Crooked

Today we’re looking at the words for crooked and twisted and related things in Celtic languages.

Crooked

Proto-Celtic *kambos = twisted, crooked, bent
Gaulish Cambo- = found in place names
Old Irish (Goídelc) camm, cam [kam] = crooked, bent, curved, twisted; wavy, curly (hair)
Irish (Gaeilge) cam [kaumˠ / kɑːmˠ / kamˠ] = bend, bent, crooked, crookedness, fraud object; to bend, crook, distort
camadán = bent, crooked (person or thing)
camadh = to bend
camalanga = unintelligible talk
camalóid = high-backed, humped (animal), tall stooped person
camán = hurling-stick, hurley, bent, crooked, object, quaver
camarsach = wavy, curled
camas = small bay, curve; (river) bend
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) cam [kaum / kaimə] = bent, crooked, awry, not straight, squinty, wry, one-eyed; bend, curve, trick
cama-chasach = bow/bandy-legged
cam-chòmhdhail = awkward meeting. misadventure
cam-bheulach = wry-mouthed
camadh = bending, curving, curve, curvature, crook, variant, variation
camaghaileach [kamaɣaləx] = twisted, winding
caman = club, stick, shinty stick, quaver
camanachd = shinty
Manx (Gaelg) cam = bent, crooked, deceitful, intricate, knotty, perverse, rakish, wry, wrong
cam-hooilagh = cross-eyed, squinting
cam-jeeragh = meandering, tortuous
camlurgey = bowlegged, bandy-legged
Proto-Brythonic *kam [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = crooked, bent
Old Welsh cam = crooked, bent
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) cam = crooked, bent
Welsh (Cymraeg) cam [kam] = crooked, bent, hunch-backed, distorted, wry, bowed, curved, looped, winding; one-eyed, squint-eyed; wrong, evil, false, unjust, deceitful; misdeed, sin, vice, injustice, injury
ar gam = in error, erroneously, unjustly, falsely, astray, amiss
ar y cam = in the wrong, culpable
yng ngham = wrong, wrongly, unjustly, in error, faulty
camgymeriad = mistake, misapprehension, misconstruction, error
camni, cami = crookedness, crook, curvature, twist
camog = crookedness, curvature, hump-backed person
camu [ˈkamɨ / ˈkami] = to bend, stoop, curve, bow, pervert, distort, abuse
Middle Cornish cam = crooked, wry, distorted, squint-eyed, perverse, wrong, wicked
camgarrec = bandy-legged
camma = to bend, curve, make crooked; trepass
camnivet = rainbow
camwul = to do wrong
Cornish (Kernewek) kamm = bent, crooked, erroneous, error, wrong
kamma = to curve
kammas = bay, bend
kammdremena = to trespass
kammdreylya = to zigzag
kammdybi, kammwul = to err
kammgemeryans = mistake
kammgonvedhes = to misunderstand
kammhynsek = unjust, unrighteous, wicked
Old Breton cam(m) = curved, curve, lame, bad, wicked
camaff = to bend, limp
Middle Breton kamm = curved, curve
Breton (Brezhoneg) kamm [ˈɛjl] = angled, bent, bend
kammadur = bending, camber, cambering
kammañ = to arch
kammigell = zigzag, squabble, chicane
kammigellañ = to zigzag

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *kh₂em- (to arch), from *(s)ḱh₂embos (crooked) [source].

The Gaulish version of the word appears in the place name Cambo-dunum, also written Kambodunon, which became Campodūnum in Latin, which was a town in the Roman province of Raetia, and is now Kempten in Bavaria in southern Germany [source].

The name Campbell comes from the Scottish Gaelic Caimbeul, from cam (crooked) and beul (mouth) [source], while Cameron comes from Camshròn, from cam (crooked) and sròn (nose) [source].

The Proto-Celtic word *kambos was possibly borrowed into French as camus [ka.my] (flat-nosed, snub-nosed) [source], and this ended up in English as camous/camoys (flat, depressed, crooked nose) [source].

Other English words from the PIE root (*kh₂em-), include camera, camp, campus, champagne and champion [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Second Others

Today we’re looking at the words for second or other and related things in Celtic languages.

Second, Other

Proto-Celtic *alyos [ˈal.jos] = other, second
Leptonic 𐌀𐌋𐌉𐌏𐌔 (alios) = second, other
Gaulish allos, alos = second, other
Old Irish (Goídelc) aile = other, second
indala [in͈ˈdala] = other (of two)
Middle Irish (Goídelc) aile, oile, eile = other, second, another
indala = one (of two), less often, the other, later, the second
Irish (Gaeilge) eile [ˈɛlʲə] = other, another, next, more, else
dara [ˈd̪ˠɑɾˠə / ˈd̪ˠaɾˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ), next, other
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) eile [elə] = other, another, else
eileadh [eləɣ] = other
eilich [elɪç] = alienate
eileachadh = (act of) alienating, alienation, othering
dala [dal̪ˠə] = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Manx (Gaelg) elley = other, else, another, additional, alternative
derrey = second in command, till, pending
yn derrey = second (2ⁿᵈ)
Proto-Brythonic *ėl [ˈe̝ːlˑ] = second, other
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ail, eil, eyl = second, other
Welsh (Cymraeg) ail [ai̯l] = second, like, similar, equivalent, equal; son, grandson, heir, descendant; helper, supporter
ailgylchu = to recycle
eilaidd = secondary
eilfed = second (number)
eilaid = second (of time)
Middle Cornish eil = second, another
Cornish (Kernewek) eyl = one of two, second
eyla = to second
eylafinans = refurbishment
eylgelghya = to recycle
eylskrifa = to copy
Middle Breton) eil = second
Breton (Brezhoneg) eil [ˈɛjl] = second
eilvet = second (number)
eilad = second, copy, reproduction
eilañ = to accompany, copy
eiladiñ = to duplicate
eiladuriñ = to reproduce, reproduction

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂élyos (other, another), from *h₂el- (beyond, other) [source]. The Old Irish word indala, which is the root of the Irish dara, the Scottish Gaelic dala and the Manx derrey, comes from the Old Irish ind (the) and aile (second) [source]..

Some words from the same PIE roots include else, all and ultra in English, al (all, all of) in Dutch, eller (else, otherwise) in Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, and այլ (ayl – another, other) in Armenian [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Metal

Today we’re looking at the words for metal, ore, mines and related things in Celtic languages.

The cave at Parys mountain.

Proto-Celtic *mēnis = ore, metal, mine
Old Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
Middle Irish (Goídelc) méin, mían [mʲeːnʲ] = mineral, ore, metal
míanach = vein of ore, mine
míanaige = miner
Irish (Gaeilge) mianach = ore; stuff, material, substance, quality
mianadóir = miner
mianrach = mineral
mianreolaí = mineralogist
mianreolaíocht = mineralogy
mianadóireacht = mining; burrowing, excavating, digging deep
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) mèinn [mɛːn̪ʲ] = mine, ore
mèinnear, mèinneadair = miner
mèinnireach = mineral
mèinn-guail = coal mine, colliery
mèinn-talmhainn = landmine
mèinn salainn = salt mine
mèinneadh = mining
mèinnearach = mining
mèinn-eòlas = mineralogy
mèinneadh = mineralogical
mèinnearach = mineralogist
Manx (Gaelg) meain = ore, mine
meainagh = ore
meain-oayllys, meaineraght = metallurgy
meain-oaylee, meaineraght = mineralogist
meain arih = gold mine
meain argid = silver mine
meain chobbyr = copper mine
meain gheayil = coal mine, colliery
meain hollan = salt mine
meain leoaie = lead mine
Proto-Brythonic *muɨn = ore, metal, mine
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mwyn, mŵn = mineral, ore, mine
Welsh (Cymraeg) mwyn = mineral, ore, mine
mwynwr = miner, sapper
mwyn arian = silver ore, silver mine
mwyn aur = gold ore, gold mine
mwyn cellt = quartz
mwyn coch = red lead, red ochre, haematite, other red ores
mwyn copr = copper ore, copper mine
mywn du = blacklead, graphite
mwyn efydd = copper ore, copper mine
mwyn haearn = iron ore
Cornish (Kernewek) moon = fusible metal mineral, mineral
Middle Breton *men = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) mengleuz = quarry, slate quarry, mine
mengleuzer = slate quarry worker
mengleuzerezh = mining industry
mengleuziañ = to mine
mengleuziek = mining
mengleuzier = quarryman

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *mēy(H)nis, from *(s)mēy(H)- (to cut, hew) [source].

The English word mine (an excavation from which ore or solid minerals are taken) comes from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Old French myne, mine, the Late Latin mina and Gaulish [source].

Middle Irish (Goídelc) mital(l) = metal
Irish (Gaeilge) miotal [ˈmʲɪt̪ˠəlˠ] = metal; mettle, spirit, hardihood
miotalach = metallic; mettlesome, spirited; hardy, wiry
miotalagrafaíocht = metallography
miotalóir = metallurgist
miotalóireach = metallurgic(al)
miotalóireacht = metal-work, metallurgy
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) miotal, meiteal = metal
= miner
meatailteach = metallic
obair-mheatailtean, obair-mheatailt = metalwork, metallurgy
meatailt uasal = precious metal
Manx (Gaelg) metal = metal
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mettel = metal
Welsh (Cymraeg) metel, metal = metal, metal weapon or armour; substance, mettle, bravery, courage
metelaidd, metelig = metallic
meteleg = metallurgy
metelegol = metallurgical
metelegwr, metelegydd = metallurgist
Cornish (Kernewek) metol = metal
metolyek = metallic
Breton (Brezhoneg) metal = metal
metalerezh = metallurgy
metalour = metallurgist

Etymology (Welsh): from the Middle English metel(l), metal(l) (metal, ore), from the Old French metal (metal), from the Latin metallum (metal, precious metals, mine), from the Ancient Greek μέταλλον (métallon – metal, precious metals, mine) [source].

Etymology (Irish): from the Old French metal (metal), then as above [source].

The English word metal comes from the same roots, via Middle English, Old French, etc [source]. The word mettle (a quality of endurance and courage) was originally a variant of metal, and later came to have a figurative sense [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Iron

Today we’re looking at the words for iron and related things in Celtic languages.

iron fence

Proto-Celtic *īsarnom = iron
Old Irish (Goídelc) íarn [iːa̯rn] = iron
Irish (Gaeilge) iarann [ˈiəɾˠən̪ˠ] = iron (element, appliance, golf club); iron part of a tool; brass (money)
amhiarann, iarnmhian = iron ore
iarann rocach = corrugated iron
iaranach = irons, iron implements, fetters, ploughshare
iaranaigh = to put in irons, fit, cover with iron
iaranaí = (made of) iron, iron-hard
iaranáil = to iron (clothes)
iarnmhangaire = ironmonger
iarannaois = the Iron Age
iarna = hardware
iarnród = railway
iarnúil = iron-like, ferrous
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) iarann [iər̪ˠən̪ˠ] = iron, (metal) blade; day’s worth cutting peat (for two)
iarnaidh = ferrous, iron-hard, iron-coloured, stingy
iarnaigeadh, iarnachadh = (act of) ironing
iarnair = ironmonger
iarainn-tàthainn, iarann-sobhdraidh = soldering iron
iarann-dreasaigidh = clothes iron
iarann mòlltaichte = cast iron
iarann preasach = corrugated iron
rathad-iarainn = railway
Manx (Gaelg) yiarn = iron; tool, scythe, blade; dough (money); tip (gratuity)
yiarnagh = ferric
yiarnal = iron, ironing
yiarneyder = ironmonger
yiarnrey = hardware
yiarnaghey, yiarney = to cover with iron, to iron
yiarnoil = ferrous
Proto-Brythonic *hijarn = hard, hard metal, iron
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) heirn, hyarn, heyrn, hayarnn, haearn = iron
Welsh (Cymraeg) haearn = iron, iron bar, hardness, strength, resoluteness, hard, strong, unyielding; sword, spear, lance; iron armour, coat of mail; fetters, shackles; branding-iron, pincers; flat-iron; spur
haearnaidd = like iron, ferrous; strong, hard, callous, oppressive
haearneiddio = to harden, make (one) unfeeling or callous
haearnol = of iron, iron-like, hard, unfeeling, rigid, stern
haearnwr = ironmonger, ironworker
haearn bwrw = cast iron
haearn gwaith = wrought iron
haearn gwrymiog = corrugated iron
Middle Cornish heorn, horn, hôrn = iron
Cornish (Kernewek) horn = iron
hornek = ferric, iron
hornell = iron (for clothes)
hornella = to iron
horner = ironmonger
horn margh = horseshoe
hyns horn = railway
Old Breton hoiarn = iron
Middle Breton houarnn = iron
Breton (Brezhoneg) houarn [ˈhuː.arn] = iron; flat iron; horseshoe
houarnek = ferric
houarnus = ferrous
houarnaj = scrap iron
houarnajer = scrap merchant
houarnañ = to shoe (a horse)
houarn-marc’h = horseshoe
houarn da zistennañ = iron (for clothes)
hent-houarn = railway

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Etymology: probably from the Proto-Indo-European *h₁ēsh₂r̥no- (bloody, red), from *h₁ésh₂r̥ (blood) [source].

Words for iron in Germanic languages come from the same Proto-Celtic root, via the Proto-Germanic *īsarną (iron), including iron in English, ijzer in Dutch, Eisen in German, and järn in Swedish [source].

Words for blood in Romance languages come from the same PIE root, via the Latin sanguīs (blood, descent, progeny, family), including sang in Catalan and French, sangue in Italian and Portuguese, and sangre in Spanish, and also the English word sanguine (blood red; warm, optimistic, confident) [source].

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Doors

Today we’re looking at the words for door and related things in Celtic languages.

Priory Church of St Mary in Chepstow, Wales

Proto-Celtic *dwār = door
Gaulish *durom = door – was borrowed into Latin and appeared in placenames such as Augustodurum (now Bayeux), and Nemetodurum (now Nanterre)
Proto-Brythonic *dor = door
Old Welsh dor = door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) dor = door
Welsh (Cymraeg) dôr [druːs] = door; defence, refuge, shield; opportunity; protector, defender, chief, leader
dôr blyg(edig) = folding door
dôr ddyrchafad = portcullis
Middle Breton dor = door
Breton (Brezhoneg) dor = door
dor a-dreñv = rear door
dor a-raok = front door
dor emgefre = automatic door
dor greñvaet = fortified gate
dor harz tan = fire door
dor-borzh = gate (of a courtyard)
dor brenestr = French window
dor dal = front door, portal
gwir treuz-dor = doorstep

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *dʰwṓr (door), from *dʰwer- (doorway, door, gate) [source].

Words from the sane Proto-Indo-European root include: door and forum in English, deur (door) in Dutch, Tür (door, doorway) in German, dehors (outside) in French, fuori (outside) in Italian, and fuera (outside) in Spanish [source].

Proto-Celtic *dworestus = door
Old Irish (Goídelc) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) dorus [ˈdorus] = door
Irish (Gaeilge) doras [ˈd̪ˠɔɾˠəsˠ] = door, doorway
doras isteach = entrance
doras amach = exit
doras tosaigh / béil = front door
doras cúil / thiar = backdoor
doirseach = having doors, open, accessible, gaping (wound)
doirseoir = door-keeper, (hall) porter
doirseoireacht = occupation of door-keeper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) dorus [dɔrəs] = door, valve
dorus-beag = back door, inner door
dorus-mór = front door, main entrance
doras a-mach = exit
àrd-doras = lintel
ath-dhoras = next door
deoch an dorais = stirrup cup, one for the door/road, Jock and Doris
Manx (Gaelg) dorrys = door, doorway, gate, portal; back (of cart), fly (of tent)
dorrys doont = back door
dorrys toshee = front door
dorrys egin = emergency exit, exit
jough yn dorrys = parting drink, stirrup cup
sole y dorrys = doorstep, threshold
Proto-Brythonic *drus = doorway, entrance, door
Old Welsh drus = doorway, entrance, door
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) drus, drvs, drws = doorway, entrance, door
Welsh (Cymraeg) drws [druːs] = doorway, entrance, door, pass, estuary, opening, opportunity, facility
drws codi/cudd = trap-door
drws nesaf = next door (to), very near (to), bordering (on)
wrth y drws = at hand, close, near
o ddrws = from before
drysaf, drwsaf, dryo, drwso = to mind a door (in a coal-mine)
dryswr, drwswr = door-boy (in a coal-mine)
drysor = doorkeepr, janitor, porter
Middle Cornish daras, darat = door
darador = doorkeeper
Cornish (Kernewek) daras = door
darasik = wicket
penn/pedn daras = lintel

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *dwār (door) – see above [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Nephews

Today we’re looking at the words for nephew and related people in Celtic languages.

My nephew in a hat
My nephew. Mo nia. Mac my shayrey. Fy nai. Ma noy. Ma niz.

Proto-Celtic *neɸūss = nephew
Primitive Irish ᚅᚔᚑᚈᚈᚐ (niotta) = nephew (sister’s son)
Old Irish (Goídelc) nia [ˈn͈ʲi.a] = nephew, sister’s son
Irish (Gaeilge) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew
garneacht = great-nephew
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) nia [n̪ʲiə] = nephew (sister’s son)
Manx (Gaelg) neear = nephew
Proto-Brythonic *nei = nephew
Old Welsh nei = nephew
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) ney, nei = nephew
Welsh (Cymraeg) nai [nai̯] = nephew, first cousin’s son
nai fab brawd = nephew (brother’s son)
nai fab chwaer = nephew (sister’s son)
mab nai = great-nephew
naigarwch = nepotism
Middle Cornish noi = nephew
Cornish (Kernwek) noy = nephew
Old Breton ny = nephew
Middle Breton ni = nephew
Breton (Brezhoneg) niz = nephew
gourniz = great-nephew

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *népōts (grandson, descendent, nephew), possibly from *ne (not) and *pótis (master, lord, husband) [source].

Other words for nephew:

  • Irish: mac deirféar (sister’s son), mac dearthár (brother’s son)
  • Scottish Gaelic: mac-peathar (sister’s son), mac-bràthar (brother’s son)
  • Manx: mac shayrey (sister’s son), mac braarey (brother’s son)

See also the post about sons.

Words in Germanic language that come from the same PIE root, via the Proto-Germanic *nefô (nephew, grandson), include: Neffe (nephew) in German, neef (male cousin, nephew) in Dutch, and the obsolete English word neve (nephew, male cousin, grandson) [source].

The English word nephew comes from the same PIE root, via the Middle English nevew, neveu (nephew, grandson), the Old French neveu (nephew), and the Latin nepos (grandson, granddaughter, nephew, niece, descendent) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Fathers

Today we’re looking at the words for father and related people in Celtic languages.

Father & son

Proto-Celtic *ɸatīr [ˈɸa.tiːr] = father
*ɸatriyos = paternal
Old Irish (Goídelc) ath(a)ir [ˈaθɨrʲ] = father
athramail = fatherly, paternal, fatherlike
Irish (Gaeilge) athair [ˈɑhəɾʲ/ˈahæɾʲ] = father, ancestor, sire
aithriúil = fatherly
ardathair = patriarch
athair mór = maternity, fatherhood
leasathair = stepfather
seanathair = grandfather
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) athair [ahɪrʲ] = father, progenitor, sire
athair-baistidh = godfather
athair-cèile = father-in-law
bràthair-athar = parternal uncle
leas-athair = stepfather
piuthar-athar = parternal aunt
prìomh-athair = forefather, patriarch
taobh athar = paternal
Manx (Gaelg) ayr [ˈeːar] = father, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
ayroil = fatherly, parternal
ayrvarroo = patricide
shennayr = grandfather
Old Welsh -atr = ?

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *ph₂tḗr (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos = father, foster-father
Old Irish (Goídelc) aite [ˈadʲe] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
Irish (Gaeilge) oide [ˈɛdʲə] = foster-father; tutor, teacher
oideachas = education
oideachasóir = educationalist
oideachasúil = educational
oideas = instruction, teaching, prescription, recipe
oideoir = educator
oideolaíoch = pedagogic(al)
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) oide [ɤdʲə] = tutor, foster-father, stepfather, godfather
oide-altraim = foster-father
oide-baistidh = godfather
oide-foghlaim = instructor
oide-ionnsachaidh = tutor
oide-sgoile = schoolmaster
oidich = instruction
Manx (Gaelg) gedjey = foster-father, godfather, guardian, sponsor

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Proto-Celtic *tatos = dad, daddy
Proto-Brythonic *tad = father
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) tad = father
Welsh (Cymraeg) tad [taːd] = father
tadaidd = fatherly, paternal
tadeiddiad = fatherhood
tadenw = patronymic
tadol = paternal, fatherly, inherited from the father
tadu = to father (a child), become a father; ascribe, attribute (to)
tadwlad = fatherland, native land
tadwys = family, lineage, fatherhood
tadwysaeth = paternity
Old Cornish tat = father
Cornish (Kernwek) tas [taːz/tæːz] = father
tasek = patron
tasrewl = patriarchy
tasveth = foster-father
tas bejydh = godfather
tas gwynn = grandfather
Tas Nadelik = Father Christmas
tas sans = patron saint
ugheldas = patriarch
Middle Breton tat = father
Breton (Brezhoneg) tad [ˈtɑːt] = father
tadeg = father-in-law
tadig = dad, daddy
tad-kaer = father-in-law
tad-kozh = grandfather
tad-kuñv = great-grandfather
tata = dad

Etymology from the Proto-Celtic *attyo-, *attiyos (father, foster-father), the Proto-Indo-European *átta (father) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Mothers

Today we’re looking at the words for mother and related people in Celtic languages.

Mother Goose

Proto-Celtic *mātīr [ˈmaː.tiːr] = mother
*mātrikʷā, *mātrokʷī = maternal aunt, mother-like
Gaulish mātīr [ˈmaːtiːr] = mother
Celtiberian matrubos = mothers
Old Irish (Goídelc) máthir [ˈmaːθirʲ] = mother
máthrathatu = motherhood
máthramail = resembling one’s mother
Irish (Gaeilge) máthair [ˈmˠɑːhəɾʲ/ˈmˠɑːɾʲ/ˈmˠahærʲ] = mother, source (of a river)
máthairab = abbess
máthairthír = mother country
máthreachas = maternity, motherhood
máthrigh = to mother, bear, foster
máthriúil = motherly, tender, kind, mother-like
máthriúlacht = motherliness
leasmháthair = stepmother
seanmháthair = grandmother
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) màthair [maːhɪrʲ] = mother, origin, source
màthair-uisge = water source (of a river, etc)
màthair-chéile = mother-in-law
màthaireachd [maːhɪrʲəxg] = maternity, motherhood
màthaireil = mother-like, motherly, maternal
màthair athar = paternal grandmother
màthair màthar = maternal grandmother
màthair-sinnsireach = matrilinear
leas-mhàthair = stepmother
Manx (Gaelg) moir = mother, matron, mater, queen, dam; focus, fountainhead, generator
moiragh, moiroil = motherly
moiraght = motherhood
moiraghys, moirys = maternity, motherhood
moir-reilleyder/strong> = matriach
lhiass voir = stepmother
shenn voir = grandmother
Proto-Brythonic *mọdreb = aunt
Old Welsh modreped = aunts
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) modryb = aunt
Welsh (Cymraeg) modryb = aunt, uncle’s wife, matron
modrybaidd = aunt-like, matronly, motherly, respected
modrydaf = queen bee, parent bee-colony, (old) beehive
Old Cornish modereb = aunt
Cornish (Kernewek) modrep = aunt
modrebik = aunty
Old Breton motrep = aunt
Middle Breton mozreb = aunt
Breton (Brezhoneg) moereb [ˈmweːrep] = aunt
moereb-kozh = great aunt

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *méh₂tēr. (mother) [source].

Proto-Celtic *mamm(y)ā = mother, nanny, mum
Old Irish (Goídelc) muimme [ˈmaːθirʲ] = wet nurse, foster mother, instructress, patroness
Irish (Gaeilge) buime = foster-mother, nurse
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) muime [muimə] = stepmother, (wet) nurse, godmother
muime-chìche = wet nurse
muime-shìthe = fairy godmother
Manx (Gaelg) mimmey = foster mother, god mother, godparent, guardian, sponsor
Proto-Brythonic *mamm = mother
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) mam = mother
Welsh (Cymraeg) mam [mam] = mother, ancestress, dam, queen bee; source, origin, cause, root; womb, matrix, uterus, hysteria, pregnancy
mamaeth = (wet) nurse, foster-mother, mother
mamaetha = to nurse (a child), suckle, foster, nourish, cherish
mamedd = motherhood
mamiaith = mother tongue, vernacular
mamwlad = mother country, motherland, native land
Old Cornish mam = mother
Middle Cornish mam = mother
Cornish (Kernewek) mamm [mæm], mabm = mother
mammeth = foster-mother, wet nurse
mammik = mum
mammrewl, mammrowl = matriarchy
mamm-wynn = grandmother
mamm vesydh = godmother
Middle Breton mamm = mother
Breton (Brezhoneg) mamm [ˈmãmː] = mother, female (animal), womb
mammanv = matron, matriarch
mammelezh = motherhood, maternity
mammvro = motherland, homeland
mamm-gozh = grandmother

Etymology: from the Proto-Indo-European *mammā (mummy, mum) [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Knotty Bulges

Today we’re looking at the words for knots, bulges, and related things in Celtic languages.

Knot - words for knot in Celtic languages

Proto-Celtic *odbos = knot, bulge
Old Irish (Goídelc) odb [oðb] = knot (in a wood); lump, swelling, protuberance; difficulty, problem
odbach
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) fodb, fobd = knot (in a wood); lump, swelling, protuberance; difficulty, problem
Irish (Gaeilge) fadhb [fˠəibˠ] = knot (in a wood); callosity; lump (from blow); lumpy object; knotty problem, poser
fadhbach = knotty, callous, lumpy; problematical, puzzling
fadhbairne = lumpy object
fadhbán = (small) knot, lump
fadhbóg = (small) lump, whopping lie
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) faob [fɯːb] = lump, knob, knot (in wood)
faobach [fɯːbəx] = lumpy, knotty
Manx (Gaelg) uddan = lump, node, knob
Welsh (Cymraeg) oddf [ˈɔðv] = hard swelling or growth, hump, knob (on horn), gall, burl, knot (in wood), tuber, bulb, knob, lump, node
oddfog = knobby, bulbous, tuberous, having a hump
oddfynnog = bulbous, tubercular, tuberous

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₃ésth₁ / *h₂óst (bone) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) colmméne = skin
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) colum = skin
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) kulym, clwm, cwlm, kwlwm = knot, tie, bond
kylymy, klymv, clymmu, c(y)lymaf, c(y)lymu = to tie, bind
Welsh (Cymraeg cwlwm [ˈkʊlʊm / ˈkuːlʊm] = knot, tie; bond, connection, union, fetter, plot; bunch, cluster, bundle; node, nodule, knot in timber
cwlwm gwlwm = knot tied twice
clymu [ˈkləmɨ̞ / ˈkləmi] = to tie, bind, set, unite, couple, rally
clymog = knotted, knotty, gnarled, tied, intricate, complex
Middle Cornish colm = knot, tie, bond
colma = to bind, tie
colmen = knot, tie, bond, halter
colmur = binder
Cornish (Kernewek) kolm = knot
kelmi = to knot
kelmys = knotted
Middle Breton scoulm, sclom, sklom = knot
Breton (Brezhoneg) skoulmoù, skoulm = knot
kouloumañ, kolomiñ = to knot

Etymology uncertain

Proto-Celtic *nad-sko- = to bind
Old Irish (Goídelc) snaidm [sn͈aðʲmʲ] = bond, contract, knot, pact
snaidmid = to bind, knot
nasicid = to bind
airnaidmid = to bind, pledge
Middle Irish (Gaoidhealg) snaidm = knot, bond
Irish (Gaeilge) snaidm = knot, bond, constriction, contortion, tie, brace, problem, difficulty, problem; to knot, bind, tie, entwine, join, unite, knit
snaidmeach = knotted, knotty
snaidmeacht = knottiness
snaidmeadóir = knotter, binder, tier, setter
snaidmeach = knotty, knotted
nasc = to tie, tether, chain, link, clasp, bond
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) snaidhm [sn̪ˠaim] = knot, joint, knotting, tying a knot
snaidhmeach [sn̪ˠaiməx] = knotty, abounding in knots
snaidhmte [sn̪ˠaimdʲə] = knotted, tied with a knot
nasg [n̪ˠasg] = tie-band, membrane of an egg, skeleton
nasgadh
Manx (Gaelg) sniem = bow, knot, snare; to knot
sniemmit = joined, knitted, knotted, noosed, tied
sniemmagh = knotted
sniemmey = join, knit, knot, knotting, noose, tie, tying
nast = award, bond, gift, gratuity, betroth
naisht = affianced, bind, engaged
Middle Breton nasca = to bind
Breton (Brezhoneg) naskañ = to hinder, impede, obstruct

Etymology from the Proto-Indo-European *gned-/*gnod- (to bind) [source]. The English word knot comes from the same PIE root, via Middle English, Old English and Proto-Germanic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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Festive Feasts

Today we’re looking at the words for festival, feast and related things in Celtic languages.

Crowds with St David's Flags / Tyrfa, Baner Dewi Sant

Proto-Celtic *lītus = feast, celebration
Old Irish (Goídelc) líth [l͈ʲiːθ] = festival
Irish (Gaeilge) líth [ˈfʲeːlʲə] = festival, festivity, rejoicing; (good) omen, good luck, prosperity
lítheach = festive
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) [l̪ʲiː] = proserity, happiness
Breton (Brezhoneg) lid = ceremony, rite, worship, jubilation

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *leyH- (flow) [source].

Proto-Celtic *westā = food, feast
Old Irish (Goídelc) feis, fess, feiss = entertainment, feast; night’s lodging
Irish (Gaeilge) feis [fʲɛʃ] = festival, carnival; act of sleeping, accommodation, entertainment, bed and supper
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fèis [feːʃ] = festival
fèist [feʃdʲ] = entertainment, feast
fèistear [feːʃdʲər] = entertainer
fèisteas [feːʃdʲəs] = entertainment
Manx (Gaelg) feish = assembly, carnival, festival, fete
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwest [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = night’s stay/lodging, night’s sleep/rest, lodging, hospitality, welcome, entertainment, provision, maintenance, food-rent, feast, banquet; guest, visitor
gwestu = to spend a night, sleep, rest, lodge, visit, feast, borrow, beg, sponge (upon)
gwesty = lodging, guest-house, inn, hotel
gwestya = to lodge, live in lodgings, show hospitality to (guests), welcome
gwestywr = landlord, host, innkeeper, hotelier
Cornish (Kernewek) gwester = guest
gwesti = guesthouse
gwestva = hospitality
Old Breton guest = feast

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *h₂wes- (to reside) [source].

Proto-Celtic *wlidā = food, feast
Old Irish (Goídelc) fled [fʲlʲeð] = banquet, feast
Irish (Gaeilge) fleá [fʲlʲaː / fʲlʲɑː / fʲlʲæː] = (drinking) feast
fleá cheoil = festival of music
fleách = festive, convivial
fleáchas = festivity, conviviality
fleadhaigh = to feast, carouse<
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) fleadh [flɤɣ] = feast, reception
fleadh-bainnse = wedding reception
fleadhach [flɤɣəx] = feasting, banqueting, entertaining
fleadhadh = (act of) conviving, gathering for feasting/td>
Manx (Gaelg) fleah = banquet, feast
fleah foalley = barbeque
Proto-Brythonic *gwleð [ˈɡwlɛːð] = feast, banquet
Old Welsh guled = feast, banquet
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwledd = feast, banquet
Welsh (Cymraeg) gwledd [ɡwleːð] = feast, banquet, repast, carousal, revelry, sumptuous meal
gwleddu = to partake of a feast or banquet, feed with relish or enjoyment, carouse, revel, observe a festival
gwleddol = convivial, festive, banqueting, feasting, feaster
gwleddoldeb = festivity
gwleddwr = banqueter, guest, frequenter of feasts, reveller, carouser
Cornish (Kernewek) gwledh = banquet
Old Breton gloê = feast, banquet

Etymology possibly from the Proto-Indo-European *wldeh₂, from *welh₁- (to wish, desire, want) [source].

Old Irish (Goídelc) féil = festival, feast-day
Irish (Gaeilge) féile [ˈfʲeːlʲə] = festival, feast (day)
féilire = calendar
féiltiúil = pertaining to festival, festive; periodic, recurrent, regular, punctual
féiltiúlacht = observance of feast days, seasonableness, regularity, punctuality
Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) féill [feːl̪ˠ(ə)] = feast, festival, holy day fair, sale, market
féilleachd [feːl̪ˠəxɡ] = festivity, festivities
Manx (Gaelg) feaill [ˈsolan] = festival, holy day
feailley = feast, festival, fête, holiday, holy day, sacred
feaillys = festivity, sacredness, vacation
Middle Welsh (Kymraec) gwyl, gŵyl = holiday, holy-day, religious festival
Welsh (Cymraeg) gŵyl [ˈhalɛn / ˈhalan] = holiday, holy-day, religious festival, fête; watch, guard, vigil
gŵyl y Banc = Bank Holiday
Middle Cornish goil = festival, holiday
Cornish (Kernewek) gool = fair, feast, festival, vigil, wake
Gool Enys = carnival
Breton (Brezhoneg) gouel = (religious) festival, fête

Etymology from the Latin vigilia (wakefulness, watch), from vigil (awake), from the Proto-Indo-European *weǵ- (to be strong) [source].

The English words vigil, vigilant come from the same Latin root, and wake and watch come from the same PIE root, via Proto-Germanic [source].

Words marked with a * are reconstructions.

Sources: Wiktionary, Am Faclair Beag, Online Manx Dictionary, Teanglann.ie, eDIL – Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, In Dúil Bélrai English – Old Irish glossary, Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, Gerlyver Kernewek, Gerlyvyr Cernewec, Dictionaire Favereau, TermOfis, Le dictionnaire diachronique du breton, Geriafurch, English – ProtoCeltic WordList (PDF), Etymological Dictionary Of Proto Celtic

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