Purple

Words for purple in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) corcra = purple
Irish (Gaeilge) corcra = purple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corcar [kɔr̪ˠxgər] = purple; any lichen yielding a purple dye
Welsh (Cymraeg) porffor = purple
Cornish (Kernewek) purpur [‘pʏrpʏr / ‘pərpər] = purple
Breton (Brezhoneg) pourpré = purple

Etymology
From Ancient Greek πορφύρα (porphúra – murex (the mollusc)
Tyrian purple, royal purple) [source]

Purple in Manx is gorrym jiarg or jiarg gorrym.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Brown & Dun

Words for brown / dun in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *dusnos = dark brown
Old Irish (Goídelc) donn [don͈] = brown, tawny, dun; hazel (eyes), chestnut (animals)
Irish (Gaeilge) donn [d̪ˠɔn̪ˠ / d̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / d̪ˠəun̪ˠ] = brown, brown-haired, hard brown timber
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) donn [dɔun̪ˠ ~ dɯn̪ʲə] = brown, brown-haired, brunette
Manx (Gaelg) dhone = brown, brown-haired, hazel, swarthy, dark-skinned
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dwnn = dun, dark red, brown
Welsh (Cymraeg) dwn = dun, dark red, brown; swarthy, dark

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dusnos- / *donnos- (dark) [source]

Proto-Celtic *gelos = shining, white
Gaulish *gelā
Old Irish (Goídelc) gel = bright, clear, white
Irish (Gaeilge) geal [ɟalˠ] = white, bright
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geal [gʲal̪ˠ] = white, fine
Manx (Gaelg) gial = bright, clear, white, shining, snowy, light-coloured, fulgent
Welsh (Cymraeg) gell = bay, brown, auburn, orange, yellow, tawny-coloured
Cornish (Kernewek) gell [gɛl:] = (light) brown
Breton (Brezhoneg) gell = bay, brown

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₂os, from *ǵʰelh₂- (to shine) [source]

Proto-Celtic *gurmos = dun, dark, blue
Irish (Gaeilge) gorm [ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ] = blue; dyeing-blue; azure; dark-blue; livid, purple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gorm [gɔrɔm] = blue; green, verdant; green, inexperienced, wet (behind the ears)
Manx (Gaelg) gorrym = blue, black, dark-skinned; washing blue
Proto-Brythonic *gurm = dun, dark, blue
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrm = brown, dark-brown, reddish, greyish-brown, dark-grey, dark, dusky, black, dark-blue, blue
Cornish (Kernewek) gorm [gɔrm] = (dark) brown
Old Breton uurm = dark

Etymology: unknown

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru

Green & Verdant

Words for green in Celtic languages.

Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyrdd [ɡwɨ̞rð / ɡwɪrð] = green, verdant, bluish green, pale (blue), grey; fresh, lively; grassy
Old Cornish guirt = green
Cornish (Kernewek) gwyrdh [gwɪrð] = green
gwer [gwɛ:r / gwe:r] = green
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwer = green (artificial)

Etymology
From Latin viridis (green, young, fresh, lively, youthful), from vireo (to be verdant, to sprout) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Grey

Words for grey in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *ɸlētos = grey
Old Irish (Goídelc) líath [l͈ʲiːa̯θ] = grey, grey-haired
Irish (Gaeilge) liath [ˈl̠ʲiə] = grey, grey-haired, pale
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) liath [l̪ʲiə] = grey, grizzled
Manx (Gaelg) lheeah
Proto-Brythonic *luɨd = grey
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwyd [ˈɬuːɨ̯d / ˈɬʊi̯d] = grey, faint; pale, pallid, wan; russet, brown; turbid, muddy (water); grey-haired, grey-headed, old, ancient; grey (hair), grizzled
Cornish (Kernewek) loos [lo:z / lu:z ] = grey, mouldy
Breton (Brezhoneg) loued = grey, mouldy

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *pel- (pale) [source]

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Red

Words for red in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *dergos = red, crimson
Old Irish (Goídelc) derg [dʲerɡ] = red
Irish (Gaeilge) dearg [ˈdʲaɾˠəɡ / ˈdʲæɾˠəɡ] = red, rouge, red ink, glowing, raw, bloody
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearg [dʲɛrɛg] = red, ruddy, flamming, red-hot
Manx (Gaelg) jiarg = red, sanguine, ruddy, bloodshot, rouge, gules, glowing, stark, florid, live, burning, abandoned, fair (intensive), turned (land)

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰerg- (to dim, darken) [source]. The English word dark comes from the same root [source].

Proto-Celtic *roudos = red
Gaulish *roudos = red
Old Irish (Goídelc) rúad [r͈uːa̯ð] = red, reddish
Irish (Gaeilge) rua [ɾˠuə] = red, reddish-browm, russet, copper-brown; wild, fierce; rough, strong
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ruadh [r̪ˠuəɣ] = (browny) red, rust-coloured, ginger, russet; red colour, redness; strength; red deer
Manx (Gaelg) ruy [rɛi/riː] = red, ginger, tan, copper-complexioned, red-haired, foxy, sandy
Proto-Brythonic *rʉð = red
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhudd [r̥ɨːð / r̥iːð] = red, ruddy, purplish, bay, tawny, brown; bloody, covered with blood; scorched
Cornish (Kernewek) rudh [ry:ð / ri:ð] = red
Breton (Brezhoneg) ruz = red

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₁rewdʰ- (red) [source]

Proto-Celtic *kokko-/*kokki = red
Proto-Brythonic *kox = red
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coch = red
Welsh (Cymraeg) coch [koːχ] = red, redness, ruddy, scarlet, bloody; ginger (hair); brown; poor, feeble, unskilful
Cornish (Kernewek) coch / cough = red

Etymology: from the Latin coccum (a scarlet berry), from the Ancient Greek κόκκος (kókkos – berry). This is also the root of coccinus (scarlet, scarlet-dyed), from which comes the English word cochineal, and related words in other languages [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Yellow & Gold

Words for yellow in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *bodyos = yellow
Gaulish Baius = proper name
Old Irish (Goídelc) buide [ˈbuðʲe] = yellow, yellowness, buttercup, honey, pollen
Irish (Gaeilge) buí [bˠiː] = yellow, sallow, tan
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) buidhe [bujə] = yellow, golden, glad, grateful, fortunate, lucky
Manx (Gaelg) bwee / buigh = yellow, jaundiced, tan, sallow, fair headed

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *bodyos (yellow) [source]. Related to the English word bay [source].

Spring blossom / Blodau'r Gwanwyn

Proto-Celtic *melinos = yellow
Welsh (Cymraeg) melyn [ˈmɛlɨ̞n / ˈmɛlɪn] = yellow, golden, (made of) gold; yellow-haired, blond; light-bay (horse); yellow, sallow, livid, or brown (skin); brown (sugar); deadly, implacable, unpleasant
Old Cornish milin = yellow
Cornish (Kernewek) melyn [‘mɛlɪn / ‘mɛlən ] = yellow, fair, blonde
Breton (Brezhoneg) melen = yellow, blonde

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *méli (honey) [source].

Words for gold in Celtic languages.

Old Irish (Goídelc) ór = gold
Irish (Gaeilge) ór [oːɾˠ] = gold
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òr [ɔːr] = gold
Manx (Gaelg) airh = gold, bullion, gilt
Welsh (Cymraeg) aur [aɨ̯r/ai̯r] = gold, gold money or coin(s), wealth; gold (colour); gold(en)
Cornish (Kernewek) owr [ɔʊr] = gold
Breton (Brezhoneg) aour = gold

Etymology
From Latin aureus (gold, golden, gilded), from aurum (gold) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

yellow

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Silver & Money

Words for silver and money in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *argantom = silver
Gaulish arangto- / *argantom = silver
Celtiberian arkanta / arkato- = silver
Old Irish (Goídelc) argat [ˈarɡad] = silver, money
Irish (Gaeilge) airgead [ˈaɾʲɪɟəd̪ˠ / ˈæɾʲɪɟəd̪ˠ] = silver, money, sum of money
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) airgead [ɛrʲɛgʲəd] = money, silver, cash, currency
Manx (Gaelg) argid = money, silver, coinage, wages, finance, exchequer
Proto-Brythonic *arɣant [arˈɣant] = silver, money
Old Welsh argant = silver
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ariant = silver
Welsh (Cymraeg) arian [ˈarjan] = silver, silvery; silver vessel; money, coin(s), coinage, currency, wealth
Cornish (Kernewek) arghans [‘arhans / ‘ærhɐnz] = silver, money
Old Breton argant = silver
Middle Breton archant = silver
Breton (Brezhoneg) arc’hant = silver, money

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *h₂erǵn̥tom (silver), from *h₂erǵ- (white) [source]

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

Celtic Star pendant

Blue / Black / Dark

Words for blue / dark / dun in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *gurmos = dun, dark, blue
Irish (Gaeilge) gorm [ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ] = blue; dyeing-blue; azure; dark-blue; livid, purple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gorm [gɔrɔm] = blue; green, verdant; green, inexperienced, wet (behind the ears)
Manx (Gaelg) gorrym = blue, black, dark-skinned; washing blue
Proto-Brythonic *gurm = dun, dark, blue
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrm = brown, dark-brown, reddish, greyish-brown, dark-grey, dark, dusky, black, dark-blue, blue
Cornish (Kernewek) gorm [gɔrm] = (dark) brown
Old Breton uurm = dark

Etymology: unknown

View from Sabhal Mòr Ostaig

Note: the Old Breton word is used in the expression uurm-haelon (“with dark brows”).

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek

Blue / Green / Grey

Words for blue / green / grey in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *glastos = green, blue
Gaulish *glastom = green, blue
Old Irish (Goídelc) glas [ɡlas] = green, greenish (esp of growing things); blue, green-blue, grey-blue; metallic (colour); ice/frost colour; grey; wan (complexion); bluish, livid, discolored; faded
Irish (Gaeilge) glas [ɡlˠasˠ] = green (grass, politics); grey (horses, cloth, eyes); blue; grey; pale pallid; immature, unseasoned; raw inexperienced
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) glas [gl̪ˠas] = grey-green; pale, wan, sallow; green, unripe
Manx (Gaelg) glass = green (of nature), verdant, soft, pale, pasty, ashen (colour), grey (of animal), raw, unfledged, sappy, callow (of youth)
Proto-Brythonic *glas = green, blue
Welsh (Cymraeg) glas [ɡlaːs] = blue, azure, sky-blue, greenish blue, sea-green; green, grass-coloured, bluish green, verdant; unripe (of fruit); greyish-blue, slate-coloured, livid, pallid, pale; grey; silver
Cornish (Kernewek) glas [gla:z /glæ:z] = blue, grey, green
Breton (Brezhoneg) glas = blue, green (nature), grey (horse), raw & salty, fresh, bitter, pale

A view from Roman Camp / Golygfa o Roman Camp
Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology
From Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃stós, from *ǵʰelh₃- (green, yellow)

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau

White

Words for white in Celtic languages.

Proto-Celtic *windos [ˈwin.dos] = white
Old Irish (Goídelc) finn [fʲin͈] = white, bright, blessed
Irish (Gaeilge) fionn = white; fair-haired, blond, bright, clear
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fionn [fjũːn̪ˠ] = white, fair, pale; sincere, true, certain; small; fine, pleasant; wan; lilac; resplendent, bright; prudent
Manx (Gaelg) fynn = blond(e), fair (hair, skin), pure white, sprite; cataract
Proto-Brythonic *gwinn [ˈɡwɨnː] = white (m)
*gwenn = white (f)
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwynn = white (m)
gwen = white (f)
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyn [ɡwɨ̞n / ɡwɪn] = white (m), greyish-white, pale; light, shining, bright; brilliant, white-hot; silver; amber-coloured; fair-haired, fair-faced, of fair complexion; holy, blessed, beatific, good, happy; splendid, excellent, beautiful, fair, pleasant; favourite, darling, white-headed
gwen = white (f)
Old Cornish guyn = white
Cornish (Kernewek) gwynn [gwɪn:] = white, fair, blessed
Old/Middle Breton guinn = white
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwenn = white, pale, pure
Proto-Celtic *banos = white
Old Irish (Goídelc) bán [baːn] = white, pure
Irish (Gaeilge) bán [bˠɑːn̪ˠ / bˠæːn̪ˠ] = white, white-headed, fair, pale, blank, empty, idle, wild crazy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) bàn [baːn] = fair(-haired), white (haired); blank, empty, unoccupied, vacant; pallid, pale; fallow
Manx (Gaelg) bane = white, blank, fair, blond(e), pallid; fallow, unbroken (ground)
Welsh (Cymraeg) bân [baːn] = white, whitish, grey, pale

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *bʰeh₂- (to shine) [source], or from *bhā (shine) [source]

Proto-Celtic *gelos = shining, white
Gaulish *gelā
Old Irish (Goídelc) gel = bright, clear, white
Irish (Gaeilge) geal [ɟalˠ] = white, bright
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geal [gʲal̪ˠ] = white, fine
Manx (Gaelg) gial = bright, clear, white, shining, snowy, light-coloured, fulgent
Welsh (Cymraeg) gell = bay, brown, auburn, orange, yellow, tawny-coloured
Cornish (Kernewek) gell [gɛl:] = (light) brown
Breton (Brezhoneg) gell = bay, brown

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₂os, from *ǵʰelh₂- (to shine) [source]

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionnaire Favereau