Green & Verdant

Words for green, verdant and related things in Celtic languages.

Gleann Cholm Cille

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Proto-Brythonic *gwɨrð = green, verdant
Old Welsh (Kembraec) guird = green, verdant, bluish green, grey
guirdglas = sea-green, dark green, verdant, greenish
Middle Welsh (Kymraec ) guirt, gwyrd, gwyrt =green, verdant, bluish green, pale (blue), grey; fresh, lively; grassy
gwyrddv = to become green, sprout, make verdent
gwyrd(d) velyn, gwyrddvelyn = greenish-yellow, olive, light green
gwyrddlas, gwyrdlas, gwyrdd-las = sea-green, dark green, verdant, greenish
gwyrdloewet = bright green
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwyrdd [ɡwɨ̞rð / ɡwɪrð] = green, verdant, bluish green, pale (blue), grey; fresh, lively; grassy
gwyrdd(i)af, gwrddu, gwyrddio = to become green, sprout, make verdent
gwyrddaidd = greenish, leek-green
gwyrddfelyn = greenish-yellow, olive, light green
gwyrddlas = sea-green, dark green, verdant, greenish
gwyrddloyw = bright green
Old Cornish guirt = green
Middle Cornish (Cernewec) guirt, gwirdh, gwêr = green, flourishing
Cornish (Kernewek) gwyrdh [gwɪrð] = green (not of plants or the sea)
gwer [gwɛ:r / gwe:r] = green
gwerdhu = dark green
gwerem = emerald
gwerik = greenish
gwerlas = blueish-green, teal
Middle Breton (Brezonec) guerz, guezr = green
Breton (Brezhoneg) gwer [ɡweːr/ɡɥeːr] = green (artificial)
gwerin, gweriñ = to green

Etymology: from Latin viridis (green, young, fresh, lively, youthful), from vireō (to be verdant, to sprout), from Proto-Italic *wizēō, from Proto-Indo-European *weys- (to increase) [source]. Words from the same roots include verdant, verdigris and verdure in English, vert (green) in French, verde (green) in Spanish, and verdhë (yellow, pale) in Albanian [source].

Proto-Celtic *udnios/*utnio- = green (?)
Old Irish (Goídelc) úaine = green, greenness
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) úaine = green, verdant, greenness
Irish (Gaeilge) uaine [ˈuənʲə/ˈwɛnʲə] = (vivid) green, greenness, verdue
uaine éadrom = pale green
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) uaine [uən̪ʲə] = green, greenness
uaineach [uən̪ʲəx] = tedious
Uaineach [uən̪ʲəx] = Green Party supporter, a Green
uaineachadh [uən̪ʲəxəɣ] = turning green, being humbled
uainead [uən̪ʲəd] = greenness
uainealach [uən̪ʲəlˠ̪əx] = greenish
sìor-uaine = evergreen
Manx (Gaelg) eayney/geayney = green, greenness, verdure
geaynaght = verdure
geaynid = bile, greenness, verdure
Etymology: from Proto-Indo-European *wed- (green) [source]. Words from the same roots include [source].

Middle Welsh (Kymraec ) ehoec = heather-colour(ed), purple, green
Welsh (Cymraeg) ehöeg = heather-colour(ed), purple, green, green colour
hoeg = green
Etymology: possibly from *oec (heather) [source].

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Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary,, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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