Words for Easter and related words in Celtic languages.


Old Irish (Goídelc) Cásc = Easter
Irish (Gaeilge) Cáisc [kɑːʃc / kæːʃc] = Easter
Domhnach Cásca,Cáisc Shona duit = Happy Easter
ubh Chásca = Easter egg
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) A’ Chàisg [əˈxaːʃgʲ] = Easter
Càisg nan Iùdhach = Passover
Dihaoine na Càisge = Good Friday
ugh na Càisge = Easter egg
A’ Chàisg sona = Happy Easter
Manx (Gaelg) Caisht = Easter
caisht ny hewnyn = Passover
Jerdein Caisht = Maunday Thursday
Jeheiney Caisht = Good Friday
Laa Caisht = Easter Day
Caisht sonney dhyt! = Happy Easter!
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) Pasc, Passc = Easter
Welsh (Cymraeg) Pasg = Easter, Passover
Pasg yr Wyau = Easter Sunday
wy’r Pasg = Easter egg
Pasg hapus = Happy Easter
Pasg yr Iddewon = Passover
Cornish (Kernewek) Pask [pʰaːsk, pʰask] = Easter, Passover
Pask Lowen = Happy Easter
Breton (Brezhoneg) Pask = Easter, Passover
Pask Seder = Happy Easter

Etymology: from the Late Latin pascha (Passover, Easter), from Ancient Greek πάσχα (páskha – Passover), from Aramaic פסחא‎ (paskha – Passover), from Hebrew פֶּסַח‎ (pesaḥ -Passover). [source].

Happy Easter in many languages

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis

Families and Households

Words for family, tribe, household and related things in Celtic languages.


Proto-Celtic *wenyā = family, kindred
Leptonic 𐌅𐌄𐌍𐌉𐌀 (venia)
Old Irish (Goídelc) fine [ˈfʲinʲe] = family, kin, group of people of common descent, clan, tribe, race
Irish (Gaeilge) fine [ˈfʲɪnʲə] = family group, race, territory of a family group
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fine [finə] = tribe, clan, kindred, phylum
ceann-fine = chieftain, clan chief
finneach = clannish, tribal, heathen
fineachas = clanship, kindred
Middle Breton gouen(n) = race
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouenn = race

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *wenh₁ (to wish, seek, desire, love, win). The name of Vannes, a town in Brittany, comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Latin Veneti [source]

Words from the same PIE root include venom, Venus, wonder, wean and winsome in English, vän (friend) in Swedish, and gwenwyn (poison, venom) in Welsh [source].

Proto-Celtic *tego-slougo- / *tegeso-slougo- = family, household
Old Irish (Goídelc) teglach [ˈtʲeɣlax] = family, household
Irish (Gaeilge) teaghlach [ˈtʲalˠəx] = household, family, domestic establishment, household troops, retinue
teaghlachas = domestic economy, housekeeping, establishment
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teaghlach [ˈtʲɤːɫ̪ˠəx] = family, household
teaghlachail = domestic
teaghlachas = domesticity
teaghlach ba gréine = the solar system (poetic)
Manx (Gaelg) thielagh = family, household
mooinjer thielagh = household
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) teulu, tuyly = family, tribe, nation, household
Welsh (Cymraeg) teulu = family, tribe, nation, household; retinue, retainers, entourage, host, crowd, people
teuluaeth = household management, housekeeping, husbandry
teuluaf, teuluo, teulua = to raise a family, run a household
teuluaidd = family, familial, household, domestic
teuluedd = familiarity, concord, harmony, peace
teulueiddrwydd = hospitality; familiarity
teulues = housewife
teuluol = family, familial
Old Cornish teilu = family
Cornish (Kernewek) teylu [‘tɛɪly / ‘təɪlɪʊ] = family
hanow teylu = surname
Breton (Brezhoneg) tiegezh = household, farm, family

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tegos (cover, roof) [source] and *slowgʰos / *slowgos (entourage) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) muinter = community, family or household (including servants), folks, followers, attendants
Irish (Gaeilge) munitir [ˈmˠiːn̠ʲtʲəɾ / ˈmˠɪn̠ʲtʲəɾʲ] = household, community, family; associates, adherents, followers; party, retinue; kinsfolk; folk, people
muniteartha = belonging to a household or community, associated, familiar, friendly, related
munitearthacht = friendliness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muinntir [mɯin̪ʲd̪ʲɪr̪ʲ] = folk, kindred, people; inhabitants
muinntireas = service, servitude, residency (of a writer, etc)
muinntireach = household servant
neach-muinntir = (household) servant
bean-mhuinntir = maidservant
muinntir taighe = the household, members of the household
Manx (Gaelg) mooinjer = family, people, tribe, relations, inhabitants, kin, servants, folk, entourage, farmhand
mooinjerey = domestic
dooinney mooinjerey = cousin, kinsman, kinsfolk, relation
mooinjereys = blood relationship, connection, domestic servce, kinship

Etymology: from the Proto-Celtic *moniterā, from *monis (protection, patronage), or possibly from the Latin monastērium (monastry,cell) [source], from the Ancient Greek μοναστήριον (monastḗrion – solitary dwelling, hermit’s cell, monastery) [source].

Proto-Celtic *luxtus = people, crowd
Old Irish (Goídelc) lucht [l͈uxt] = occupants, inhabitants, possessors, household
comlucht = accomplices, companions
Irish (Gaeilge) lucht [l̪ˠʊxt̪ˠ / l̪ˠʌxt̪ˠ] = people
lucht na mbothán = frequenters of neighbour’s houses
lucht an bhurdúin = tale-bearers
lucht míghrinn = mischief-makers
lucht tréachtais = hangers-on
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) luchd [l̪ˠuxg] = person
neach [n̪ʲɛx] = person, people (plural of luchd)
neach-dàimheachd = kin, relative
neach-eòlais = acquaintance
co-neach-dùthcha = fellow compatriot / countryman
Manx (Gaelg) lught = people, folk
lught eaishtagh = listener, audience, house
lught thie = family, household, household members
colught = body of people, company, firm
Old Welsh luidt, luith = tribe, lineage, family
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) luith, llwyth = family, tribe, nation, household
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwyth [ˈɬuːɨ̯θ / ˈɬʊi̯θ] = tribe, people
tylwyth = immediate family, household (“house tribe”)
Tylwyth Teg = fair folk (elves, fairies)
Old Cornish leid, luyte = tribe, family
Cornish (Kernewek) looth = tribe
Old Breton loit = household, farm, family
Breton (Brezhoneg) leizh = tribe

Etymology: unknown – possibly from a non-Proto-Indo-European substrate language [source].

Proto-Celtic *toutā [ˈtow.taː] = people, tribe, tribal land
*toutyos [ˈtow.tjos] = tribesman, tribal citizen
Gaulish touta, teuta = people, tribe, tribal land
Old Irish (Goídelc) túath [tuːa̯θ] = tribe, laity, people, tribal territory
Irish (Gaeilge) tuath [t̪ˠuə] = people tribe, country, territory
tuathánach = countryman, rustic, peasant
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) tuath [ˈtʲɤːɫ̪ˠəx] = family, household
tuathanach = domestic
teaghlachas = domesticity
teaghlach na gréine = the solar system (poetic)
Manx (Gaelg) theay = citizens, common people, general public. laity, peasantry, public, populace
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tut, tud = people, tribe, nation, family
Welsh (Cymraeg) tud = people, tribe, nation, family, country, territory, district, region, kingdom, land, earth
tudlen = map (of the world)
tudliw = ochre
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) tus = a nation, people, men
Cornish (Kernewek) tus = men, people, persons
tus henavek = elderly
Breton (Brezhoneg) tud = people, parents, relatives, characters
tud-kozh = grand-parents

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tewtéh₂ (people, tribe) [source].

Words from the same PIE root include Dutch in English, Deutsch (German) in German, todo (all, every, each, everything) in Spanish, þjóð (a people, a nation) in Icelandic, [source].

The name Tudor was borrowed from the Welsh name Tudur, from the Old Welsh name Tutir, from the Proto-Brythonic name *Tʉdür, from the Proto-Celtic name *Toutorīxs, from *toutā (people, tribe) and *rīxs (king) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fire Angels

Words for fire in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *teɸnets = fire
Old Irish (Goídelc) teine [ˈtʲenʲe] = fire
Irish (Gaeilge) tine [ˈtʲɪnʲə] = fire, conflagration; incandescence, flame; luminosity, glow; flash; inflammation
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) teine [tʲenə] = fire, flame, conflagration
Manx (Gaelg) çhenney = elemental fire, lightning, rickets
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tan [taːn] = fire
Welsh (Cymraeg) tân [taːn] = fire, conflagration, bonfire, flame, spark, light (for a cigarette), match; high temperature (from fever)
Cornish (Kernewek) tan [ta:n / tæ:n] = fire
Breton (Brezhoneg) tan [ˈtɑ̃ːn] = fire

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *tep- (to be warm) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) aingel [ˈaŋʲɡʲel] = angel
Irish (Gaeilge) aingeal [ˈæɲɟəl] = angel; fire, lighted coal
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) aingeal [ˈãĩŋʲgʲəl̪ˠ] = angel, messenger, fire, light, sunshine; brightness, light; signal fire, beacon; warmth
Manx (Gaelg) aile [ail] = fire
ainle = angel
Welsh (Cymraeg) angel [ˈaŋɛl] = angel
Cornish (Kernewek) eledh = angel
Breton (Brezhoneg) ael = angel

Etymology: from the Late Latin angelus (angel, messenger), from the Ancient Greek ἄγγελος (ángelos – messenger) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, teanglann.ie, On-Line Manx Dictionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau


Alive & Living

Words for alive & living in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *biwos = alive, living, mortal
Old Irish (Goídelc) béo [bʲeːu̯] = alive, living
Irish (Gaeilge) beo [bʲoː / bʲɔː] = living, alive; live, active; living being; life; livelihood; quick; to live
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) beò [bjɔː] = alive, live, living; lively; vivid; vital; quick, lively, sprightly
Manx (Gaelg) bio [bʲoː] = alive, live, lifelike, bright, hot, activated, pictorial, afloat, live person, spring tide after neap
Proto-Brythonic *bɨw = alive, living
Welsh (Cymraeg) byw [bɨu̯ / bɪu̯] = alive, living, having life, animate, quick, existing, actual; lively, full of life, vivacious, vigorous, sprightly, spirited, eager, sparkling; vivid, graphic; susceptible to
byw (verb) = to live, lead one’s life, subsist, exist; dwell, inhabit, to animate, revive
Cornish (Kernewek) bew [beˑʊ] = active, agile, alive, lively, living,
switched on
bewa = to live, be alive
Breton (Brezhoneg) bev = alive, living, lively
bevañ = to live, feed

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *gʷih₃wós (alive, living) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) forig, fuirset = to remain, stay
Irish (Gaeilge) fuirigh = to hold back, delay, wait, stay
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fuirich [fuɾʲɪç] = to stay, wait, delay, linger, abide
Manx (Gaelg) fariagh [bʲoː] = to stay
Old Irish (Goídelc) cómnuigim = I rest
congaib [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) cómnuigim = I rest
congaib [konˈɡavʲ] = to contain, preserve, keep, uphold
Irish (Gaeilge) cónaigh [ˈkoːn̪ˠɪɟ / ˈkoːnˠə / ˈkɔːnˠi] = living, alive; live, active; living being; life; livelihood; quick; to live
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cumail [kumal] = (act of) keeping, holding, retaining; witholding; celebrating, observing
còmhnaidh [kɔ̃ːnɪ] = (act of) occupying, inhabiting, dwelling, residing; occupancy, occupation, habitation, residence; (act of) abiding; abode
Manx (Gaelg) cummal = to grip, hold, keep, arrest, contain, retain, live, inhabit

Etymology: from the Old Irish com- (with) and gaibid (to hold, grasp, take, seize, capture) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) maraid [ˈma.rəðʲ] = to last, persist, remain; to survive, live
Irish (Gaeilge) mair = to live, to last
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mair [marʲ] = to live, to exist, to continue

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *merh₂- (to seize, grip) [source].

Welsh (Cymraeg) trigio = to live (in), dwell, reside, lodge, stay, remain, delay, linger
godrig(af) = to stay, tarry, remain, abide, dwell, sojourn; stay or tarry for; rest upon, insist; linger, delay.
Middle Cornish trege, trega, tryga, tryge = to remain, stay, dwell
Cornish (Kernewek) triga = to remain, stay, dwell
Old Breton guotric = to stay

Etymology: from Latin trīcō (to delay) [source].

The word for to live in Breton, chom, comes from the Old French chômer (to be idle, to be out of work), from the Late Latin caumāre, from caumō (I rest during the heat), from the Ancient Greek καῦμα (kaûma – heat). [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau


Words for purple in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) corcra = purple
Irish (Gaeilge) corcra = purple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corcar [kɔr̪ˠxgər] = purple; any lichen yielding a purple dye
Welsh (Cymraeg) porffor = purple
Cornish (Kernewek) purpur [‘pʏrpʏr / ‘pərpər] = purple
Breton (Brezhoneg) pourpré = purple

From Ancient Greek πορφύρα (porphúra – murex (the mollusc)
Tyrian purple, royal purple) [source]

Purple in Manx is gorrym jiarg or jiarg gorrym.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau