Colourful Hues

Words for colour, hue, pigment and related colours in Celtic languages.

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Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *līwos = colour
Gaulish *lios = colour
Old Irish (Goídelc) [ˈtane] = lustre, beauty
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) lí, li = beauty, lustre, glory, complexion, slendour, appearance, pallor
Irish (Gaeilge) [l̠ʲiː] = colour, complexion, lustre, sheen, pigment(ation)
líú = (act of) colouring, painting
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = paint, colour, tinge, hue, complexion, properity, happiness
lìth [l̪ʲiː] = lustre, gloss, splendour, complexion, hue
lìtheach [l̪ʲiː] = greasy, slimy,slippery
Manx (Gaelg) lhee = pigment, pigmentation
Proto-Brythonic *lliw = colour
Old Welsh liu = colour, hue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) llyu, lliw, lliỽ, llyw = colour,hue
lliwyav, lliwaw = to colour, paint, dye
lliỽyd, lliwyd = dyer, colourer, painter
Welsh (Cymraeg) lliw [ɬɪu̯] = colour, hue, tint, complexion, countenance, colouring
lliwddall = colourbind
lliwgar = colourful, vivid, beautiful, handsome
lliw(i)af, lliw(i)o = to colour, tinge, paint, dye
lliw(i)og = coloured, tinted, dyed, painted
lliwydd = dyer, colourer, painter
Old Cornish liu = colour
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) liu, lyw = colour, dye, hue
liue = to colour, paint
liuor = painter, dyer
Cornish (Kernewek) liw = colour,dye, paint
liwa = to colour, dye, paint
liwans = painting
liwus = colourful
liwayans = painting, picture
liways = coloured, dye
Old Breton (Brethonoc) liu = colour, ink, dyed
Middle Breton (Brezonec) liu, liou = colour, ink, dyed
liuaff = to colour, dye, paint
Breton (Brezhoneg) liv [liw] = colour, ink, paint, dyed
livañ [ˈliː.vã] = to colour, dye, paint, depict
livek [ˈliːvek] = coloured
liver, livour [ˈliː.vɛr/ˈli.wːər] = painter, colourist
livus [ˈliːvys] = dye, picturesque

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *slih₂-wó-s from *(s)leh₃y- (blueish, plum-coloured) and *-wós (creates adjectives from verb stems) [source]. Words from the same PIE roots include livid, lurid and sloe in English, slíva (plum) in Czech, and possibly lloer (moon) in Welsh, loor (moon) in Cornish and loar (moon) in Breton [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) dath [daθ] = colour, dye
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dath = colour, dye, hue, tint, complexion
dathach = coloured
dathaid, daithaigid = colours, dyes, stains
dathamail = coloured, fine, handsome, beautiful, comely, graceful
dathugud = colouring, dyeing, painting
Irish (Gaeilge) dath [d̪ˠax/d̪ˠɑh/d̪ˠah] = colour, dye
dathach = coloured
dathadóir = colourist, dyer, painter, exaggerator, fictionist
dathadóireacht = (act of) dyeing, painting
dathaigh = to colour,dye, paint
dathannach = multi-coloured, gaily-coloured, colourful, glowing
dathdhall = colour-blind
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dath [dah] = colour, colouring, dye, pigment, dying, hue, tint, staining, suit (of cards)
dathach [dahəx] = coloured, colourful
dathachadh [dahəxəɣ] = colourising, dyeing, staining
dathadair [dahədɪrʲ] = dyer, colourist
dathail [dahal] = colourful
dathte [dahdʲə] = coloured
Manx (Gaelg) daah = colour, dye, hue, paint, pigment, singe, stain, tincture
daahagh = coloured, stainable
daahder = colourer, colourist, dyer, exaggerator, painter
daahit = coloured, dyed, painted, pigmented, stained
daahoil = colourful, picturesque, well-coloured

Etymology: unknown [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) gné = appearance, form, kind, sort, species
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gné = kind, species, appearance, form, way, manner
Irish (Gaeilge) gné [ɟnʲeː/ɟɾʲeː] = species, kind, form, appearance
gnéitheach = specific, of good appearance
gnétheacht = specificity
gnéthigh = to regain appearance, mend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gnè [grʲɛ̃ː] = sex, gender, genre, kind, sort, temper, disposition, genus, species
gnè-fhàs [grɛ͂ː aːs] = evolution
gnè-eòlas = typology
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
gorne = colour, hue, tint
Welsh (Cymraeg) gne = colour, tint, hue, sight, aspect
agne = colour, tincture
gorne = colour, hue, tint, tincture, blush, brightness, appearance, aspect

Etymology: from PIE *ǵenh₁- (to produce, beget, give birth) [source]. Words from the same roots include gender, general, generate, genius and germ in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Purple

Words for purple and related things in Celtic languages.

Purple

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Old Irish (Goídelc) corcarda = purple, crimson
corcair = purple / crimson dye, murex
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) corcarda, corcra = purple, crimson
purpuir = purple, crimson
Irish (Gaeilge) corcra = purple
corcraigh = purple, crimson, bloody
corcair = a kind of purple dye
corcairdhearg = crimson
corcairghorm = violet
purpair = purple, purple cloth
purpal = purple
purparaigh = purple
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) corcar [kɔr̪ˠxgər] = purple; any lichen yielding a purple dye
corcra [kɔrxgrə] = purple, crimson
corcarach [kɔrxgrəx] = purple, crimson
corcaire [kɔrxgɪrʲ] = make/dye purple
corcradh [kɔrxgrəɣ] = making/dying purple
purpaidh [purbɪ] = purple
purpar [purbər] = purple
Manx (Gaelg) purple = purple
Proto-Brythonic *porfor = purple
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) porfor, porffor, porphor = purple
Welsh (Cymraeg) porffor [ˈpɔrfɔr] = purple, puce, violet, red, crimson, scarlet, clad in purple, royal, imperial
porffori, porffora(f) = to become/turn purple or crimson
porfforaid = purple (coloured), purplish, clad in purple
purpur = purple, scarlet, red, purple cloth
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) purpur = purple, purple robe
Cornish (Kernewek) purpur [‘pʏrpʏr / ‘pərpər] = purple, violet
purpurwyn = light purple
Middle Breton (Brezonec) pourp, pourpr = purple
Breton (Brezhoneg) pourpré = purple

Etymology: from Latin purpura (purple), from Ancient Greek πορφύρα [por.pʰý.raː] (purple-fish (Hexaplex trunculus), purple dye from that fish). The English word purple comes from the same roots, as do words for purple in various other European languages [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec ) ehoec = heather-colour(ed), purple, green
Welsh (Cymraeg) ehöeg = heather-colour(ed), purple, green, green colour
hoeg = green
Etymology: possibly from *oec (heather) [source].

Other words for purple in Welsh include:

  • piws [pɪu̯s] (puce, [reddish] purple). It comes from the English puce (brownish-purple, deep red), from French puce (flea), from Latin pūlicem (flea), from Proto-Indo-European *plúsis (flea), which is also the root of the English word flea [source].
  • cochlas [ˈkɔχlas] (purple, reddish blue), from coch (red) and glas (blue/green) [source].
  • glasgoch [ˈɡlasɡɔχ] (purple, bluish red), from glas (blue/green) and coch (red) [source].

Other words for purple in Manx are gorrym jiarg and jiarg gorrym, and purpleness is gorrym jiargid.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Brown & Dun

Words for brown, dun and related things in Celtic languages.

Horses

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *dusnos = dark brown
Old Irish (Goídelc) donn [don͈] = brown, tawny, dun; hazel (eyes), chestnut (animals)
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) donn = dun, brown
donnaid = to make brown or red
Irish (Gaeilge) donn [d̪ˠɔn̪ˠ / d̪ˠuːn̪ˠ / d̪ˠəun̪ˠ] = brown, brown-haired, hard brown timber
donnaigh = brown, tan, rust
donnbhuí = yellowish brown, fallow, biscuit(-coloured)
donnchiabhach = brown-haired
donndearg = reddish brown
donnfhionn = light brown
donnroscach = brown-eyed
donnrua = chestnut (colour), russet (cloth), bay (horse)
strong>donnúchán = browning
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) donn [dɔun̪ˠ ~ dɯn̪ʲə] = brown, brown-haired, brunette
donn-gheal = light brown, slightly tanned
donn-ruadh = bay, chestnut (coloured)
donn-uaine = olive(-brown)
donnachadh [dɔ̪nˠəxəɣ] = browning, making brown, tanning
Manx (Gaelg) dhoan, dhone, doan = brown, brown-haired, hazel, swarthy, dark-skinned
dhoanaghey = brown, tan
doan ruy = sepia
dhone-ruy = bay (colour)
dhoan-ruy = chestnut
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dwnn, dwn = dun, dark red, brown
Welsh (Cymraeg) dwn = dun, dark red, brown; swarthy, dark

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *dʰews-/*dʰewh₂- (smoke, mist, haze) [source]. Words from the same root possibly include dew, dun, dusk, dust and fume in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *gelos = shining, white
Gaulish *gelā
Old Irish (Goídelc) gel = bright, clear, white
gile = brightness, whiteness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gel, geal = fair, white, bright, shining
gelach = moon
gelaid = to make white, bleach, make fair
gelaigid = to brighten, give light to
gelán = brightness, a flash, whiteness
gelcaid = to whiten
geldae = fair, bright
Irish (Gaeilge) geal [ɟalˠ] = white, bright, pure, glad, happy, dear, beloved, fond
gealach [ɟəˈl̪ˠɑx] = moon
gealacán = white (of egg/eye)
gealachán = bleaching, clothes hung out to dry
gealacht = brightening
gealadh = dawning, dawn, bleaching, greying, lightening of colour, gladness, fondness
gealán = gleam, flash, bright spell
gealánach = gleaming, flashing, bright
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) geal [gʲal̪ˠ] = white, fine
gealach [gʲal̪ˠəx] = moon
gealachd [gʲal̪ˠəxg] = whiteness
gealadh [gʲal̪ˠag] = blight, whitening, fade-in
gealaich [gʲal̪ɪç] = blanch, bleach, whiten
gealaichte [gʲal̪ɪçdʲə] = blanched, bleached, whitened
Manx (Gaelg) gial = bright, clear, white, shining, snowy, light-coloured, fulgent
giallagh = moon
gialan = egg white
giallaghey = to blanch, bleach, brighten, whiten
gillid = brightness, clearness, light, lustre
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gell = bay, brown, auburn
Welsh (Cymraeg) gell = bay, brown, auburn, orange, yellow, tawny-coloured
Cornish (Kernewek) gell [gɛl:] = (light) brown
gellburpur = puce
gellrudh = auburn, russet brown
gellvelyn = tawny brown
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guel(l) = bay, fawn, red
Breton (Brezhoneg) gell [ˈɡɛlː] = bay, brown, ripe, exhausted
gellaat [ɡɛˈlɑːt] = to make or become brown
gellan, gellañ = = to brown, ripen
gelleg = bay colour

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰelh₂os, from *ǵʰelh₂- (to shine) [source]. English words from the same PIE roots include arsenic, gall, gild, gild, gold and yellow [source].

Proto-Celtic *gurmos = dun, dark, blue
Old Irish (Goídelc) gorm = blue, dark, green
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gorm = (deep) blue, green, dark, swarthy, black
Irish (Gaeilge) gorm [ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ] = blue, dyeing-blue; azure, dark-blue; livid, purple
goirme = blueness
gormaigh, gormú = to colour blue, become blue
gormchló = blue-print
gormghlas = blue-green, sea-green, aquamarine
gormroscach, gormshúileach = blue-eyed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gorm [gɔrɔm] = blue; green, verdant; green, inexperienced, wet (behind the ears)
gorm-ghlas = azure, cerulean, dapple grey (horse)
gorm_shùileach = blue-eyed (person)
gorm-uaine = blue-green
gormachadh [gɔrɔməxəɣ] = making blue or grey
gormailean = blue-eyed person, highly naive person
muc-ghorm = blue whale
Manx (Gaelg) gorrym = blue, black, dark-skinned
gormaghey = blue, cyanosis
gorrymaghey = blue
gorrym dorraghey = dark blue
bane-ghorrym = light blue
doo-ghorrym = navy blue
Proto-Brythonic *gurm = dun, dark, blue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gurum, gurim, gwrym, gurem = brown, dark-brown
gwrymde, gurym de = dark-blue, greyish-blue, swarthy, wearing mourning
gwrymseirch, gwrmseirch, gurumseirch = dark-blue armour or harness, horse-trappings, traces
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrm, gwrwm = brown, dark-brown, reddish, greyish-brown, dark-grey, dark, dusky, black, dark-blue, blue
gwr(w)mder = blackness, duskiness, murkiness, mist
gwr(w)mdde = dark-blue, greyish-blue, swarthy, wearing mourning
gwr(w)mddu = dusky, blackish, black garment
gwr(w)mseirch, gwrymseirch = dark-blue armour or harness, horse-trappings, traces
Cornish (Kernewek) gorm [gɔrm] = (dark/dull) brown
Old Breton uurm-haelon = with dark brows

Etymology: uncertain – possibly from a non-Indo-European substrate [source]

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Green & Verdant

Words for green, verdant and related things in Celtic languages.

Gleann Cholm Cille

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Brythonic *gwɨrð = green, verdant
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guird = green, verdant, bluish green, grey
guirdglas = sea-green, dark green, verdant, greenish
Middle Welsh (Kymraec ) guirt, gwyrd, gwyrt =green, verdant, bluish green, pale (blue), grey; fresh, lively; grassy
gwyrddv = to become green, sprout, make verdent
gwyrd(d) velyn, gwyrddvelyn = greenish-yellow, olive, light green
gwyrddlas, gwyrdlas, gwyrdd-las = sea-green, dark green, verdant, greenish
gwyrdloewet = bright green
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyrdd [ɡwɨ̞rð / ɡwɪrð] = green, verdant, bluish green, pale (blue), grey; fresh, lively; grassy
gwyrdd
gwyrdd(i)af, gwrddu, gwyrddio = to become green, sprout, make verdent
gwyrddaidd = greenish, leek-green
gwyrddfelyn = greenish-yellow, olive, light green
gwyrddlas = sea-green, dark green, verdant, greenish
gwyrddloyw = bright green
Old Cornish guirt = green
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guirt, gwirdh, gwêr = green, flourishing
Cornish (Kernewek) gwyrdh [gwɪrð] = green (not of plants or the sea)
gwer [gwɛ:r / gwe:r] = green
gwerdhu = dark green
gwerem = emerald
gwerik = greenish
gwerlas = blueish-green, teal
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guerz, guezr = green
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwer [ɡweːr/ɡɥeːr] = green (artificial)
gwerin, gweriñ = to green

Etymology: from Latin viridis (green, young, fresh, lively, youthful), from vireō (to be verdant, to sprout), from Proto-Italic *wizēō, from Proto-Indo-European *weys- (to increase) [source]. Words from the same roots include verdant, verdigris and verdure in English, vert (green) in French, verde (green) in Spanish, and verdhë (yellow, pale) in Albanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *udnios/*utnio- = green (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) úaine = green, greenness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úaine = green, verdant, greenness
Irish (Gaeilge) uaine [ˈuənʲə/ˈwɛnʲə] = (vivid) green, greenness, verdue
uaine éadrom = pale green
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uaine [uən̪ʲə] = green, greenness
uaineach [uən̪ʲəx] = tedious
Uaineach [uən̪ʲəx] = Green Party supporter, a Green
uaineachadh [uən̪ʲəxəɣ] = turning green, being humbled
uainead [uən̪ʲəd] = greenness
uainealach [uən̪ʲəlˠ̪əx] = greenish
sìor-uaine = evergreen
Manx (Gaelg) eayney/geayney = green, greenness, verdure
geaynaght = verdure
geaynid = bile, greenness, verdure
Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wed- (green) [source]. Words from the same roots include [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec ) ehoec = heather-colour(ed), purple, green
Welsh (Cymraeg) ehöeg = heather-colour(ed), purple, green, green colour
hoeg = green
Etymology: possibly from *oec (heather) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Grey

Words for grey and related words in Celtic languages.

Traeth Dinas Dinlle Beach

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *ɸlētos = grey
Old Irish (Goídelc) líath [l͈ʲiːa̯θ] = grey, grey-haired
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) líath, liath = grey, grey-haired, aged
Irish (Gaeilge) liath [ˈl̠ʲiə] = grey, grey-haired (person), pale
liathábhar = grey matter
liathach = greyish
liathacht = greyness, greyishness
liathadh = greyness
liathbhán = greyish white, pale, wan
liathbhuí = sallow
liathdhearg = pale red, pinkish
liathghlas = pale green, pale grey
liathghorm = pale blue, blue-grey, livid
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) liath [l̪ʲiə] = grey, grizzled
liath-dhearg = pink
liath-ghlas = light grey, hoary
liath-ghorm = lilac
liathach = greyish, dirty white
liathachadh = making grey, creamer, whitener
liathad = degree of greyness, staleness
liathadh = making grey, becoming grey, greying, growing mouldy
liathtas = greyness
Manx (Gaelg) lheeah = grey, silver, grey- or white-haired, grey-headed, hoary, musty, mould
lheeaghid = greyness
lheeaghys = greyness, hoariness, mustiness
lheeah-ghlass = light grey, sage green
lheeah-ghorrym = blue-grey, glaucous, livid
lheeah gorrym-yiarg = mauve
lheeah-vane = whitish
lheeah-wuigh = yellowish
Proto-Brythonic *luɨd = grey
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) luit, llvid, lluid, lluyd, llwyt = grey, pale, pallid, wan
lwytlas = greyish-blue, pale
Welsh (Cymraeg) llwyd [ˈɬuːɨ̯d / ˈɬʊi̯d] = grey, faint; pale, pallid, wan; russet, brown; turbid, muddy (water); grey-haired, grey-headed, old, ancient; grey (hair), grizzled
llwydaf, llwydo = to turn grey or brown, to become turbid or muddy, turn pale, fade, grow old, deteriorate, decay
llwydaidd = greyish, rather pale, brownish, turbid, drab, poorish, dreary, dismal, lacking enthusism, lukewarm
llwyd-ddu = dark grey, greyish black, blackish, dusky, swarthy, dun
llwydedd = greyness, mouldiness, mould, mildew, mustiness, hoariness, pallor, paleness
llwyd-felyn = greyish-yellow, beige, fawn, pale brown, khaki, buff
llwydlas = greyish-blue, pale
Old Cornish luit, lot = grey, mouldy
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) loys = grey, mouldy
Cornish (Kernewek) loos [lo:z / lu:z] = grey, hoary, mouldy
Old Breton loit = mold, moldy
Middle Breton (Brezonec) loüet = mold, moldy
loedadur = moldy
Breton (Brezhoneg) loued = grey, mouldy
louedadur = mold, blight
louedan, louedañ = to turn grey, mold
louedek = to greyness

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *pelh₁- (pale). Words from the same roots include fallow, pale, pallid and polio in English, and the names Floyd and Lloyd [source]

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Red

Words for red in Celtic languages.

Flowers / Blodau

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *dergos = red, crimson
Old Irish (Goídelc) derg [dʲerɡ] = red
dergaid = to redden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) derg, derc = red, ruddy, bloody, sanguinary, red-hot, incandescent
dergadas = to redden
dergaid = to redden, make red, kindle, burn
dergaide = reddish
derge = redness, ruddiness, flushing
dergthach = red, ruddy, hot, reddish
Irish (Gaeilge) dearg [ˈdʲaɾˠəɡ / ˈdʲæɾˠəɡ] = red, rouge, red ink, glowing, raw, bloody
deargadh = reddening, blushing, glow(ing), light(ing), bloodying, wounding, chafing, soil-turning, digging
deargán = red matter or object, chafed, patch, glow
dearglasta = blazing, red-hot
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dearg [dʲɛrɛg] = red, ruddy, flamming, red-hot
dearg-amadan = bloody fool, complete idiot
dearg-bhuidhe = orange
dearg-lasrach [dʲɛrɛg l̪ˠasrəx] = flaming red, red hot
deargachadh [dʲɛrɛgəxəɣ] = reddening, making an impression, blushing, drawing blood
dearg-ruadh = bright red (hair, wool, etc)
Manx (Gaelg) jiarg = red, sanguine, ruddy, bloodshot, rouge, gules, glowing, stark, florid, live, burning, abandoned, fair (intensive), turned (land)
jiargey = chafe, sore, red
jiargaghey = to blush, flush, glow, redden, blushing, glowing
jiargid = grossness, reddishness, redness
jiarg-bwee = orange
jiarg-cheh = red hot
jirgid = blush, glow, reddness, ruddiness

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *dʰerg- (to dim, darken) [source]. The English word dark comes from the same root [source].

Proto-Celtic *roudos = red
Gaulish *roudos = red
Old Irish (Goídelc) rúad [r͈uːa̯ð] = red, reddish
rúadnaid = to redden
forrúad = red, russet
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) rúad = red, brownish, dark red, strong, mighty
rúadnaid = to make red, redden
Irish (Gaeilge) rua [ɾˠuə] = red, reddish-browm, russet, copper-brown; wild, fierce; rough, strong
ruachan = reddening, rusting (vegetation
ruachorcra = puce
ruacht = redness (of hair)
ruafholtach = red-haired
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) ruadh [r̪ˠuəɣ] = (browny) red, rust-coloured, ginger, russet, red colour, redness; strength; red deer
ruadhachadh [r̪ˠuə.əxəɣ] = reddening, making red
ruadhan [r̪ˠuəɣan] = reddishness, overcooked good, tea which has been boiling all day
ruadh-bhuidhe = auburn
Manx (Gaelg) ruy [rɛi/riː] = red, ginger, tan, copper-complexioned, red-haired, foxy, sandy
ruyagh = reddish
ruyghey = bronze, brown, redden, tan(ned)
ruyid = brownness, reddishness, redness, tan
ruissagh = florid, reddish, rose-coloured, rosy, ruddy
ruissaght = reddishness, rosiness, ruddiness
Proto-Brythonic *rʉð = red
Old Welsh (Kembraec) rud = red
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) rud, rut, rhudd = red, ruddy
rudit, rutaỽ, rudaỽ, rhuddo = to make or become red, crimson or violet
rudell, ruddell = red, reddish
rutem, rud em, rudem = ruby, garnet, ruby-coloured
rudcoch, rruddgoch, rudgoch = red, crimson, purple, blood-red, bloody
ruddlas, ryddlas = reddish-blue, purple, violet
Welsh (Cymraeg) rhudd = red, ruddy, purplish, bay, tawny, brown, bloody, covered with blood, scorched, crimson, violet, purple
rhuddaf, rhuddo = to make or become red, crimson or violet
rhuddel(l) = red, reddish, brown, bay, red ochre, red colour
rhuddem = ruby, garnet, ruby-coloured
rhuddgoch = red, crimson, purple, blood-red, bloody
rhuddiad = becoming red or pink, blushing, redness
rhuddlas = reddish-blue, purple, violet
Old Cornish rud = red
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) rudh, rud, rûdh ruydh = red, crimson
Cornish (Kernewek) rudh [ry:ð / ri:ð] = ginger, red
rudh min = lipstick
rudhek = robin
rudhel = auburn, russet red
rudhem = ruby
rudhgogh = blood-red
rudhik = reddish
rudhlas = purple, reddish purple
rudhlasdu = crimson
rudhlos = greyish red, russet
rudhvelyn = orange, reddish orange
rudhwyn = gay, pink, reddish pink
rudhya = to blush, redden
Old Breton (Brethonoc) rud = red
Middle Breton (Brezonec) ruz, ru, rus = red
Breton (Brezhoneg) ruz = red
ruzded = redness
ruzdu = brown
ruzellat = to glow
ruzian, ruziañ = to blush

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₁rewdʰ- (red). Words from the same root include red, robust, ruby, ruddy, russet and rust in English [source].

Proto-Celtic *kokko-/*kokki = red
Proto-Brythonic *kox = red
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) coch = red
cochi, kochi = to make or become red, redden, brown, scorch, blush
cochder, cochter, kochder = redness, ruddiness, flush
kochdduy, coch-ddu, cochddû = reddish-black, russet, brown
cochliw = red-coloured, bloody, redness, ruddiness
kochwen = reddish-white, pink
coghyn, kochyn, cochen = red-haired person, hare
Welsh (Cymraeg) coch [koːχ] = red, redness, ruddy, scarlet, bloody; ginger (hair); brown; poor, feeble, unskilful
cochaf, cochi = to make or become red, redden, brown, scorch, blush
cochaidd = reddish, ruddy, bloody
cochder = redness, ruddiness, flush
cochddu = reddish-black, russet, brown
cochfelyn = copper-coloured, reddish yellow
cochlas = purple, violet, reddish blue
cochliw = red-coloured, bloody, redness, ruddiness
cochliwaf, cochliwio = to paint red
cochrudd = crimson, ruddy
cochwyn = reddish-white, pink
cochyn = red-haired person, hare
Middle Cornish (Cernewec / Kernuak) coch, couch = red, bloody
Cornish (Kernewek) kogh = blood-red, crimson, scarlet

Etymology: from the Latin coccum (a scarlet berry), from the Ancient Greek κόκκος (kókkos – berry). This is also the root of coccinus (scarlet, scarlet-dyed), from which comes the English word cochineal, and related words in other languages [source].

Proto-Celtic *wlannos = blood red
Old Irish (Goídelc) flann = red, blood-red
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) flann, fland [flan͈] = red, blood-red, blood
Irish (Gaeilge) flann = (blood-)red, bloody, sanguinary, blood (poetic)
flannbhuí = orange (colour)
flanndearg = vermilion
flannrua = blood-red
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) flann [fl̪ˠaun̪ˠ] = blood (archaic)
flann-dhearg = blood-red (archaic)

Etymology from Proto-Indo-European *welh₃- (to strike, hit, wound). Words from the same roots include vulnerable, valkyrie and Valhalla in English [source] and words for blood in Celtic languages.

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Yellow & Gold

Words for yellow and gold and related things in Celtic languages.

Spring blossom / Blodau'r Gwanwyn

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *bodyos = yellow
Gaulish *Bayos = proper name
*Bodyokasses = Baiocasses (a Celtic tribe of Gallia Lugdunensis)
Old Irish (Goídelc) buide [ˈbuðʲe] = yellow, yellowness, buttercup, honey, pollen
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) buide = yellow, yellowness, yellow hue
buidecán, buigheacan = (egg) yolk
buidecht = yellowness
buidid = to become yellow
buidigid = to make yellow
Irish (Gaeilge) buí [bˠiː] = yellow, sallow, tan
buíbhallach = spotted with yellow
buíbhán = light yellow, cream-coloured
buíbreac = speckled with yellow
buígh = yellow, tan
buíochan = yellowing
buíochán = jaundice
buíochánach = jaundiced
buíocht = yellowness, sallowness
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) buidhe [bujə] = yellow, golden
buidhe-dhonn, buidhe-ruadh = auburn
buidhe-shoilleir = amber
buidheagan [bujagan] = (egg) yolk
buidhich [bujɪç] = ripen (of cereals)
Manx (Gaelg) buigh, bwee = yellow, jaundiced, tan, sallow, fair headed
buighaghey = to yellow, jaundice
buighaghey = yellowing, jaundice

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *bodyos (yellow) [source]. Related to the English word bay (tree, leaf) ( [source].

Proto-Celtic *melinos = yellow
Proto-Brythonic *melino- = yellow
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) melen, melin, melyn = yellow, golden, gold; yellow-haired, blond
melynu = to be or become yellow or golden
melynoc, mylynog = yellowhammer, yellow bunting, goldfinch, linnet
melyn wy, melyn wi = yolk
Welsh (Cymraeg) melyn [ˈmɛlɨ̞n / ˈmɛlɪn] = yellow, golden, (made of) gold; yellow-haired, blond; light-bay (horse); yellow, sallow, livid, or brown (skin); brown (sugar); deadly, implacable, unpleasant
melynaf, melynu = to be or become yellow or golden
melynaidd = yellowish, golden, sallow
melynddu = yellowish-brown, dark yellow, tawny, russet, roan, swarthy, dusky
melynog = yellowhammer, yellow bunting, goldfinch, linnet, canary
melynwy = yolk
Old Cornish milin = yellow
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) melyn, melen, milin = yellow, the colour of honey
melynoy = egg yolk
Cornish (Kernewek) melyn [‘mɛlɪn / ‘mɛlən ] = yellow, fair, blonde
melyn oy = egg yolk
melynrudh = orange, yellowish orange
Middle Breton (Brezonec) melen = yellow, blonde
melen vy = egg yolk
Breton (Brezhoneg) melen = yellow, blonde
melen-vi = egg yolk
melenaat = to become / make yellow, to turn blond
melenadur = yellowing
melenard = a person with a yellow complexion
melenin, meleniñ = to yellow

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *mélit (honey) [source], words from the same PIE root include mulch and melleous (pertaining to honey) in English, and words for honey in Celtic and other European languages [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) ór = gold
ordae = golden
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) ór = gold
órda, órdae = made of gold, golden, resembling gold
Irish (Gaeilge) òr [oːɾˠ] = gold
óraigh = to gild
órbhuí = golden (colour)
órbhuille = gold leaf
órghréas = (gold) filigree
órphlátáilte = gold-plated
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) òr [ɔːr] = gold
òir-cheàrd = goldsmith
òr-bhuidhe = gold-coloured, auburn
òr-ubhal = orange (fruit)
òradh [ɔːrəɣ] = gilding, gilt, gold digging
òrail / òra [ɔːral/ɔːrə] = gold(en), gilded
Manx (Gaelg) airh = gold, bullion, gilt
oar = gold
airhey = to gild; gilt, gilt-edged, golden
airh ghlen = pure gold
airhoil = auriferous, aurous, looking like gold
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) eur, aur = gold(en)
eurir, eurha, euraw = to gild, adorn with gold, make golden
eureyt, eureit, euraid = golden, brilliant, splendid, glorious, precious
Welsh (Cymraeg) aur [aɨ̯r/ai̯r] = gold, gold money or coin(s), wealth; gold (colour); gold(en)
euraf, euro = to gild, adorn with gold, make golden
euraid = golden, brilliant, splendid, glorious, precious
euraidd = golden, precious, illustrious, refined, virtuous
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) our = gold
ourlyn = silk
Cornish (Kernewek) owr [ɔʊr] = gold, red-gold
owraval = orange
owrbesk, owrbysk = goldfish
owrek = golden
owrlin = silk
Middle Breton (Brezonec) aour = gold
aourek = (deposit of) gold
aourfebrer = goldsmith
aourin, aouriñ = to brown
aourra = to look for gold
aourraer = gold panning
Breton (Brezhoneg) aour = gold
aourek = (deposit of) gold
aourfebrer = goldsmith
aourin, aouriñ = to brown
aourra = to look for gold
aourraer = gold panning

Etymology: from Latin aureus (gold, golden, gilded), from aurum (gold), from Proto-Italic *auzom (gold), from PIE *h₂é-h₂us-óm (gold), from *h₂ews- (to dawn, become light, become red). Words from the same PIE roots include air, aura, auriferous (gold-bearing), aurora, Australia, and east in English [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Silver & Money

Words for silver, money and related things in Celtic languages.

Silver Coins From a Hoard

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *argantom = silver
Gaulish arangto- / *argantom = silver
Celtiberian arkanta / arkato- = silver
Old Irish (Goídelc) argat [ˈarɡad] = silver, money
airgdide = silver
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) argat = silver, currency, money
airgdide = (made of ) silver
airgetlach = mine
Irish (Gaeilge) airgead [ˈaɾʲɪɟəd̪ˠ / ˈæɾʲɪɟəd̪ˠ] = silver, money, sum of money
airgeadaí = financier
airgeadaigh = to silver, electroplate
airgeadaíocht = monetary policy, management
airgeadas = finance
airgeadóir = cashier, (bank) teller
airgeadra = currency
airgeadúil = silvery, financial, moneyed, profitable
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) airgead [ɛrʲɛgʲəd] = money, silver, cash, currency
airgead-beò = mercury (Me), quicksilver
airgead-làimhe = cash
airgead-urrais = insurance
airgeadach [ɛrʲɛgʲədəx] = silver(y), well-off, moneyed, lucrative
airgeadachadh = silvering, silverplating, monetizing
airgeadaichte [ɛrʲɛgədɪçdʲə] = silvered
airgeadas [ɛrʲɛgʲədəs] = finance
airgeadra [ɛrʲɛgʲədrə] = currency
Manx (Gaelg) argid = money, silver, coinage, wages, finance, exchequer
argidagh = fiscal, moneyed, financier, (the) rich, silver(ed)
argidaghey = silver, silver plate
argid-roie, argid cadjin = currency
argideyr = cashier, financier, teller
argidoil = financial, monetary
argidys = finance
Proto-Brythonic *arɣant [arˈɣant] = silver, money
Old Welsh (Kembraec) argant = silver
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) aryant, ariant, arian = silver
arandûy, ariandy = bank
arianllais = (having) a clear or melodious voice or sound
arianna, aryanna = to collect or accumulate money, beg for (money)
ariannu = to give money to, fund, finance
aryanheyt, areanneit, aryaneit = silvered, silver-plated, make of silver, silvery, wealthy, rich, moneyed
ariannog = wealthy, rich, moneyed, silver(y)
Welsh (Cymraeg) arian [ˈarjan] = silver, silvery; silver vessel; money, coin(s), coinage, currency, wealth
arianllais = (having) a clear or melodious voice or sound
arianna = to collect or accumulate money, beg for (money)
ariannaf, ariannu = to give money to, fund, finance, silver, inlay, plate
ariannaid = silvered, silver-plated, make of silver, silvery, wealthy, rich, moneyed
arianneg = financial management, finance
Ariannin = Argentinia, Argentinian
ariannog = wealthy, rich, moneyed, silver(y)
ariannwr, ariannydd = cashier, financier, banker, sponsor
Old Cornish argan, arʒant, argans = silver
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) archans, arhans, arrans = silver
Cornish (Kernewek) arghans [‘arhans / ‘ærhɐnz] = money, silver
arghans bew/byw = quicksilver
arghansek = financial, silvery
arghanser, arghansores = banker
arghans-gweres = subsidy
arghanti = bank
Arghantina = Argentina
Old Breton (Brethonoc) argant = silver
Middle Breton (Brezonec) archant = silver
Breton (Brezhoneg) arc’hant [ˈar.ɣãnt] = silver, money
arc’hantadur = silvering
arc’hantaj = silverware
arc’hantan, arc’hantañ = to silver, realize (in money), capitalize, sponsor, convert
arc’hantek = silver (adj)
arc’hanter = silverer
arc’hantiri = silverware
arc’hantus = money-producing, lucrative, capitalizable

Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *h₂erǵn̥tom (silver), from *h₂erǵ- (white, glittering) [source]. Words from the same PIE root include Argentina and argentous (of, pertaining to or containing silver) in English, արծաթ (arcatʿ – silver) in Armenian, argento (silver) in Italian, argent (silver, money, cash) in French [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blue / Black / Dark

Words for blue / dark / dun in Celtic languages.

The Trials of Cato

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *gurmos = dun, dark, blue
Old Irish (Goídelc) gorm = blue, dark, green
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) gorm = (deep) blue, green, dark, swarthy, black
Irish (Gaeilge) gorm [ˈɡɔɾˠəmˠ] = blue, dyeing-blue; azure, dark-blue; livid, purple
goirme = blueness
gormaigh, gormú = to colour blue, become blue
gormchló = blue-print
gormghlas = blue-green, sea-green, aquamarine
gormroscach, gormshúileach = blue-eyed
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) gorm [gɔrɔm] = blue; green, verdant; green, inexperienced, wet (behind the ears)
gorm-ghlas = azure, cerulean, dapple grey (horse)
gorm_shùileach = blue-eyed (person)
gorm-uaine = blue-green
gormachadh [gɔrɔməxəɣ] = making blue or grey
gormailean = blue-eyed person, highly naive person
muc-ghorm = blue whale
Manx (Gaelg) gorrym = blue, black, dark-skinned
gormaghey = blue, cyanosis
gorrymaghey = blue
gorrym dorraghey = dark blue
bane-ghorrym = light blue
doo-ghorrym = navy blue
Proto-Brythonic *gurm = dun, dark, blue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gurum, gurim, gwrym, gurem = brown, dark-brown
gwrymde, gurym de = dark-blue, greyish-blue, swarthy, wearing mourning
gwrymseirch, gwrmseirch, gurumseirch = dark-blue armour or harness, horse-trappings, traces
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwrm, gwrwm = brown, dark-brown, reddish, greyish-brown, dark-grey, dark, dusky, black, dark-blue, blue
gwr(w)mder = blackness, duskiness, murkiness, mist
gwr(w)mdde = dark-blue, greyish-blue, swarthy, wearing mourning
gwr(w)mddu = dusky, blackish, black garment
gwr(w)mseirch, gwrymseirch = dark-blue armour or harness, horse-trappings, traces
Cornish (Kernewek) gorm [gɔrm] = (dark/dull) brown
Old Breton uurm-haelon = with dark brows

Etymology: uncertain – possibly from a non-Indo-European substrate [source]

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Blue / Green / Grey

Words for blue, green, grey and related things in Celtic languages.

Pont y Borth / Menai Bridge

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Celtic *glastos = green, blue
Gaulish *glastom = green, blue
Old Irish (Goídelc) glas [ɡlas] = green, greenish (esp of growing things); blue, green-blue, grey-blue; metallic (colour); ice/frost colour; grey; wan (complexion); bluish, livid, discolored; faded
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) glas = green, greenish (esp of growing things), blue, greenish blue, greyish blue, wan (complexion), livid, discoloured, faded (of garments)
glasaid = to grow pale or livid, to become yellow, to make green
glase = greenness, blueness, steel-colour
Irish (Gaeilge) glas [ɡlˠasˠ] = green (grass, politics); grey (horses, cloth, eyes); blue; grey; pale pallid; immature, unseasoned; raw inexperienced
glasaigh = to become green, sickly, grey, raw or chill, to make green
glasra = green, garden, stuff, vegetable, vegetation
glasrachán = pale, sickly-looking, person.
glasta = shiny, glossy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) glas [gl̪ˠas] = grey-green; pale, wan, sallow; green, unripe
glasadh, glasachadh = greying, dawning
glasail [gl̪ˠasal] = greyish, pale, wan
glasraich [ɡl̪ˠasrɪç] = vegetable(s), greens
glasraichear [ɡl̪ˠasrɪçər] = vegeratian
Manx (Gaelg) glass = green (of nature), verdant, soft, pale, pasty, ashen (colour), grey (of animal), raw, unfledged, sappy, callow (of youth)
glassrey = vegetable, to vegetate
glassoil = greenish
glassaghey = greying, pale
Proto-Brythonic *glas = green, blue
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) glas, glâs = blue, greenish blue, sea-green
glasu, glassu = to (turn) pale, turn grey, burnish, polish
glasỽellt, glaswellt = grass, green grass pr pasture
glaswyn, glaswen = light blue, pale blue
Welsh (Cymraeg) glas [ɡlaːs] = blue, azure, sky-blue, greenish blue, sea-green; green, grass-coloured, bluish green, verdant; unripe (of fruit); greyish-blue, slate-coloured, livid, pallid, pale; grey; silver
glasaf, glasu = to (turn) pale, turn grey, burnish, polish
glasddu = dark blue, deep blue, violet
glasgoch = blue tinged with red, purple, violet, puce
glaswellt = grass, green grass pr pasture
glaswelltir = glassland, pasture
glaswyn = light blue, pale blue
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) glas, glâs = blue, azure, sky coloured, gray, ash coloured, verdant, green
glase = to become blue, to grow pale, to be green, to flourish
glasygyon = a green, green plot
Cornish (Kernewek) glas [ɡla:z /ɡlæ:z] = blue, green, grey, sea colour
glasdu = dark blue
glasik = blueish
glasneth = vegetation, uncultivated land
glasrudh = blueish purple, purple, violet
glaswr, glaswyrdh = sea green, turquiose
glaswyn = light blue, sky blue
Middle Breton (Brezonec) glas = blue, green, azure
Breton (Brezhoneg) glas/glaz [ɡlɑːs] = blue, green (nature), grey (horse), raw & salty, fresh, bitter, pale
glasaat = to green, freshen up
glasded = greenness
glasdu = dark blue
glasvez = greenery
glaswenn = light blue
Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *ǵʰl̥h₃stós, from *ǵʰelh₃- (to flourish, green, yellow) [source]. Words from the same roots include chlorine , gall, glow, yellow in English, gul (yellow) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and words for clean and pure and words for white, bright and fawn in Celtic languages [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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