the Latin amārus (bitter, harsh, sour, dire), include amaro (bitter) in Italian, amer (bitter, sour) in French, amarillo (yellow, golden coloured) in Spanish [source], and marulă (lettuce) in Romanian [source].

Irish (Gaeilge) copar [ˈkopˠəɾˠ] = copper
gabha copair = coppersmith
coparás = copperas, copper sulphate
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) copar [kɔhbər] = copper
coparach = cuperous, like copper, coppery
copar-dubhaidh = copperas, green vitriol (iron(II) sylphate)
Manx (Gaelg) cobbyr, copuir = copper
cobbyragh = copperish, cupric
gaaue cobbyr = coppersmith
plait cobbyr = copperplate
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) copyr, copr, kopyr = copper
Welsh (Cymraeg) copr, copor, coper = copper; something of little value; red hair
gof copr = copper-smith
gwaith copr = copper-works, vessels made of copper
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
Cornish (Kernewek) kober [stɛːn / steːn] = copper
kobrek = copper (colour)
Breton (Brezhoneg) kouevr = copper
kouevrek = cupric (relating to or containing copper)
kouevrus = cuprous (relating to or containing copper)

Etymology: from the Middle English coper (copper, bronze), from the Old English copor (copper), from the Proto-Germanic *kuprą (copper), from the Latin Latin cuprum (copper) from the Ancient Greek Κύπρος (Cyprus – where large reserves of copper can be found). The Breton word kouevr was borrowed from the French cuivre (copper, brass), from the same Latin root [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Metal

Today we’re looking at the words for metal, ore, mines and related things in Celtic languages.

The cave at Parys mountain.

Proto-Celtic *mēnis = ore, metal, mine
Old Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
Middle Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
míanach = vein of ore, mine
míanaige = miner
Irish (Gaeilge) mianach = ore; stuff, material, substance, quality
mianadóir = miner
mianrach = mineral
mianreolaí = mineralogist
mianreolaíocht = mineralogy
mianadóireacht = mining; burrowing, excavating, digging deep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mèinn [mɛːn̪ʲ] = mine, ore
mèinnear, mèinneadair = miner
mèinnireach = mineral
mèinn-guail = coal mine, colliery
mèinn-talmhainn = landmine
mèinn salainn = salt mine
mèinneadh = mining
mèinnearach = mining
mèinn-eòlas = mineralogy
mèinneadh = mineralogical
mèinnearach = mineralogist
Manx (Gaelg) meain = ore, mine
meainagh = ore
meain-oayllys, meaineraght = metallurgy
meain-oaylee, meaineraght = mineralogist
meain arih = gold mine
meain argid = silver mine
meain chobbyr = copper mine
meain gheayil = coal mine, colliery
meain hollan = salt mine
meain leoaie = lead mine
Proto-Brythonic *muɨn = ore, metal, mine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mwyn, mŵn = mineral, ore, mine
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyn = mineral, ore, mine
mwynwr = miner, sapper
mwyn arian = silver ore, silver mine
mwyn aur = gold ore, gold mine
mwyn cellt = quartz
mwyn coch = red lead, red ochre, haematite, other red ores
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
mywn du = blacklead, graphite
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
mwyn haearn = iron ore
Cornish (Kernewek) moon = fusible metal mineral, mineral
Middle Breton *men = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) mengleuz = quarry, slate quarry, mine
mengleuzer = slate quarry worker
mengleuzerezh = mining industry
mengleuziañ = to mine
mengleuziek = mining
mengleuzier = quarryman

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *mēy(H)nis, from *(s)mēy(H)- (to cut, hew) [source].

The English word mine (an excavation from which ore or solid minerals are taken) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old French myne, mine, the Late Latin mina and Gaulish [source].

Middle Irish (Goídelc) mital(l) = metal
Irish (Gaeilge) miotal [ˈmʲɪt̪ˠəlˠ] = metal; mettle, spirit, hardihood
miotalach = metallic; mettlesome, spirited; hardy, wiry
miotalagrafaíocht = metallography
miotalóir = metallurgist
miotalóireach = metallurgic(al)
miotalóireacht = metal-work, metallurgy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotal, meiteal = metal
= miner
meatailteach = metallic
obair-mheatailtean, obair-mheatailt = metalwork, metallurgy
meatailt uasal = precious metal
Manx (Gaelg) metal = metal
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mettel = metal
Welsh (Cymraeg) metel, metal = metal, metal weapon or armour; substance, mettle, bravery, courage
metelaidd, metelig = metallic
meteleg = metallurgy
metelegol = metallurgical
metelegwr, metelegydd = metallurgist
Cornish (Kernewek) metol = metal
metolyek = metallic
Breton (Brezhoneg) metal = metal
metalerezh = metallurgy
metalour = metallurgist

Etymology (Welsh): from the Middle English metel(l), metal(l) (metal, ore), from the Old French metal (metal), from the Latin metallum (metal, precious metals, mine), from the Ancient Greek μέταλλον (métallon – metal, precious metals, mine) [source].

Etymology (Irish): from the Old French metal (metal), then as above [source].

The English word metal comes from the same roots, via Middle English, Old French, etc [source]. The word mettle (a quality of endurance and courage) was originally a variant of metal, and later came to have a figurative sense [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Circles

Words for circle and related words in Celtic languages.

There are three words for circle in Proto-Celtic: *kerk-injo-, *kerkinn- and *kuro-. They don’t appear to have descendents in modern Celtic languages.

Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Old Irish (Goídelc) circul = circle, orbit, zone, hoop
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) circul = circle, orbit, zone, hoop
Irish (Gaeilge) ciorcal [ˈkiɾˠkəlˠ] = circle
ciorcalach = circular, cyclic
ciorcalaigh = to encircle, circle
ciorclán = circular (letter)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cearcall [kʲɛrxgl̪ˠ] = circle, cycle, ring (circus, etc), hoop
cearclach = circular, cyclic(al)
Manx (Gaelg) kiarkyl = ring, circle, rim, coterie
kiarklagh = cyclic(al), rotund, circulatory
kiarkylagh = circular
daachiarkyl = bicycle
Proto-Brythonic *kɨrxl [aˈbɛːr] = circle, ring
Old Welsh circhl = circle, ring
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kylch, kylc = circle, ring
Welsh (Cymraeg) cylch [kɨ̞lχ/kɪlχ] = circle, ring, compass, scope, range, circumference, environs, surroundsing, precints, zone, belt, hoop, social circle, orbit, revolution, period, cycle, halo
cylchai = halo
cylchaidd = circular, round(ish)
cylchig = circlet, small circle
cylch(i)ol = circular, orbital, surrounding, itinerant, periodic, cyclic
cylchu, cylch(i)af, cylcho = to hoop, rim (a wheel)
Cornish (Kernewek) kelgh, kylgh = circle, hoop, round, ring
kylghek = circular
kylghigow = hoop-la
kylghlavar = circumlocution
kylghvusur = perimeter
Breton (Brezhoneg) kelc’h = circle, halo
kelc’hiañ = to surround, define, figure out
kelc’hier = compass
kelc’htreiñ = to orbit
kelc’htro = orbit
kelc’htroel = orbital

Etymology: from the Latin circulus (circle), from circus (circle, ring, racecourse, circus), from the Ancient Greek κίρκος (kírkos – circle, ring) from the Proto-Indo-European *(s)ker- (to bend, turn) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Plums

Words for plums, damsons and sloes, and related words, in Celtic languages.

sloes

Proto-Celtic *agrinyom/*agrinyā = sloe, small plum, berry
Irish (Gaeilge) airne [ˈɑːɾˠn̠ʲə / ˈæːɾˠn̠ʲə] = sloe, gland
airneog = sloe tree, blackthorn
biotáille airní = sloe gin
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) àirne [aːr̪n̪ʲə] = blackthorn, sloe (berry), wild plum (prunus domestica), damson (prunus domestica insititia)
àirneag = sloe bush
Manx (Gaelg) airn = sloe, bullace
airnagh = sloe-covered
soo airney = sloe jam
drine airn = blackthorn, sloe tree (Prunus spinosa)
Welsh (Cymraeg) eirin(en) [ˈei̯rɪn] = plum(s), damson(s), sloe(s), bullace, berries, testicle(s)
eirina = to collect sloes or bullace
eirin bwlas = bullace, wild plums (Prunus insititia), damsons
eirin damasg/Damasgus = damson
eirin Ffrainc/Ffrengig = prunes
eirin gwlanog = peaches, apricots
eirin gwynion = greengages
eirin Mair = gooseberries
eirin y moch = haws, hawthorn berries
eirin morwydd = mulberries
eirin peatus = nectarines
eirin ysgaw = elderberries
eirin y gors = crowberries
Old Cornish yryn = sloes
Cornish (Kernewek) eyrin(en) = sloe(s)
Breton (Brezhoneg) irin(enn) = sloe(s), sloe gin; pupil, eye

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ógeh₂ (berry) [source]. The English word acorn comes from the same root, via the Proto-Germanic *h₂ógeh₂ [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Plums

Irish (Gaeilge) pluma [ˈpˠlˠʊmˠə] = plum
daimsín [ˈpˠlˠʊmˠə] = damson
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) plumais / plùmbais [pl̪ˠumɪʃ / pl̪ˠuːmbɪʃ] = plum
daimsin [dãĩmʃɪn] = damson
Manx (Gaelg) plumbis = plum
damsyl = damson
Welsh (Cymraeg) plemys(en) = plum(s)
Cornish (Kernewek) ploum(en) = plum(s)
ploum(en) sygh = prune(s)
Breton (Brezhoneg) prun(enn) = plum(s)

Etmology (plum): from the Middle English ploume/plomme (plum) from the Old English plūme/plume (plum), from the Proto-West Germanic *plūmā (plum), from the Latin prūnum (plum), from the Ancient Greek προῦμνον (proûmnon – plum). Prune comes from the same root [source]

Etmology (damson): from the Middle English damascene/damasyn/damacene (damson), from the Latin prūnum damascēnum (Damascene plum, plum of Damascus), from the Ancient Greek προῦμνον (proûmnon – plum) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Milk

Words for milk, and related words, in Celtic languages.

North versus South

Proto-Celtic *laxto- = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) lacht [l͈axt] = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) lacht [l̪ˠɑxt̪ˠ / l̪ˠaxt̪ˠ] = milk, yield of milk; tears
lachtadh = lacation; flooding (of eyes)
lachaí = nursling
lachtach = lactic, milky; tearful
lachtbhán = milkwhite
lachtmhar = lactiferous, milky, abounding in milk
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) lac, lachd = sweet milk
Manx (Gaelg) laghtveih = milk gauge, milk tester
Proto-Brythonic *llaɨθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llaeth = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) llaeth [ɬaːɨ̯θ / ɬai̯θ] = milk; milk-like substance, latex; milt, soft roe
llaetha(f), llaethu = to yield milk, lactate, feed with milk, turn to milk
llaetheiddrwydd = milkiness, lactescence
llaethiad = lactation
llaethlyd = milk-like, milky
llaethog = milky, abounding in milk
llaethogrwydd, llaethedd = milkiness
llaethwraig = milkmaid, dairymaid, good milker
llaethyddol = dairy, dairying
y Llwybr Llaethog the Milky Way
Old Cornish lait = milk
Middle Cornish leth, leyth = milk
Cornish (Kernewek) leth = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) laezh [ˈlɛːs] = milk

Etmology: from the Vulgar Latin *lacte (milk), from the Latin *lac (milk), from the Proto-Indo-European *ǵlákt [source].

Proto-Celtic *mlixtus = milk
Old Irish (Goídelc) mlicht [mʲlʲixt] = milch, in milk (of cattle)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) blicht = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bleacht [bʲlʲaxt̪ˠ] = milk, milk yield
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bliochd [blixg] = milkiness, milk
bliochdmhor [blixg(v)ər] = milky, full of milk
bliochdach = milky, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bluight = lactiferous, lacteal, galactic
bluightagh, ollagh vluight = milking cows
Proto-Brythonic *bliθ = milk
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) blyth = milk
lleurith = milk
Welsh (Cymraeg) blith [bliːθ] = milch, lactating (of cow, etc), full of milk, in calf, in lamb, pregant, fruitful, productive, nourising; milk, dairy produce, lactation, dairying; profit, gain, advantage
blithog, blithiog = milch, giving milk, full of milk, fruitful, productive, bearing offspring
llefrith [ˈɬɛvrɪθ] = milk, new milk, sweet milk, fresh milk
Old Cornish leuerid = milk
Breton (Brezhoneg) livrizh = milk

Etmology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂ml̥ǵtus, from *h₂melǵ- (milk, to milk) [source].

The Welsh word llefrith, which is used in North Wales, comes from llef (weak) and blith (milk) [source].

Proto-Celtic *bandyo- = drop
Old Irish (Goídelc) bannae = drop
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) bainne = milk
Irish (Gaeilge) bainne [ˈbˠɑɲə / ˈbˠɑnʲə / ˈbˠan̠ʲə] = milk
bainniúil = milky, milk-yielding
bainniúlacht = milkiness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bainne [ban̪ʲə] = milk, milky fluid, sap
bainneach [ban̪ʲəx] = milk, like milk, lacteous
Manx (Gaelg) bainney = milk
bainnagh = lactic, milk producing, milky, galactic
bainnaght = milkiness
yn Raad Mooar Bainnagh the Milky Way
Middle Cornish banne = drop
Cornish (Kernewek) banna = drop
Breton (Brezhoneg) banne = drop, droplet, glass

Etmology: possibly from the Proto-Slavic *baňa (bath), from the Ancient Greek *βαλανεῖον (balaneîon, bath) [source], which is the root of words for bath(room) in many European languages, including bain in French, baño in Spanish and bagno in Italian [source].

Other words for milk in Proto-Celtic include: *glaxtā-, *melgos-, *mlig-e/o-, *seigi- and *sutu-.

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF)

Easter

Words for Easter and related words in Celtic languages.

EE094

Old Irish (Goídelc) Cásc = Easter
Irish (Gaeilge) Cáisc [kɑːʃc / kæːʃc] = Easter
Domhnach Cásca,Cáisc Shona duit = Happy Easter
ubh Chásca = Easter egg
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) A’ Chàisg [əˈxaːʃgʲ] = Easter
Càisg nan Iùdhach = Passover
Dihaoine na Càisge = Good Friday
ugh na Càisge = Easter egg
A’ Chàisg sona = Happy Easter
Manx (Gaelg) Caisht = Easter
caisht ny hewnyn = Passover
Jerdein Caisht = Maunday Thursday
Jeheiney Caisht = Good Friday
Laa Caisht = Easter Day
Caisht sonney dhyt! = Happy Easter!
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) Pasc, Passc = Easter
Welsh (Cymraeg) Pasg = Easter, Passover
Pasg yr Wyau = Easter Sunday
wy’r Pasg = Easter egg
Pasg hapus = Happy Easter
Pasg yr Iddewon = Passover
Cornish (Kernewek) Pask [pʰaːsk, pʰask] = Easter, Passover
Pask Lowen = Happy Easter
Breton (Brezhoneg) Pask = Easter, Passover
Pask Seder = Happy Easter

Etymology: from the Late Latin pascha (Passover, Easter), from Ancient Greek πάσχα (páskha – Passover), from Aramaic פסחא‎ (paskha – Passover), from Hebrew פֶּסַח‎ (pesaḥ -Passover). [source].

Happy Easter in many languages

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Families and Households

Words for family and household in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *tego-slougo- / *tegeso-slougo- = family, household
Old Irish (Goídelc) teglach [ˈtʲeɣlax] = family, household
Irish (Gaeilge) teaghlach [ˈtʲalˠəx] = household, family, domestic establishment, household troops, retinue
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teaghlach [ˈtʲɤːɫ̪ˠəx] = family, household, house, dwelling, clan, tribe, race, progeny
Manx (Gaelg) thielagh = family, household
Welsh (Cymraeg) teulu = family, tribe, nation, household
Old Cornish teilu = family
Cornish (Kernewek) teylu [‘tɛɪly / ‘təɪlɪʊ] = family
Breton (Brezhoneg) tiegezh = household, farm, family

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tegos (cover, roof) [source] and *slowgʰos / *slowgos (entourage) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinter = community, family or household (including servants), folks, followers, attendants
Irish (Gaeilge) munitir [ˈmˠiːn̠ʲtʲəɾ / ˈmˠɪn̠ʲtʲəɾʲ] = household, community, family; associates, adherents, followers; party, retinue; kinsfolk; folk, people
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muinntir [mɯin̠ʲdʲɪrʲ/] = folk, kindred, people; inhabitants
Manx (Gaelg) mooinjer = family, people, tribe, relations, inhabitants, kin, servants, folk, entourage, farmhand

Etymology: possibly from the Latin monasterium (monastry, cell) [source], from the Ancient Greek μοναστήριον (monastḗrion – solitary dwelling, hermit’s cell, monastery) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-line Manx Dictionary

Fire Angels

Words for fire in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *teɸnets = fire
Old Irish (Goídelc) teine [ˈtʲenʲe] = fire
Irish (Gaeilge) tine [ˈtʲɪnʲə] = fire, conflagration; incandescence, flame; luminosity, glow; flash; inflammation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teine [tʲenə] = fire, flame, conflagration
Manx (Gaelg) çhenney = elemental fire, lightning, rickets
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tan [taːn] = fire
Welsh (Cymraeg) tân [taːn] = fire, conflagration, bonfire, flame, spark, light (for a cigarette), match; high temperature (from fever)
Cornish (Kernewek) tan [ta:n / tæ:n] = fire
Breton (Brezhoneg) tan [ˈtɑ̃ːn] = fire

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tep- (to be warm) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) aingel [ˈaŋʲɡʲel] = angel
Irish (Gaeilge) aingeal [ˈæɲɟəl] = angel; fire, lighted coal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aingeal [ˈãĩŋʲgʲəl̪ˠ] = angel, messenger, fire, light, sunshine; brightness, light; signal fire, beacon; warmth
Manx (Gaelg) aile [ail] = fire
ainle = angel
Welsh (Cymraeg) angel [ˈaŋɛl] = angel
Cornish (Kernewek) eledh = angel
Breton (Brezhoneg) ael = angel

Etymology: from the Late Latin angelus (angel, messenger), from the Ancient Greek ἄγγελος (ángelos – messenger) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Beltane

Alive & Living

Words for alive & living in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *biwos = alive, living, mortal
Old Irish (Goídelc) béo [bʲeːu̯] = alive, living
Irish (Gaeilge) beo [bʲoː / bʲɔː] = living, alive; live, active; living being; life; livelihood; quick; to live
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beò [bjɔː] = alive, live, living; lively; vivid; vital; quick, lively, sprightly
Manx (Gaelg) bio [bʲoː] = alive, live, lifelike, bright, hot, activated, pictorial, afloat, live person, spring tide after neap
Proto-Brythonic *bɨw = alive, living
Welsh (Cymraeg) byw [bɨu̯ / bɪu̯] = alive, living, having life, animate, quick, existing, actual; lively, full of life, vivacious, vigorous, sprightly, spirited, eager, sparkling; vivid, graphic; susceptible to
byw (verb) = to live, lead one’s life, subsist, exist; dwell, inhabit, to animate, revive
Cornish (Kernewek) bew [beˑʊ] = active, agile, alive, lively, living,
switched on
bewa = to live, be alive
Breton (Brezhoneg) bev = alive, living, lively
bevañ = to live, feed

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷih₃wós (alive, living) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) forig, fuirset = to remain, stay
Irish (Gaeilge) fuirigh = to hold back, delay, wait, stay
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuirich [fuɾʲɪç] = to stay, wait, delay, linger, abide
Manx (Gaelg) fariagh [bʲoː] = to stay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cómnuigim = I rest
congaib [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cómnuigim = I rest
congaib [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Irish (Gaeilge) cónaigh [ˈkoːn̪ˠɪɟ / ˈkoːnˠə / ˈkɔːnˠi] = living, alive; live, active; living being; life; livelihood; quick; to live
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cumail [kumal] = (act of) keeping, holding, retaining; witholding; celebrating, observing
còmhnaidh [kɔ̃ːnɪ] = (act of) occupying, inhabiting, dwelling, residing; occupancy, occupation, habitation, residence; (act of) abiding; abode
Manx (Gaelg) cummal = to grip, hold, keep, arrest, contain, retain, live, inhabit

Etymology: from the Old Irish com- (with) and gaibid (to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) maraid [ˈma.rəðʲ] = to last, persist, remain; to survive, live
Irish (Gaeilge) mair = to live, to last
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mair [marʲ] = to live, to exist, to continue

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *merh₂- (to seize, grip) [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) trigio = to live (in), dwell, reside, lodge, stay, remain, delay, linger
godrig(af) = to stay, tarry, remain, abide, dwell, sojourn; stay or tarry for; rest upon, insist; linger, delay.
Middle Cornish trege, trega, tryga, tryge = to remain, stay, dwell
Cornish (Kernewek) triga = to remain, stay, dwell
Old Breton guotric = to stay

Etymology: from Latin trīcō (to delay) [source].

The word for to live in Breton, chom, comes from the Old French chômer (to be idle, to be out of work), from the Late Latin caumāre, from caumō (I rest during the heat), from the Ancient Greek καῦμα (kaûma – heat). [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Purple

Words for purple in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) corcra = purple
Irish (Gaeilge) corcra = purple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corcar [kɔr̪ˠxgər] = purple; any lichen yielding a purple dye
Welsh (Cymraeg) porffor = purple
Cornish (Kernewek) purpur [‘pʏrpʏr / ‘pərpər] = purple
Breton (Brezhoneg) pourpré = purple

Etymology
From Ancient Greek πορφύρα (porphúra – murex (the mollusc)
Tyrian purple, royal purple) [source]

Purple in Manx is gorrym jiarg or jiarg gorrym.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau